UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT PT NO:3 2013-2014 PT PROJECT DEGREE PROGRAMME: BSc. ELECTROMECHANICAL ENGINEERING NAME OF STUDENT: MZUMBWE EVANS A STUDENT’S REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2010-04-04863 PROJECT TITLE: DESIGN OF MAIZE SHELLER DEHUSKER MACHINE NAME OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING OFFICER: MZOBORA NAME OF ACADEMIC SUPERVISOR: DR. E. ELIAS

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………………… Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………..…… 1.Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………9 2.Need market analysis phase………………………………………………………………………9 2.1 design brief…………………………………………………………………………………..10 2.2 search planning…………………………………………………………………………...12 2.3 analysis of collected informations…………………………………………………14 3.Product Design specifications………………………………………………………………,,…16 4. Conceptual Design phase……………………………………………………………………,,…18 5. embodiment design phase……………………………………………………………………..21 5.1 Preliminary layout phase…………………………………………………………….21 5.2definitive layout…………………………………………………………………….…….29 5.2.a. belts dimension………………………………………………………….….30 5.2.b. key selection……………………………………………………………..……35 5.2.c. shaft safety……………………………………………………………………..37 5.2.d.bearing selection……………………………………………………………..39 5.2.e. gear selection………………………………………………………………..…41 6. references………………………………………………………………………………………………….48

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. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First I would like to thank the almighty God for keeping us healthy till this time that is why we are even able to perform these tasks. I would like to give special thanks to all staffs at the University of Dar es salaam especially in the college of engineering and technology for their assistance in studies. Since they give us chances to study via practical so as to be competent engineers once we finish our studies. Special thanks also to the PT coordinator who gave me a chance at TDTC after missing vacant for practical training in other places. I would like to thank the academic supervisor Dr. Elias for his assistance and guidance for writing this field report well. Lastly I would like to give thanks to my fellow students whom we studied together sharing ideas and materials which lead us to good performance in our academic affairs.

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ABSTRACT This report consist of three parts which carry all materials and activities done during this practical training period. Part one contains weekly reports which shows how these duties were assigned during all eight weeks that is fifty six days of the practical training. Part two has the main report of this field work, this is the project itself which is further divided into two parts. The first part of the project has the company profile which shows the background of the company TDTC, mission and vision of the company as well as organisation structure of the company. The second part of the project has the report itself which has all the procedures of designing the dehusker machine from need market analysis phase to the completed assembled machine

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technology brokerage and contracted research.COMPANY PROFILE BACKGROUND The company is situated at the University of Dar es Salaam within the college of Engineering and Technology (CoET). It is among the constituents of college of Engineering and Technology that was formed as a result of merging the former Institute of Product Innovation (IPI) and the Faculty of Engineering (FoE) both of the University of Dar es Salaam. 5 . small and medium enterprises as well as contractor companies who may order their products at TDTC. The secretariat comprises of the Head of Mechanical workshop. which is chaired by the college Principal comprises of 18 members and reports to the college but six of them must be from the industry. Below that there are workers who are employed from within and outside the college of Engineering. The main aim of TDTC is to coordinate the use of college expertise to the provision of technology for national socio-economic development. The chief executive of TDTC is the manager who is assisted by two deputy managers responsible for technology development and technology brokerage. The company operates within the country having local customers from within the country such as individuals. two secretaries and an accountant. as the name itself express what is actually done there. Below is the schematic diagram for the organisation structure. The company functions include technology development and transfer. technology incubation. TDTC stands for Technology Development and Transfer Centre. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE The company is under the body of directors.

Although it is small in physical appearance the company operates like other companies in the country with the aim of fulfilling the following objectives. coordination and supervision of projects aiming at product or production innovation  Facilitate technology procurement from within and outside the country  Service to the industry through the Bureau of Industrial Cooperation known as (BICO) 6 .COMPANY MISSION The objective of the company is to develop and disseminate technologies that have direct relevance to Tanzanian community and which will directly will impact impact on development of small and medium enterprises and the life of general public.  Development of Indigenous and adopted technologies  Accelerated promotion and commercialization of technologies within the country and outside  Initiation.

The company has at its disposal academic and technical staff who are well trained with vast professional experience. Amalgamator and amalgam retort. palm oil processing project. Neem project. In construction there are Cinva ram for rectangular soil bricks. oil and juice processing equipment and groundnut sheller.COMPANY VISION The company vision is critically well known in Tanzania for its achievements in several ways such as product innovation development as well as transferring technology adopted from different designs made by innovators from different places in the inside and outside the country. solar tunnel driver. 7 . In terms of physical resources the company don’t suffer much since it has acces to all CoET workshops machines and tools in carrying out its activities. centrifugal water pump. The workshop is well equipped with resources of various machinery and equipment inherited from the former IPI. animal feed mills and mixers. ball mill. stone crusher for production of construction aggregates and DC-AC inverter. manual block making machine. Major technologies available at TDTC ready to be transferred include the following categories such as in Food processing there are grain mills and hullers. village solar electricity power supply. In mining and mineral processing there are manual winch. road compactor design to assist small civil engineers. Has also two trained technician and thirteen well trained artisans who work in the mechanical workshop within the company. shaking table. vibrating block making machine and sand sieving machine. hydraulic rams. maximization of sisal plant utilization research. In energy there are Integral solar water heater. Interlocking brick press. The centre is competitive and has experience in various finished and on-going technology development and contracted researches such as Business incubator programme. Mercury free gold recovery equipment. Medical waste incinerator. solar photovoltaic. salt glinder and iodator. solar refrigerator. savonius water pump. Soya food project development . coal stoves and Ethanol distillation column. sugar processing equipment. Energy saving wood stoves. Transient protection project. Low cost housing technologies.

8 . Planted during rainy season and during dry season being harvested.1. It is mostly cultivated seasonally depending on climatic conditions. INTRODUCTION Maize is one among important crops used by most of people in the third world countries such as in our country.

In some countries such as those using imperial standards call maize as corn. This should not be confusion when sometime meet the term` corn dehusker’ or corn sheller always carries the same meaning for the maize crops. Also different terminologies are used to mean maize.1DESIGN BRIEF Design of the maize sheller dehusker machine which will be able to operate without removing maize husks.The maize grains are supposed to be exploited from maize cums via different ways so that can be grinded into flour form and finaly used as food. NEED/ MARKET ANALYSIS 2.2SEARCH PLANNING In searching informations the following sources were considered  Internet search  Sabasaba exhibition  Literature review Summary of informations gathered can be shown in table below 9 . 2. This can be done in small and large scale depending on the use. The machine should be electrically operated and can operate at higher rate than the traditional methods. Dehusker is a bit different from sheller in the sense that the dehusker machine takes in maize in its unprocessed form with its husks while the sheller machine takes pre-processed maize after taking away husks as its input. 2.

S/ PLACES TO BE INFORMATION TO BE MEANS OF TIME N VISITED COLLECTED COLLECTING SCHEDUL INFORMATION ED 1 INTERNET Existing design Related informations Browsing Reading downloading Conversation Observation Reading Taking photographs 4 2 SABASABA EXHIBITION Existing designs Current technology used Material selection Product price 8 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Current technology Reading used printing Material selection Available design 8 20 TOTAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION GATHERED TYPES OF MAIZE DEHUSKER From information gathered the following types of shellers and dehusker were observed 1) Hand operated corn sheller 10 .

The machine is clamped at the table bench Advantages  Easy to use  Simple structure  Little maintenance  Cheap price  Portable Disadvantages  Time consuming machine  Fatigue due to its mode of operation  Unsafe Other designs of hand operated shellers are as shown below 11 .This type was originally made at Denmark. later the technology was adopted to other countries especial third world countries due to its cheap price.

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2)electrical controlled sheller The second generation of the maize sheller was a bit complicated but has its advantages. Advantages  Saves time  Mass production Disadvantages     Require much attention and care Too large Can not be transported easily since many of its parts are scattered Risky in case of failure of flat belts used or vibrations and explosion of components 3)modern electrical dehusker 13 .

14 .The last session in my search was the modern technologies which mainly obtained from the Chinese company zyengzhou machinery These are according to the modern technology designed considering the ergonomic values and aesthetic values They perform faster than the previous designs Advantages  Little or no manual work  Hygienic  Can be automated Disadvantages      Expensive Require knowledge to operate Require more maintenance In case of electric shock can be damaged Can’t be operated when power went off.

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3. 16 . -should shell number of maize at a time -maximum efficiency about 94 to 98% (ii)Material -Cheap readily available material that shall be used in local environment. -Maximum power required is 7.5kw -The press should be manually operated. PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION Considering the elements of specification the machine can require the following design specifications to meet requirements (i)Performance -The press must be operated easily.

-Not easily damaged by impact and other loading (iii)Cost -profit after removing all costs should not be less than 250000/=Tsh (iv)Maintenance -little maintenance .e.not to exceed 200kg -portable even by two people when motor is excluded (vii)Aesthetic -must be coloured preferably blue to attract the customer.belts can be changed after wear (v)Shipping (i. -good external appearance (viii) Safety -Should not have sharp projection (ix)Market -local market in Tanzania or East African market -require promotion strategies -mostly needed in rural areas (xi)Ergonomics -should be user friendly for a person to carry out operations well 17 . Transportation) -can use roads on the cars -railways can be used for long journeys (vi)Weight .

(xii)Reliability -durable depending on machine elements used in design (xiii)Environment -all weather changes -should not corrode -needed to be clean since give out food (xiv)Life in service -long life since seasonal usage (xv)Size -cubic coverage 690x345x1200 18 .

4. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Several concepts were developed but their summary is here under basing on two concepts which differs in the number of driver shafts and rotors as shown in the sketch and picture Concept: 1 using two roller shafts 19 .

          Safety Durability Easy to operate Ergonomics Availability of materials Low cost Hygiene Weight Aesthetics Ease of manufacture 20 .Concept 2:(4 roller) Considering the following criteria I was able to decide the method to evaluate these concepts which was rating and weighting matrix model.

S/N CRIRERION WEIGHT 1 2 3 Safety Durability Easy to operate Ergonomics availability of materials Low cost Hygiene Weight Aesthetics Ease of manufacture 0.5 5 6 7 2 1 1 2 0.8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.05 0.05 0.7 0.4 0.05 0.9 From the table 2 above it is found that concept 1 has highest scores hence is selected which has two rollers as seen from the conceptual drawing.2 CONCEPT 1 CONCEPT 2 SCORE MARKS SCORE SCOREXWEIGHT SCOREXWEIGHT 3 0.3 1.6 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.4 O.05 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.2 1. 21 .2 6 8 0.1 0.6 1.05 0.2 TOTAL 1 6.05 3.2 0.6 2 4 0.1 0.15 4 0.1 4 4 8 7 2 4 5 0.

rough calculations are done. EMBODIMENT DESIGN PHASE 5.5. Here under is the rough schematic diagram of the machine Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of dehusker machine Since power is to be transmitted over long distance use will be made of belt system since has the following advantages           Transmit power over long distance Absorb shock loads Used as high speed drive Can produce low noise Low cost and high efficiency Smooth starting and running Clean since require no lubrication Dampen vibration between driver and driven machine Long service life Easy installation 22 .1PRELIMINARY LAYOUT To obtain the preliminary sizes and inter-relation of parts.

From.The preliminary material for the shaft is St 37-2. At the slack side torque will be minimal that is T2 whish will be calculated as follows considering the following equations. and that of pulley is the same . P= (T1-Tc)[1-1/e Tc=mv2 V=wr Also P=[T1 –T2]v Where. This power will be transmitted to the driver shaft of the machine via v-belt drives The output of the motor shaft torque. The power from motor shaft is the same power at the driver pulley by assumption that there is no losses on power delivered from motor. P= power transmitted by the belt Tc=centrifugal force 23 ]v . is given by This torque will be available at the tight side of the belt. Act as `safety fuse’ since refuses to transmit severe power loads Input power to the machine. with a yield stress.

2kgx9.V=linear velocity W=angular velocity T1=tension of tight side of the belt T2=tension of slack side of the belt -coefficient of friction =angle of wrap Therefore.62 =29.72-177/9.05Nm 24 .5kgm2s2 Transmitted power by the belt is P= (T1-Tc)[1-1/e ]v ]9.62m/s Thus Tc =0.62 P= (48. V=2 =2 =9.5)[1-1/e P=177w Then tension T2 can be obtained from P=[T1 –T2]v T2= T1-p/v =48.72-18.622 =18.

this was transformed from the previous design skeleton hence our shaft screw and rotor srew are known what is needed is to check safety for them.The arrangement of rotor and shaft can be assumed below with the shaft of diameter of 50 and rotor of diameter of 200 both in mm.1. R1— reaction at bearing at first position 25 b R2 .2 shaft and rotor arrangement Shaft layout Mb a R1 Where. Figure 5.

72+29.reaction at bearing at second position Mb.Distance between pulley and bearing of the driver shaft Bending moment due to belt tension Mb =(F1 + F2)r =(F1 r + F2r) =T1 + T2 = 48.05)/0.77Nm Reaction at the belt F3 =(T1-T2)/r =(48. 26 .12N +ve Then the reaction at the bearing near the belt pulley will be much larger compared to the furthest from the belt.is bending moment Distance between bearings a.0625 =314.R2.72N Taking moment at point R2 694mmxR1 -314b = 0 694R1 =314b For value of b=71mm R1 =314x 71/694 =32.72 – 29.05 = 77.

12 =281.R2 = 314 -32.88N Minimum shaft diameter (dm) Now we can check the size of the shaft as follows The minimum shaft diameter can be obtained from √ [ ] For safety factor of 1.5) Substituting variables we get [ √ ] =18.5(sy=1.13mm Gears Pinion So far we have preliminary sizes of shaft where the pinion will be installed therefore we have n1=will be obtained after knowing power transmitted by the belt but since we are still in preliminary layout let us use that of briver motor=1470rpm 27 .

pitch circle diameter for the pinion m.for pitch circle diameter d1 =60mm for speed ratio to be 3 i. w1/w2=d2/d1=n1/n2 28 .gear module z. Knowing n1 then n2 will be=n1/3=1470/3=490 Where For case hardened steel hence 3mm But d=mz is chosen to be 20 and selected module. m is Then Where .Shaft speed n2 –rotor speed also.Number of teeth n1.e u12 =3 from Gear ratio.

face width. Forces on the gear The radial force. The axial force. is The resultant force.Helix angle (=10˚) Hence.Pressure angle (=20˚) . b =face width Hence. is Where .Since for symmetrically mounted gears is the ratio b/d=1/2 Where . is 29 .

To obtain the definitive sizes parts. no slip therefore v1=v2 30 . 5. where by if the stress in the part is greater than a permissible value or less than an established safety factor then the part size is altered so as to satisfy the design.√ √ 5.1 BELT DIMENSIONS Consider the sketch of pulley –belt system below at the motor to screw shaft Let.2DEFINITIVE LAYOUT The preliminary layout are not satisfactory without carrying out definitive layout. strength calculations are done.D1 and D2 be diameters at the motor and the screw respectively Assumption .2.

7(Dp+dp) to 2(Dp+dp) D1= Dp diameter for large pulley D2= dp diameter for small pulley a= axial distance since diameters we want to transfer the same speed we have same diameter for small and larger pulleys =125mm then.But v=wr V1=wr1 W=2 r1=d1/2 similarly r2=d2/2 speed ratio . i = w1/w2=d2/d1=n1/n2 since d1=d2 then n1=n2 belt length for driver shaft L=a + a + half perimeter of d1+ half perimeter of d2 = 2a+ But a =0.7x250 up to 2x250 mathematically 175 Taking a =400mm L=2x400 +2x1/2x125 =1192.69mm Selected 1190mm 31 . a=0.

e d3 d4 consider the sketch 32 .belt length for blower to make high speed blower the driver pulley should be larger than the driven pulley i.

angle of wrap of driven pulley at blower For the following dimension.diameter of driven pulley at the blower O3-angle of wrap of driver pulley at blower O4. d3-220mm d4. d3-diameter of driver pulley at the blower d4.75mm w4/w3=d4/d3=n3/n4 but n3=1470 rpm d4/d3=n3/n4 gives n4=d3n3/d4 =220x1470/75 =4312rpm Belt length at blower Consider the sketch below 33 .Speed of the driver pulley is the same as that of motor assuming no friction losses and no slip since coupled to the motor shaft hence runs at motor’s speed Where.

7(Dp+dp) to 2(Dp+dp) substituting diameters of pulleys a= 0.67mm but the belt length L will be 34 .l=acos b cos b =l/a sin b =d3-d4/2a from sin2b + cos2b = 1 l2/a2 +(d3-d4)2/4a2 =1 l=½√ ( ) but axial distance can be calculated from a =0.7x295 to 2x295 =206 for a=320 . substituting we get l=311.

L = 2l + arc length in contact But arc length in contact is not known From l=acos b b =cos-1 l/a = cos-1 311.885Nm The belt will be preloaded with tension of that value To 35 .100 O4= 180-2b =1540 O3=180 + 2b = 2060 therefore L =311.3 = 1119.72+29.67/320 = 13.67x2 + d3O3/360 + d4O4/360 =623+496.05)/2=To Therefore To =38.28mm Approximately =1120mm according to available standards Belt type Initial tension in the belt Ranges from1.5 times 2 the useful free T1 +T2 = 2To (48.

What follows now is to check key safety at different positions The keys at the driver and driven pulley from the motor to the driver shaff will have the same dimensions as follows 36 .4 Using service factor ks=1.75 kw Number of strands Z Z=pC2/(PrC1C3) Where C1 –angle of contact C2-load factor C3-length factor Given that C3=(logLp.3 The design power Pd= input power x ks =7.34 D 1.56 E 1.2.2 Giving k=1.5kw x 1.1 C 1.3 From the table of standard types Belt section k A 1.0 B 1.2 KEY SELECTION from the machine all keys will suffer shear stresses due to the rotation of the shaft although in some cases there will be bearing stresses.K)/2.3 =9.2 to 1.61 The proper belt type will be type C belt 5.For the v-belt drive approximate service factor from the table ranges from 1.

l= 60mm Breadth. 37 .Length.5 X1000/1470 = 48. from P =Tw Where.72 Nm =48720Nmm  Shear stress. P -is power developed by the motor T -is the torque developed W -is angular speed Then. b=12mm Height. T= But w= 2 Substituting in equation above we get T =30P/ =30 X 7. h= 8mm Material: St 37-2 ( ) The key transmitting power between the motor and the driver pulley is subjected to a higher torque than others Therefore.

Where . 5. is given by [( ) ] [(  The safety factor.Shaft diameter (=40mm) Hence.3 SHAFT SAFETY The material selected in this section was St 50-2 ( ) since it has to be stronger than that of the key material.2.  Bearing stress.Design length of the key (=60mm) d.  The maximum shear stress. We need to check for this material with minimum diameter of 18mm as calculated how safe will it be. ) ] Therefore the key is safe. By maximum shear stress theory: [( ) 38 ] . Due to the fact that the rest of the keys will carry not above this amount we can simply consider them to be safe.

Bending stress Hence. [( The safety factor.With Where . ) ] 39 .Axial stress .

Radial and axial load components x. 5. since the inner race rotates) .Safety and temperature factors respectively ) 40 . the requested basic rating life [ For the motor srew shaft Basic load rating.2.4 BEARING SELECTION Selected bearing type according to 50mm diameter of shaft was SKF Deep groove bearing 6310 Now let us check it’s life According to its application.y -Radial and axial load factors respectively V.Race rotation factor (=1.Since for minimum diameter safety factor is above 1. P is given by ( Where . C ] is 50000 hr.5 that means for a real diameted of 50mm the safety will triple.0.22 Equivalent dynamic basic load. e=0.

then x=0.Since.Shaft speed [rpm] Hence. [ We found that [ ] thus we can use this safely ] [ ] ] ) Also since this is the most loaded part then the rest bearings carrying the same load will safely operate.56 and y=2 ( ) ( P=1076 The rated life of the bearing is given by [ ] [ Where m=3 for ball bearings n. 41 . Now from. .

2.  Tooth surface failure  is given by 42 . =1080 =800 Tooth root basic strength.4 GEAR SELECTION Information gathered =20 m=3mm =3 =60mm =10˚ =20˚ Accuracy grade (ISO)=7-6 like for automobile and general purpose machines Material Surface hardness 600-700 quenched and tempered steel ( 30CrNiMo8 ) Endurance limit.5.

5) -Size factor (=1) ( ) Contact stress is given by [ ] -Elasticity factor .Contact ratio factor .Zone factor -Application factor -Dynamic factor -Longitudinal and transverse load distribution factors respectively √ √ 43 .Minimum demanded safety factor (=1.Where .

] ] ] from the graph Hence.4 For.[ Where ] [ ] [ [ Thus. is given by 44 . [ ] according to the surface durability criterion pinion teeth are safe The permissible tooth root stress. [ Ka=1.

Longitudinal and transverse load distribution factors respectively ( ( ) ) 45 .Minimum demanded safety factor (=1. ( ) Tooth root stress is given by Where .Size factor Hence.Combined form factor -contact ratio factor .Where .5) .

the pinion teeth are safe since allowable stress is up to 400N/mm2 or 400MPa. 46 .Hence.

B. Buehlmann.. Tomesen. Drawing + Design Databook for Mechanical Engineering.. University of Dar es Salaam.. Oehninger. 1985. N. P. M. Mechanical Engineering Design.6. Machine Elements and Design Section.. L. University of Dar es Salaam. Faculty of Engineering Printing Unit. Mosha. V.. Machine Elements. Engineering Desigh. McGraw Hill Book Co.. Keller. (2) Dieter. University of Dar es Salaam. E.. E. 1983.. Faculty of Engineering. S. V. (5) PD 202 Machine Elements I &II Lecture Notes. B. L. REFERENCES (1) Bandari. (4) Shigley. M. U.. J. (3) Lazarev. 2009. 47 . Schmidt. Mcgraw Hill. C. 2012. 1983. T. G.

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