FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING



NAME OF COURSE PROCESS CONTROL III

NQF
LEVEL
NQF
CREDITS
QUALIFICATION & SAQA ID COURSE CODE
6 0.083
Diploma in …..
SAQA ID No.: …..
PCT301T
COMPILED BY M.L. MOROPENG
2013

STUDENT COURSE GUIDE


Page 2 of 22











©COPYRIGHT : Tshwane University of Technology
Private Bag X680
PRETORIA
0001

All rights reserved. Apart from any reasonable quotations for the purposes
of research criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part
of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopy and recording, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed and distributed by :
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT
ENVIRONMENT
Tshwane University of Technology
Private Bag X680
Pretoria
0001
Page 3 of 22

ORGANISATIONAL COMPONENT CONTENTS:
1. Welcome ................................................................................................................ 5
2. Staff ....................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Contact Details ................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Staff availability ................................................................................................ 5
3. Requirements, resources and recommended material. ....................................... 5
3.1 Requirements for the course ............................................................................ 6
4. Code of conduct .................................................................................................. 8
4.1 Attendance ....................................................................................................... 8
4.2 Classroom behaviour ....................................................................................... 8
4.3 Responsibilities of students ............................................................................. 8
1. Overview of the course ....................................................................................... 9
1.1 Purpose of the course ...................................................................................... 9
1.2 Links to other subjects ..................................................................................... 9
1.3 Course outcomes ............................................................................................. 9
2. Assessment ...................................................................................................... 10
2.1 Assessment methods and criteria ................................................................. 10
2.2 Assessment rules .......................................................................................... 10
2.3 Marking system .............................................................................................. 10
2.4 Year mark ...................................................................................................... 10
2.5 Moderation.................................................................................................. 10
2.6 Promotion requirements................................................................................. 11
3. Course content and schedule of tests and assignments ................................... 11
3.1 Course structure and schedule of tests and assignments ............................. 11
3.2 Learning outcomes and assessment criteria.................................................. 13
Page 4 of 22

3.3 Generic outcomes and critical cross-field outcomes ...................................... 16
4. GLOSSARY OF TERMS ......................................................................................... 16
5. Assessment of record ............................................................................................. 16
5.1. Examples of tests .......................................................................................... 17

Page 5 of 22

SECTION A ORGANISATIONAL COMPONENT

1. WELCOME
Welcome to the Process Control III class. This is a one-semester subject, which provides an introduction in the
Process Control with particular application to Chemical Engineering field. It is offered via compulsory lectures
over 14 weeks. The course is structured in such a way as to provide a sound foundation for application of
process control principles in Chemical Engineering. We trust you will enjoy the course, and find it interesting
and informative. Good knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics is the requirement for the course.
2. STAFF
2.1 CONTACT DETAILS

NAME CAMPUS
ROOM
NO
TEL NO
E-MAIL
CONSULTATION
TIMES
ACADEMIC
FUNCTION
Ms. ML
Moropeng
Pretoria 3-724
012-382-3516
moropengl@tut.ac.za
On appointment Lecturer

Mr MR
Futhana

External
Not available

Moderator

2.2 STAFF AVAILABILITY
If, after attending class and making every effort from your side to master content, you still have
problems with understanding key concepts or principles or their application, lecturer is available for
consultation (by appointment only, or in class – but during office hours!).
3. REQUIREMENTS, RESOURCES AND RECOMMENDED MATERIAL.
Page 6 of 22

3.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE
3.1.1 PRESCRIBED RESOURCES
The following tables indicate what literature and other resources are essential for successful
completion of this course. You are strongly advised to acquire all the prescribed resources.
PRESCRIBED LITERATURE
CATEGORY AUTHOR NAME PUBLISHER ISBN NO
TEXTBOOK Svrcek W.Y.,
Mahoney D.P.,
Young B.R.
A Real-Time Approach to
Process Control. 2
nd
edition
John Wiley &
Sons, 2006
0-470-02534-
4
TEXTBOOK Serbog D.E, Edgar
T.F, and
Mellichamp D.A.
Process Dynamics and
Control. 2
nd
edition
John Wiley &
Sons,, 2004
0-471-00077-
9
TEXTBOOK Norman H.
Ceaglske
Automatic Process Control
for Chemical Engineers
John Wiley &
Sons,, 1956


COMPULSARY LITERATURE
NOTES Moropeng M.L. PROCESS CONTROL III 2013
Lecture notes discussed in
classes
myTUTor
OTHER PRESCRIBED RESOURCES
CATEGORY DESCRIPTION WHERE TO FIND COST LEVY
CALCULATOR ANY SCIENTIFIC
CALCULATOR
ANY GOOD BOOKSHOP



3.1.2 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES
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The following recommend resources will enhance your understanding and knowledge in this course,
and you are encouraged to use the following additional resources.
RECOMMENDED RESOURCES
CATEGORY AUTHOR NAME PUBLISHER ISBN NO
BOOKS C. D. Johnson Process Control Instrumentation
Technology, 7
th
ed
Prentice Hall 2003 0-13-048731-7
D.O. Desa Instrumentation Fundamentals for
Process Control
Taylor Francis 2001 1-56032-901-7
D.M. Considine Process/industrial instruments
and controls handbook, 5
th
ed.
McGraw-Hill 2002 0-07-012582-1
B.G. Liptak Instrument Engineers Handbook.
Volume One: Process
Measurement and Analysis, 4
th
ed.
CRC Press 2002 0849310830
G. Stephanopoulos Chemical Process Control:
Introduction to Theory and
Practice
Prentice Hall PTR
1985
9780471175391
T.E. Marlin PROCESS CONTROL: Designing
Processes and Control Systems for
Dynamic PerformanceAnalysis, 2
nd

ed.
McGraw-Hill 2000 0-07-039362-1
J. B. Riggs, M. N. Karim Chemical and Bio-process Control
3
rd
ed.
Ferret Publishing
2006
0-9669601-4-9
RECOMMENDED ELECTRONIC MATERIAL & WEBSITES
WEBSITES 1. Interactive Applets illustrating DP cell operation, Introduction to PC, controller
tuning:
http://www.chbe.gatech.edu/lee/control_modules/applet/Start/AppletsPC.html

2. Process Control Interactive Learning Modules:
http://www.pc-education.mcmaster.ca/course.htm
3. Instrumentation: http://instrumentation.co.za
4. Journals: http://www.sciencedirect.com
5. Course notes and learning resources from University of Newcastle upon Tune:
http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/Dept/Swot/connotes.htm
Page 8 of 22


6. Control Engineering Virtual Library:
http://www-control.eng.cam.ac.uk/extras/Virtual_Library/Control_VL.html

4. CODE OF CONDUCT
Please take note of the following regulations. These regulations are in addition to the standard rules
and regulations as determined by the TUT. Please familiarise yourself with the TUT rules and
regulations as set out in the student diaries received on registration.
4.1 ATTENDANCE
Regular attendance of the Process Control lectures is of primary importance. It is the learner’s
responsibility to sign the register each week. A minimum attendance of 80% is mandatory for all
courses including Process control III, in a 14 week, for classes that have not been attended and for
which you have not furnished a valid doctor’s letter or other proof of extenuating circumstances,
amounts to 20% absenteeism. This level of absenteeism will lead to exclusion from the final
moderation at the end of the year, which means that you will fail the course and will have to repeat it
the following year.
4.2 CLASSROOM BEHAVIOUR
Students are required to arrive on time for lectures. If more then 15 minutes late, don’t enter the
classroom.
4.2.1. USAGE OF CELL PHONES IN CLASSES
Use of cell phones in the class: put your cell phone in silent mode. No sending SMS, or talking on cell
phone is allowed. In case of emergent incoming call, please go out of the class.
4.3 RESPONSIBILITIES OF STUDENTS

It is your responsibility to make a success of learning in this course. You are encouraged to attend all
classes, write all assessments 1 to 6 and hand in your assignments/projects on the set due dates.
Assessment 6 is compulsory, even if a student received zero score for the task(s) because of non
compliance or late submission. Non-submission of assessment 6 will imply failing the subject and will
have to repeat it the following year. You are most welcome to consult with the lecturer if you feel you
are struggling with any learning concept in this course. Please make sure to make an appointment in
advance!

Page 9 of 22

SECTION B LEARNING COMPONENT

1. OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE

This course is designed to give students the foundation of chemical engineering process
instrumentation and process control. The mathematical methods , overview of methodology for the
formulation and solution of energy balance, applied to chemical process systems. Introduces students
to the chemical engineering professional and the fundamentals operation of chemical process
equipment. It also provides students with the basic principles of chemical engineering energy balance
as well as calculation techniques to solve energy balance problem for chemical process system and
equipment.
1.1 PURPOSE OF THE COURSE
The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the process instrumentation and process
control methods required to obtain a chemical product of a desired quality and quantity in an efficient
and economic manner, while maintaining safety. The student will understand the physical principles
used for the design and operation of the sensors, final control elements and controllers. The student
will learn how to regulate the process variables by tuning the controller. The major themes of the
course are control systems, process instrumentation and typical control modes. .
1.2 LINKS TO OTHER SUBJECTS
Good knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics is the requirement for the course. The
Process Control III course will help you in creating a foundation for process control IV, in B.Tech. level.
The students must have knowledge of mathematics II and other related subjects, such drawing skills
and computer skills.
1.3 COURSE OUTCOMES
The learning schedule, as set out in section A, and ways in which you will be guided to master the
content, will enable you to achieve the learning outcomes, as detailed under 3. After completion of
the course you are expected to:

1. Know the types of industrial instrumentation used to measure T,P,LL and F.
2. Learn the basics of chemical process control.
3. Understand fully the various types of industrial controllers and their characteristics.
4. Understand the effects of feedback and feed-forward control on a process.
5. Understand fully the various types of industrial control valves and their characteristics.
Page 10 of 22

6. Be able to effectively tune a single loop PID controller.
7. Understand the jargon of process control.
2. ASSESSMENT
2.1 ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA

Assessment of this course will include 6 assessments, five (5) of which will be in the form of a formal
written tests. The 6
th
assessment is a VETO (compulsory) assessment which may includes the
assignments, E-learning , practicals, and project(s) . The various assessment methods therefore will
focus on criteria that will enable the lecturer(s) to determine whether you have achieved the learning
outcomes. The assessment criteria relevant to each learning outcome are detailed in section 3.
2.2 ASSESSMENT RULES
The faculty guidelines regarding the continuous assessment practice apply. You are advised to
familiarise yourself with these rules, as they are applied stringently. All assignments/homework
deadlines should be adhered to, failure to do will results in subtraction of marks. The application of
general rules regarding tests/assignments missed due to illness or other circumstances will apply,
students will submit a doctor’s note and the lecture will make allowances.
2.3 MARKING SYSTEM
The assessment will comprise of the following, five assessments, two assignments, project and a
practical work. Marks are assigned as indicated under 2.4.
2.4 YEAR MARK

The final mark will be calculated as follows:
Overall mark is 100%
Assessment 1* (18%) + Assessment 2*(18%) + Assessment 3*(18%) + Assessment 4*(18%) +
Assessment 5*(18%) + Assessment 6*(10%) = 100%.
Assessment 6 = ave (Assignment+ project+ practical) *(10%)

If you have queries about your mark, you must immediately consult your course lecturer (contact details are given above),
before final publication of results. Once the marks are entered on TUT’s mainframe computer, the mark cannot be
changed.

2.5 MODERATION
Exam paper will be checked by external moderator.
Page 11 of 22

2.6 PROMOTION REQUIREMENTS
This is a continuous assessment subject and a student must obtain a minimum weighted average
marks (for ALL five assessments, and VETO assessment (assignments, projects, and E-Learning
assessments) of 50% et-least in order to pass this course. A student shall achieve a distinction when
the accumulated total equals or exceeds 75%. As a continuous assessment subject, Main,
Supplementary or Exit examination opportunities do not apply.

3. COURSE CONTENT AND SCHEDULE OF TESTS AND ASSIGNMENTS
This course comprises both a theory and application component. Your mastery of that theory is
assessed at regular intervals. More importantly, the application of theory is assessed through
assignments/projects.
The following outline provides an overview of the content to be covered in this course and the ways in
which your progress will be assessed.

3.1 COURSE STRUCTURE AND SCHEDULE OF TESTS AND ASSIGNMENTS

DURATION THEME
ASSIGNMENT/
TEST/PROJECT
COMPLETION DATE*
Week 2-3
CONTROL THEORY
Incentives for Process Control; Control
Loops and Variables
- Incentives for Process Control
- Logic Flow Diagram for a Control
Loop
- Physical Diagram for a Control
Loop
- Feedback and feed forward
control


January-February
2012
Week 3
Process and Instrumentation Diagram
& Process parameters measurements
- Pressure measurement
- Level measurement
- Temperature measurement
- Flow rate measurement

Assignment 01

february 2012
Page 12 of 22

Class test 1
Week 4
Dynamic behavior of control loop
systems
- Block diagram
representation
- Transfer functions
- Response of simple control
systems

July -August 2013
Week 5-6
Laplace transformation
- Table of Laplace
Transformation
- Laplace Transformation for
ODE’s
- The inverse Laplace
Transformation of an ODE.
- Laplace Transformation to
solve partial fractions..

Semester test 1 August 2013
Week 7-8
Dynamic modeling (Fundamentals of
Single-Input Single-Output System )
- Derive mathematical model
of all elements of control
- Obtain process dynamic
response curve (step function
input)
- P-I-D control modes

September 2013
Week 9-10
Dynamic behavior of first-Order and
Second-Order Processes.
- Response of first - order process.
- The first-order response to a
forcing function.
- Graphical representation of the
first order response.
- Important cases of a second-
order response.
- The second-order response to a

Assignment 2


Class test 2
September -October
2013
Page 13 of 22

forcing function
Week 11
Process Controllers
- On/off controllers
- List and discuss process controller
modes
- Features of PID controllers


October 2013
Week 12
Stability
- General stability criterior
- Method of tuning (Ziegler-
Nichols)
- Tuning of PI and PID controller
- Open loop tuning
- Closed loop tuning

Semester test 2 November 2013
Week 13
Control Valve Operation
- Select control valve type
- Size control valve


Class test 3
December 2013
Week 14

SICK/MAKEUP TEST:
(All Learning
Outcomes )
December 2013
*Please note that test dates may be moved on short notice where circumstances require such change. Also,
take particular note of the rules regarding tests and assignments in section B, 2.6
(List the topics or themes covered and remember to cross reference the learning outcomes. )
3.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES AND ASSESSMENT CRITERI A
The following tables clearly indicate what you have to achieve (the learning outcomes) and how you
will be assessed (assessment criteria) to determine whether you have achieved the required
knowledge and competences:
Page 14 of 22


LEARNING OUTCOME 1:
Identify process variables
Assessment criteria Assessment method
1.1 The process control Incentives are explained.
1.2. Process variables are identified.
1.3. Control objectives are identified.
1.4. Process variables are classified as controlled
variables, manipulated variables and disturbances.
Test/home assignment
LEARNING OUTCOME 2
Explain various types of control systems
Assessment criteria Assessment method
2.1 The differences between open and closed loop are
explained
2.2 Elements of closed loop control system are
identified
2.3 Functions of elements of closed control loop are
explained
2.6 The difference between a feedback and feed
forward control systems are explained
2.7 The effect of disturbances on the control system are
discussed
Test/home assignment
LEARNING OUTCOME 3
Demonstrate the ability to tune a controller
Page 15 of 22




3.1 Control modes are identified
3.2 Functions of control modes are discussed
3.3 Correct controller parameters are determined
Test/home assignment
LEARNING OUTCOME 4
Demonstrate the ability to select and size a valve.
Assessment criteria Assessment method
5.1 General operation of control valve is explained.
5.2 Types of control valves and purpose of their usage
are explained.
5.3 Valve characteristic are explained.
5.4 Valve coefficient is determined.
5.5 Control valve selected for specific application
Test/home assignment/lab
LEARNING OUTCOME 5
Demonstrate understanding of advanced control modes (cascade, ratio, override) and ability to select a and apply
control mode for given process
7.1 Cascade control is explained and applied
7.2 Ratio control is explained and applied
7.3 Override control is explained and applied
Test/home assignment/lab
LEARNING OUTCOME 6:
Understand Incentives for Process Control
9.1 Explain why do we need Process Control
Test/home assignment
LEARNING OUTCOME 7:
Derive mathematical models of unit operations
10.1 Apply principles of mass and energy conservation
Test/home assignment/lab
Page 16 of 22



3.3 GENERIC OUTCOMES AND CRITICAL CROSS-FIELD OUTCOMES

4. GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Refer to the lecture notes and text book

5. ASSESSMENT OF RECORD
to derive mathematical models of all elements in the
process control loop (process, sensor, actuator)
10.2 Analyze dynamics of a unit operation (process)
LEARNING OUTCOME 8
Apply and analyze typical control loops
Assessment criteria Assessment method
11.1 Select controllers and tune control loops for typical
applications:
• Flow control loops
• Level control loops
• Pressure control loops
• Temperature control loops
• Composition control loops

Test/home assignment/lab
LEARNING OUTCOME 9
Tuning process control loops
12.1 Apply process reaction curve method to find PID
controller parameters
12.2 Apply Internal model control tuning rules
12.3 Apply auto-tune variation technique


Test/home assignment/lab

Page 17 of 22

The following tests and examination are attached to serve as example of the implementation of the
assessment criteria and assessment method.
5.1. EXAMPLES OF TESTS

Question 1

The feedback system shown in the figure 1, below has the transfer function of the forward path
as
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ a s s
K
and the transfer function of the feedback path as | | 1 .






Figure 1: Feedback system
Determine the following:
a. Decay ratio
b. Settling time
c. Period of oscillation




Question 2
Consider a process with the transfer function,
( )( )( ) 5 3 1
1
) (
+ + +
=
s s s
s G , that is to be placed
under PID control. Determine the stability of the process using Ziegler Nichols method.

Question 3

+

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ a s s
1

( ) K

1
÷
Page 18 of 22

3.1. A proportional controller is used to control the height of water in tank where the water
level can vary from 0-9m. The controller is to fully close a valve when the water rises to
5.5m and fully open when the water falls to 4.5m. If the required level is 5 m, compute the
proportional band and the controller gain (transfer function).
3.2. Consider the proportional - mode level - control system. Valve is linear, with a flow scale
factor of 10 m
3
/h per percent controller output. The controller output is nominally 50%
with a constant of K
c
= 10% /%. A load change occurs when flow through valve F
out

changes from 500 m
3
/h to 600 m
3
/h. Calculate the new controller output and offset error.














1. What do you understand about the following?

a) Manipulated variable
b) Controlled variable
c) Measured variable
d) Set point
e) Process

2. The process is given by the equation

M G L G X
s m s L ) ( ) (
+ =
Draw the block diagram representation of the process, and construct the feedback
loop, showing all the essential elements (process, measurements, evaluation and
control) of process control.

3. What is Laplace transformation, by definition?





x(t)

Controller
LT
F
in

F
out

Page 19 of 22

4. Solve the given equations using Laplace transformation. The initial conditions are
zero.
a)
t
e y
dt
y d
2
2
2
2
÷
= + (10)
b) 0 6 11 6
2
2
3
3
= + + + y
dt
dy
dt
y d
dt
y d
(10)
c) 1 2
2
2
= + + x
dt
dx
dt
x d
(10)

5. Using Laplace technique, determine the response (at time (t) =10 min) of the
process when the input is subjected to the unit step.

a)
8 6
40 22 4
) (
) (
2
2
+ +
+ +
=
s s
s s
s R
s C
(10)

6. A process of unknown transfer function is subjected to a unit impulse input. The
output of the process is measured accurately and is found to be represented by
the function.

t e t Y
t
3 1 ) ( ÷ ÷ =
÷
,
Determine the original ordinary differential order (ODE) of this process.
Consider the figure 1 below,


Fig: 1 a man in the shower.
Page 20 of 22

1. Identify the following
1.1. Two process variables
1.2. The two disturbances
1.3. Three manipulated variables
1.4. Three measured variable

2. Draw the feedback and a feed forward control loops for the blending
process in figure 2 and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both
control loops.






Fig: 2 a blending process.


QUESTION 3

Pure A
W
2

X
2
=1

Mixture (A,B)
W
1

X
1



W
X

Page 21 of 22

Determine the overall transfer functions of the following system, if the elements
have the transfer functions as given. (Use blocks diagram algebra).



QUESTION 4

4.1. Define Laplace transformation.
4.2. Find the response at time (t =1)
( )
( )
3
1
4
) (
+
+
=
s
s
s Y

C
o

C
i


Page 22 of 22

4.3. Determine y (t) when subjected to a unit step input , all initial conditions
equals to zero.
4.4.
) 4 4 (
3
) (
) (
2
+ +
+
=
s s
s
s X
s Y

1 6 11 6
2
2
3
3
= + + + y
dt
dy
dt
y d
dt
y d