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Workshop Manual

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$%P$R&M$NT ' ( M$) (*+,$ A&M) To stu y -fferent types measur-ng tools use -n metrology an .ern-er cal-pers/ m-crometers an .ern-er he-ght gauges# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 Work shop Manual 2 Steel Rule 2 3ern-er cal-per 2 M-crometer 2 3ern-er m-crometer 4 he-ght gauge OP$RAT&ONS &N3OL3$0) 2 Rea -ng of chapter ' 56"ench Work 4 7-tt-ng8 of 9orkshop manual# 2 3-sual-:-ng -fferent types of clamp-ng/ measur-ng an mark-ng tools -n f-tt-ng shop 2 Un erstan -ng the funct-on 4 metho of us-ng the tools an -nstruments e#g# .ern-er cal-per etc# eterm-ne least counts of

PRO;$0UR$) (# 3ern-er ;al-per, 3ern-er cal-per -s prec-s-on -nstrument use for measur-ng fract-on of a m-ll-meter# &t has t9o <a9s# One <a9 -s f-=e ha.-ng a rectangular gra uate scale -n mm 4 -nch/ 9h-ch -s calle ma-n scale# The other <a9 -s mo.a>le ha.-ng another gra uate scale/ 9h-ch sl- es along the ma-n scale an calle .en-er scale# The m-n-mum -mens-on 9h-ch can >e measure -s calle Least ;ount of a part-cular 3ern-er ;al-per/ 9h-ch -s the -fference of one -.-s-on of ma-n scale an one -.-s-on of .ern-er scale# Least count calculat-on of the .ern-er scale) &n .ern-er cal-per/ 9h-ch 9e use , ?* -.-s-on of .ern-er scale are e@ual 4 co-nc- e 9-th AB -.-s-on of ma-n scale an one -.-s-on of ma-n scale -s ( mm# Therefore one -. of .ern-er scale -s C ABD ?* mm# So L; C ( ms , (.s C 6( E ABD ?*8 mm C (D ?* mmC *#*5 mm# 5# M-crometer) The U type frame of m-crometer -s ma e of cast steel# &ts an.-l -s of H;S an sp-n le -s ma e of M;S# Least ;ount C P-tch of Lea scre9D no of -. on th-m>le 6.ern-er scale on cap8 C *#? mmD ?* C *#*( mm

,(, F# 3ern-er M-crometer) To measure more prec-se -mens-on 9-th accuracy/ a .ern-er m-crometer -s use # &t cons-sts of a th-r scale aroun the hu> an pro.- e (* parallel l-nes on th-m>le# Least ;ount) One .s C(D(*=BD (*** cmCBD (*/*** cm L;C(ms ,(.s C (D(***,BD(*/*** cmC (D(*/*** cmC(D (*** mmC*#**( mm# A# 3ern-er He-ght Gauge) &t -s use for measur-ng the he-ght of the parts/ scr->-ng the l-nes at he-ght or for mark-ng purposes# &t cons-sts of a .ert-cal >ar mounte on a hea.y >ase# A sl- -ng hea 9-th po-nter -s carr-e on the .ert-cal >ar# The >ar an hea are gra uate # &t -s al9ays use >y plac-ng -t on the surface plate# The >ase -s of cast -ron an >eam -s of SS# The least count -s generally *#*5 mm or *#**(H# O"S$R3AT&ONS) We ha.e o>ser.e that the 9ork can >e one 9-th a great accuracy -n the 9ork shops 9-th these prec-se -nstruments# R$SULT) What 9e ha.e measure -s as follo9s) 7-nal rea -ng) ) (#On .ern-er cal-per

5# On m-crometer

F# On he-ght gauge

SA7$TI PR$;AUT&ONS) 2 "efore us-ng the prec-se -nstruments/ one shoul kno9 the metho of us-ng as 9ell as the funct-on of each part# 2 The error of the -nstrument must >e calculate an note #

2 The error must >e a e -n the f-nal rea -ng# 2 The -nstruments must >e kept carefully -n the-r respect-.e >o=es# ,5, $%P$R&M$NT ' 5 M$) (*+,$ A&M) To stu y -fferent types of mach-ne tools 6lathe/ shaper/ planer/ m-ll-ng an r-ll-ng mach-nes8

&NTRO0U;T&ON) A mach-ne/ 9h-ch performs an operat-on of mater-al remo.al 9-th tools to pro uce es-re shape an s-:e of the 9ork p-ece/ -s kno9n as Mach-ne Tool# The .ar-ous types of mach-ne tools commonly use -n a 9orkshop are) (# Lathe Mach-ne 5# Shaper Mach-ne F# Planer Mach-ne A# M-ll-ng Mach-ne ?# 0r-ll-ng Mach-ne (# LATH$ MA;H&N$ The lathe pro>a>ly one of the earl-est mach-ne tools/ -s one of the most .ersat-le an 9- ely use mach-ne tool/ so also kno9n has mother mach-ne tool# Types of Lathe 2 Spee Lathe 2 $ng-ne or ;entre Lathe 2 "ench Lathe 2 Tool Room Lathe 2 Automat-c Lathe 2 Spec-al Purpose Lathe Pr-nc-pal Parts of Lathe a8 "e ) , &t -s the >ase or foun at-on of the lathe# &t -s hea.y rugge an s-ngle p-ece cast-ng ma e to support the 9ork-ng parts of the lathe# >8 Hea Stock) , The hea stock -s permanently fastene on the -nner 9ays at the left s- e of the >e # c8 Ta-l Stock), &t -s s-tuate at the r-ght han en of the >e -s mounte on the -nner gu- e 9ays# 8 ;arr-age), The carr-age controls an supports the cutt-ng tool# &t has f-.e ma<or parts, 2 Sa le, &t -s an H,shape cast-ng mounte on the top of the lathe 9ays so -t sl- es along the 9ays >et9een the hea stock an ta-lstock#

,F, 2 ;ross sl- e, &t -s mounte on the sa le# &t supports the compoun rest# 2 ;ompoun rest, &t -s mounte on the top of the cross,sl- e an -s use to support the cutt-ng tool# &t can >e s9-.ele to any angle for taper turn-ng operat-ons# 2 Tool post, &t -s mounte a>o.e the compoun rest# &t clamps the cutt-ng tool or cutt-ng tool hol er -n a es-re pos-t-on# 2 Apron, &t -s fastene to the sa le an conta-ns the fee -ng mechan-sm# The apron han 9heel can >e turne >y han to mo.e the carr-age along the >e of the lathe# Lathe Accessor-es The e.-ces/ 9h-ch are use / for hol -ng an support-ng the 9ork an the tool on the lathe are calle the lathe accessor-es# The .ar-ous lathe accessor-es are as follo9) ;hucks) These are use for hol -ng an rotat-ng the 9ork,p-ece -n hea stock of a lathe# 2 Three <a9 un-.ersal chuck, Th-s chuck -s self center-ng an calle scroll chuck# &t -s use to hol

roun an he=agonal 9ork >ecause center-ng -s not nee e # 2 7our <a9 chuck, &t has four re.ers->le <a9s/ each of 9h-ch may >e -n epen ently a <uste to accommo ate the 9ork/ so &t -s use for pr-smat-c parts 6-#e# s@uare/ roun or -rregular shape8 ;entres The lathe centre -s a har ene steel e.-ce 9-th a taper shank on one en an s-=ty egree po-nt on the other en # The taper shank f-ts -n the hea stock an ta-lstock# 0r-.e plate 6catch plate8 &t -s pla-n -sc of cast -ron or steel/ 9h-ch -s >ore out an threa e so that -t can >e attache to a sp-n le nose# 7ace Plate &t -s s-m-lar to the r-.e plate e=cept that -t -s larger -n -ameter# &t has open an T,slots an can >e use to clamp the 9ork of compl-cate shape an s-:e# Lathe og or carr-er &t -s attache to the 9ork,p-ece to >e turne >et9een the centres or place on man rel# These are stra-ght ta-l type or >ent ta-l type# Man rel &t -s har ene an tempere steel shaft/ 9h-ch -s use to hol the hollo9 9ork,p-ece for mach-n-ng the e=ternal surfaces# Rests When a .ery long <o> -s to >e turne >et9een centres/ the 9ork -s supporte at some -nterme -ate po-nts >et9een the centres to a.o- sagg-ng o the <o> ue to -ts o9n 9e-ght#

,A, ;utt-ng Tool Mater-als 2 ;ar>on Steels 2 Me -um alloy steels 2 H-gh spee steels 2 Satell-tes 2 ;emente car>- es 2 ;eram-cs 2 0-amon s 2 A>ras-.es alum-n-um o=- e Lathe Tools The tool use -n a lathe for general purpose 9ork are s-ngle po-nt cutt-ng tools -n turn-ng/ fac-ng/ chamfer-ng/ threa -ng/ etc# "ut mult-po-nt cutt-ng po-nt tool are use -n r-ll-ng/ knurl-ng/ etc# The tool epen -ng upon the nature of operat-on one >y the tool/ are class-f-e as follo9) 2 Turn-ng tool 2 7ac-ng tool 2 ;hamfer-ng tool 2 7orm or prof-le too 2 Part-ng or neck-ng tool 2 $=ternal threa -ng tool 2 &nternal threa -ng tool 2 "or-ng tool 2 Knurl-ng tool Lathe operat-ons), The most common operat-ons 9h-ch can >e performe on a lathe are center-ng/ fac-ng/ pla-n turn-ng/ step turn-ng/ taper turn-ng/ r-ll-ng/ ream-ng/ >or-ng/ un er cutt-ng/ threa -ng/ an knurl-ng# Terms Use -n Lathe Mach-ne 2 ;utt-ng Spee &t -s ef-ne as the spee at 9h-ch the metal -s remo.e >e the tool from the 9ork,p-ece# &t -s usually e=presse -n mDm-nute# 2 7ee &t -s ef-ne as the -stance/ 9h-ch the tool a .ances 6a=-ally8 for each re.olut-on of 9ork# &t -s usually e=presse -n mm# 2 0epth of ;ut &t -s ef-ne as the epth of penetrat-on of the tool -nto the 9ork,p-ece ur-ng mach-n-ng# &t -s usually

olumn 6>o y8).H&N$ &NTRO0U..e on -ts top an s.es perpen -cular to the 9ork to9ar s or a9ay from the operator# 2 Angular 7ee .es parallel to the 9ork to9ar s or a9ay from the hea stock# .y cast -ron construct-on/ attache to the column at -ts front on the . 2 Accor -ng to the -rect-on of cutt-ng stroke a8 Push cut shaper >8 0ra9 cut shaper 2 Accor -ng to the es-gn of the ta>le a8 Stan ar or plane shaper >8 Un-.es along the cross.ell-ng hea shaper .ert-cal# Pr-nc-pal parts of a shaper mach-ne) a8 "ase) .el-ng the compoun sl.T&ON) &t -s a rec-procat-ng type of mach-ne tool -n 9h-ch the ram mo.When tool mo. 2 Use han po9ers only 9hen putt-ng on or remo.J.AUT&ONS). &t -s ma e of cast -ron an use for hol -ng the 9ork p-ece# T slots are pro.el of ta>le .-ng mach-ne a8 .el of ram a8 Hor-:ontal shaper >8 3ert-cal shaper c8 Tra.y an ro>ust cast -ron >o y 9h-ch acts as a support for all other parts of the mach-ne 9h-ch are mounte o.e three types of fee 2 Long-tu -nal 7ee .lass-f-cat-ons of Shaper 2 Accor -ng to the ram r-.ert-cal tra. &t -s a >o= types -ron >o y mounte upon the >ase# &t acts as hous-ng for the operat-ng mechan-sm of the mach-ne cross ra-l an ram# c8 .er -t# >8 .ersal shaper Spec-f-cat-ons of a shaper 2 Ma=-mum length of stroke 2 Ma=-mum hor-:ontal tra.e to the 9ork -s terme as fee # Lathe tools 9ay ha.rank shaper >8 Geare shaper c8 Hy raul-c shaper 2 Accor -ng to the pos-t-on an tra.When the tool mo.ra-l to pro. 2 . &t -s a hea.ert-cal gu. When tool mo.-ng chuck or face plate# 2 0o not sh-ft or change gears 9h-le lathe -s runn-ng# 2 Stan erect# Th-s keeps the hea a9ay from the fly-ng ch-ps# 2 ..ross Ra-l).e fee to the 9ork.e 9ay# 8 Ta>le).el of a ta>le 2 Ma=-mum .es the cutt-ng tool >ack9ar an for9ar -n a stra-ght l-ne to generate the flat surface# The flat surface may >e hor-:ontal/ -ncl-ne or .es for secur-ng the 9ork on to -t# &t then sl.es at an angle to the 9ork# &t -s o>ta-ne >y s9-.ross 7ee .?.e=presse -n mm# 7ee Mechan-sm) the mo.hoose or a <ust proper epth of cut# 2 Wh-le 9ork-ng on a lathe/ use goggles# 5# SHAP$R MA.ement of the tool relat-.p-ece# . &t -s a hea.e# SA7$TI PR$.

"locks etc# .T&ON) Planer -s use to pro uce plane an flat surfaces >y a s-ngle po-nt cutt-ng tool/ 9hen the 9ork p-ece -s ."olts 2 Stops 2 Stop >locks 2 Planer <acks 2 3.e ch-ps 9h-le ram -s -n mot-on A# All 9ays ma-nta-n the parallel clean ?# Remo.th of the ta>le -n mm# 2 Ma=-mum -stance of the ta>le to the cross ra-l -n metres# 2 Ma=-mum stroke of the ta>le -n mm# &n a -t-on to the a>o.e planer# 2 P-t planer# 2 $ ge or plate planer# 2 0-.ery large/ so use for pro uc-ng flat surfaces on much larger 9ork than a shaper# The ma<or -fference >et9een shaper an planer -s that -n a planer/ the tool rema-ns stat-onary an the 9ork rec-procates 9hereas -n the shaper/ the 9ork rema-ns stat-onary an the tool rec-procates# Types Of Planers 2 Stan ar or ou>le hous-ng planer 2 Open s.ert-cal tra.-ces are use 2 3-ces 2 .2 S-:e of the ta>le -#e# length/ 9.ross ra-l 2 Tool hea s S-:e an spec-f-cat-ons of a planer 2 W.AUT&ONS (# After sett-ng the stroke length an pos-t-on/ see that the a <ust-ng nuts are l-ght# 5# Use goggles 9h-le 9ork-ng F# Ne.th an 2 Ma=-mum .e ta>le planer# 2 Among all the a>o.e all the tools from the ta>le after use F# PLAN$R MA.+.ery large -n s-:e# &t -s s-m-lar to shaper >ut -ts s-:e -s .ommonly use # .H&N$ &NTRO0U.e 2 Po9er of the r-.e planer s-:e/ the follo9-ng part-culars are necessary to spec-fy the planer# 2 Length of >e 2 Length of ta>le 2 Type of r-.e 2 Po9er of the motor 2 Num>er of spee an fee Work hol -ng e. Pr-nc-pal Parts of a planer 2 "e 2 Ta>le 2 Hous-ng or columns 2 .er remo.-ces The follo9-ng 9ork hol -ng e.e types of planers/ the stan ar or ou>le hous-ng planer -s .lamps 2 T.e motor -n H#P 2 Ma=-mum no# of strokes per m-nute 2 Type of @u-ck return mechan-sm 2 7loor space re@u-re 2 We-ght epth of the ta>le# SA7$TI PR$..el of tool sl.

-ces are -n proper place an properly clampe # F# Keep planer .ert-cal an rotat-on etc# >y han po9er o mach-ne po9er# 2 Sa le The sa le supports an carr-es the ta>le an -s a <usta>le trans.er a mo.eta-ls 2 Mach-n-ng -fferent types of slots an groo.er r.p-ece# Pr-nc-pal parts of a m-ll-ng mach-ne 2 "ase &t -s the foun at-on of the mach-ne upon 9h-ch all other parts are mounte # &t -s generally ma e of grey cast -ron to a>sor> shock an . A# M&LL&NG MA.ar>or# 2 Ar>or The ar>or -s the e=tens-on of the sp-n le on 9h-ch all the .B.ement an can >e operate >y han or po9er# 2Ta>le The ta>le rests on 9ays on the sa le an tra.o-r for cutt-ng flu.M.T&ON) M-ll-ng Mach-ne -s a mach-ne tool -n 9h-ch metal -s remo.-ng mechan-sms are conta-ne -n -t# &ts supports an gu.els long-tu -nally -n a hor-:ontal plane# &t supports the 9ork p-eces/ f-=tures etc# 2 O.-ng -t# .-ng a cutt-ng e ge 9h-ch remo.ol.el# &t carr-es the <ack for ele.# 2 .e >y the top of the column# &t -s a <uste -n an out >y han to the pos-t-on of ma=-mum support for the ar>or an then clampe # 2 Sp-n le The sp-n le -s mounte on the upper part of the column# &t rece-.es po9er form the motor through >elts/ gears clutches etc #an can >e rotate at -fferent spee s >y the step cone pulley r-.e or >y gear-ng arrangement an transm-ts -t to ar>or or su>.ersely on 9ays on top of the knee# &t -s pro.Operat-on Performe on Planer 2 Mach-n-ng hor-:ontal flat surfaces 2 Mach-n-ng .at-ng scre9 9h-ch a <usts -ts he-ght# &t carr-es the ta>le fee mechan-sm an controls to fee -n long-tu -nal/ cross .H&N$ &NTRO0U.-ng cutter 9-th many teeth/ each tooth ha.AUT&ONS (# After the 9ork -s fastene / check that -t clears the cross ra-ls# 5# $nsure that the 9ork hol -ng e.le 9h-le a <ust-ng length of >e stroke an spee of mach-ne to su-t 9ork# A# 0onKt reach o.ert-cally on one s.es the knee -n -ts .e surfaces 2 Mach-n-ng along contours SA7$TI PR$.es up an o9n on -ts face# &t supports the sa le an ta>le# &t -s part-ally supporte >y the ele.at-ng the knee# 2 Knee The knee pro<ects from the column an s sl.e 9-th gra uat-on for e=act mo.e the >e or platen# ?# 0onLt lea.er arm The o.ert-cal tra.ar-ous cutters are mounte # &t -s tapere at one en to f-t the sp-n le nose an has t9o slots to f-t the nose keys for locat-ng an r-.-ng <o> an ne.e >y means of a re.es the metal from the 9ork.->rat-on# Some t-me -t also ser.arm -s mounte on an gu. 2 Pla-n or slag m-ll-ng 2 7ace M-ll-ng 2 Angular or "e. M-ll-ng Operat-ons) .es as a reser.ert-cal flat surfaces 2 Mach-n-ng angular surfaces/ -nclu -ng o.el M-ll-ng 2 7orm M-ll-ng 2 $n M-ll-ng .es 2 Mach-n-ng cur.olumn &t -s the ma-n support-ng frame mounte .e any tool >et9een the 9ays# # .e of the >ase# The motor an other r-.er..

olumn &t -s a .H&N$ &NTRO0U.er a re.(*.ert-cal roun or >o= sect-on/ 9h-ch rests on the >ase an supports the hea an the ta>le# .-ng cutter# ?# 0R&LL&NG MA.2 M-ll-ng T.e M-ll-ng SA7$TI PR$.e# 2 0r-ll chuck &t -s hel at the en of the -ll sp-n le an -n turn -t hol s the -ll >-t# 2 A <usta>le Ta>le &t -s supporte on the column of the r-ll-ng mach-ne an can >e mo.es/ slots etc# 2 Gear M-ll-ng Operat-on 2 S. Types of r-ll-ng mach-nes 2 Porta>le r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 "ench types r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Sens-t-.er reach o.erse of sp-n le 2 Work-ng surfaces of ta>le 2 Range of sp-n le spee s 2 Range of po9er fee per re.e r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Up r-ght r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Ra -al r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Mult-ple sp-n le r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 0eep hole r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Gang r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 Automat-c r-ll-ng mach-ne Spec-f-cat-ons of a r-ll-ng mach-ne 2 0r-ll-ng capac-ty 2 Trans.olut-on 2 0-stance >et9een sp-n le an column 2 Motor spee 2 Motor po9er etc# 0r-ll-ng Operat-ons).AUT&ONS (# Make sure that the cutter an ar>or are secure# 5# See that the cutter an ar>or support clear the 9ork F# Use the cutters that are correctly groun an -n goo con -t-on# A# . 2 0r-ll-ng .es up an o9n -n a slee.heck spee an fee s these shoul >e proper# ?# Ne.ol.e .T&ON) 0r-ll-ng mach-ne -s a mach-ne tool es-gne for r-ll-ng holes -n metall-c an nonmetall-c mater-als# The cutt-ng tool -s a mult-po-nt cutt-ng tool/ kno9n as r-ll# Pr-nc-pal Parts of the r-ll-ng Mach-ne 2 Hea Hea conta-ns the electr-c motor/ .pulleys an >elt 9h-ch transm-t rotary mot-on to the r-ll sp-n le at a num>er of spee s# 2 Sp-n le Sp-n le -s ma e up of alloy steel# &t rotates as 9ell as mo.ert-cally an hor-:ontally# &t also carr-es slots for >olts clamp-ng# 2 "ase &t supports the column 9h-ch/ -n turns supports the ta>le/ hea etc# 2 .. Slots 2 M-ll-ng key 9ays/ Groo.

ol.((.ounter "or-ng 2 Spot 7ac-ng 2 .erse the <o> -n hea stock chuck an same proce ure -s a opte for fac-ng 4 parallel turn-ng# 2 No9 step turn-ng -s one >y fee -ng cuts of *#? mm unt-l re@u-re -ameter -s o>ta-ne as per ra9-ng# 2 7or taper turn-ng *#? mm cuts are g-.e eye sh-el s .en as per taper turn-ng calculat-on# .e turn-ng/ taper turn-ng/ step turn-ng/ an ra -us mak-ng an part-ng ..off PRO.-ng fac-ng/ outs. $%P$R&M$NT ' F M$) (*+.p-ece -n to the chuck# 2 Tool -s hel -n tool post t-ghtly# 2 Tool -s >rought near the pro<ecte surface of 9ork for fac-ng an (mm cut -s fe # 2 Tool -s taken >ack near the outer surface of <o> an *#? mm cut -s fe / long-tu -nally from face surface to hea stock for parallel turn-ng up to the length as per ra9-ng# 2 Repeate the same operat-on for secon cut of *#? mm an got the re@u-re -ameter# 2 No9 un er.e # Su>se@uently another cut of *#? mm -s g-.ounter S-nk-ng SA7$TI PR$.off# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 $ng-neer-ng ra9-ng of the <o> 2 Lathe Mach-ne 2 A cyl-n r-cal metal p-ece 2 S-ngle po-nt turn-ng tool 2 Part-ng tool 2 Steel rule 2 3ern-er cal-per 2 7lat f-le6smooth8 N 2 Spanners 2 $mery paper OP$RAT&ONS &N3OL3$0) 2 Mark-ng 2 7ac-ng 2 Turn-ng 2 7-l-ng 2 7-n-sh-ng 2 Part-ng.$0UR$) 2 A p-ece of 9ork from cyl-n r-cal ro -s taken an hel -n hea stock chuck# 2 Al-gne properly the 9ork.AUT&ONS (# Al9ays use a correct s-:e r-ll# 5# Select a proper r-ll mater-al to su-t the har ness of the 9ork mater-al# F# Al9ays ma-nta-n the cutt-ng spee 9-th -n the perm-ss->le range# A# 0onKt 9ear loose cloth-ng# ?# Al9ays use protect-.en to get es-re -ameter 6no.cut tool -s hel -n the tool post an (#* mm cut -s pro.fee 8# 2 Re.$ A&M) To prepare a <o> on lathe mach-ne -n.2 "or-ng 2 Ream-ng 2 Tapp-ng 2 .

$ A&M) To stu y -fferent types of f-tt-ng tools an mark-ng tools use -n f-tt-ng pract-ce# &NTRO0U.e measure the f-n-she <o> an foun the -mens-ons are accurate an 9ere 9-th-n the perm-ss->le l-m-t# R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# SA7$TI PR$. Taper angle 6O8 C tanP 6 0 E 8 D 5 L Where 0C "-gger -ameter/ C Smaller -ameter/ LC A=-al length of taper port-on# After complet-ng the turn-ng/ the turne surfaces are groun n-cely >y emery paper an the complete <o> -s remo.H&N$ SHOP) 2 "efore s9-tch-ng QONH po9er/ ta-lstock/ tool hol er an <o> are properly clampe / 2 Work -s not to >e measure or tool -s not to >e felt/ 9h-le lathe -s runn-ng# 2 Gears are not to >e change or sh-fte / 9h-le lathe -s runn-ng# 2 We shoul stan stra-ght/ to protect from fly-ng ch-ps# 2 To clean the ch-ps/ >rush -s use # 2 We use apron an goggles/ 9h-le 9ork-ng on mach-ne# ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm .lamp-ng tool 2 Measur-ng 4 mark-ng tool 2 .AUT&ONS &N MA..e from the chuck# O"S$R3AT&ONS) We ha. $%P$R&M$NT ' A M$) (*+.T&ON The >ench 9ork an f-tt-ng plays an -mportant role -n eng-neer-ng# Although -n to ay Qs -n ustr-es most of the 9ork -s one >y automat-c mach-nes/ 9h-ch pro uce the <o>s 9-th goo accuracy/ >ut st-ll -t 6<o>8 re@u-res some han operat-ons/ calle f-tt-ng operat-ons# The person 9ork-ng -n the f-tt-ng shop -s calle f-tter# The 9ork carr-e out >y han at the >ench -s calle >ench 9ork an f-tt-ng -s the assem>l-ng of parts an somet-me remo.utt-ng tool 2 Str-k-ng tool 2 0r-ll-ng tool .(F.-ng the metal for assem>l-ng# &t may or may not >e carr-e out at >ench# 7&TT&NG TOOLS 2 .(5.

el/ a centre s@uare an a try s@uare# 2 .th of the <a9 plate an the s-:e of the <o>/ 9h-ch can >e hel -n the . &t -s f-rmly f-=e to the >ench 9-th the help of nuts an >olts# &t cons-sts of a cast -ron >o y 4 cast -ron <a9s# One <a9 -s f-=e to the >o y an the secon sl.S or HSS8 -s place -ns. &t -s ma e of steel an the -al can >e rotate aroun the centre# 2 ..e the mater-al from the 9ork p-ece/ 9h-ch -s escr->e >elo9) 2Hacksa9. 2.a-la>le -n num>er of s-:es/ shapes/ cuts 4 gra e of coarseness . The .&t cons-sts of a frame ma e of m-l steel# The >la e 6H.(?..These are ma e of H.ers 2 .-ces use for -fferent purposes# 2 "ench 3-ce.el Protractor.cut# .er# 2 After scr->-ng 9ork -s o.e/ -ns. &t -s ma e of cast -ron -n -fferent s-:es an has t9o pla-n surfaces at r-ght angles# 2 "e.-ce# 2 Han 3-ce 2 P-n 3-ce 2 P-pe 3-ce 2 3 "lock 9-th U clamp Measur-ng 4 mark-ng Tools 2 Try S@uare.a-la>le are flat/ tr-angular/ s@uare/ roun / half roun / kn-fe e ge/ nee le etc .&t -s mult-purpose -nstrument that can >e use as a protector/ a le.om>-nat-on Set.ar-ous types of .e/ spr-ng hermaphro -te/ <enny or o leg cal-per8 2 Gauges 6 epth/ feeler/ ra -us/ threa / 9-re/ .e the frame an -s t-ghtene >y fly nut# These are of t9o types 67-=e an a <usta>le frame8 27-les.lamp-ng Tools.These are mult-po-nt cutt-ng tools an use for remo.S an use for ch-pp-ng a9ay the mater-al from the 9ork p-ece# .h-sels.-ce can >e spec-f-e on 9.er/ -n entat-ons of the mark-ngs on the surface are ma e >y punch an hammer# .sect-on of f-les a.al-pers 6outs.enter S@uare 2 Scr->er an Surface Gauge 2 Un-.al-per 2 M-crometer 2 0-al &n -cator.-ce -s the most common tool use for clamp-ng or hol -ng 9ork# 7ollo9-ng are the . Rough 65* tp-8/ "astar 6F* tp-8/ Secon cut 6A* tp-8/ smooth f-le 6?* tp-8/ 0ea smooth 6(** tp-8 . &t -s use for check-ng the run.-ng the mater-al >y ru>>-ng on the metal# 7-les are a.uts.utt-ng Tools.ern-er he-ght gauge8 Metho of mark-ng 2 Surface to >e marke -s coate 9-th paste/ chalk or re lea # 2 Work 6<o>8 -s hel -n hol -ng e.ersal Mark-ng Surface Gauge 2 Punches.S-:es. 2 Angle Plate.2 Threa -ng tool 2 M-scellaneous tool .Gra e of coarseness.The .S of HSS an use for mark-ng purpose# The ot punches are use for mark-ng otte l-nes an centre punch -s use to mark the centre >efore 9hole r-ll-ng# 2 Steel Rule 2 3ern-er . Punches are ma e of H.ar-es from A to (A -nches# .-ce e#g# surface plate/ 3 >lock/ angle plate etc# 2 L-nes are scr->e >y surface gauge or .ar-ous shapesD cross. &t -s ma e of cast -ron or graph-te an use for test-ng the flatness/ trueness of the surface# &t -s also use for scr->-ng on the 9ork for mark-ng# . The length of the f-les .ommonly use are flat/ cross cut/ half roun an -amon po-nt# .es on a s@uare threa e sp-n le scre9 9-th the help of a han le# The .out or <o.-al-ty of the <o> 2 0-.ern-er he-ght gauge# 2 The centre on the en of roun >ar can >e locate >y us-ng o leg cal-per/ surface gauge etc# 2 .Types of cut are s-ngle/ ou>le an rasp.Shapes.(A..&t -s use for check-ng s@uare ness of t9o surfaces/ mark-ng the r-ght angles an measur-ng the stra-ghtness of surfaces# 2 Surface Plate.-rcles an arcs on flat surfaces are marke >y -.These are use to remo.

er 2 Spanner 2 Wrench 2 Allen key .The steel rule 6F* cm long8 -s part-cularly useful -n measur-ng an lay-ng out small 9ork# 2 7ol -ng rule.shape p-ece of har ene steel 9-th gra uat-on marks on the e ges for .y -ron >o y 9-th a 9oo en han le# The types of hammers generally use are >all Pean/ stra-ght Pean an cross Pean -n f-tt-ng shop# 0r-ll-ng Tools The operat-ons of mak-ng roun holes -n metal p-eces are kno9 as r-ll-ng# &t -s one 9-th the help of r-ll-ng mach-ne an r-lls# The operat-ons carr-e out -n r-ll-ng are as >ello9) 2 The <o> -s marke 9-th center punch as center at the hole to >e r-ll 2 Ro> -s hel properly -n the .ommon e=amples of sheet metal 9ork are hoopers/ can-sters/ guar s/ co.sunk holes are ma e >y cK sunk tool# Threa -ng Tools.&t -s also use for measur-ng large 9ork# &t -s co-le -n a small s-:e >o=# 5# Steel.ar-ous eng-neer-ng art-cles are pro uce from sheet metal# .ers/ p-pes/ hoo s/ funnels/ >en s/ >o=es etc# Such art-cles are foun less e=pens-.-ce# 2 0r-ll -s f-tte -n the chuck# 2 W-th the help of han le.shape components e#g# funnel# SH$$T M$TAL WORK &NTRO0U.7ol -ng rule 65 m long8 -s useful -n measur-ng large 9ork# &t can >e fol e -nto shorter length p-eces# 2 Steel tape.er sp-n le -s lo9ere such that r-ll po-nt -s e=actly o.Str-k-ng Tools Hammers are the only tools for str-k-ng -n 9ork shops# A hammer cons-sts of a hea.S@uare.(J.$ A&M) To prepare layout on a metal sheet >y mak-ng an prepare rectangular tray/ p-pe. &T -s an L.T&ON Sheet metal 9ork has -ts o9n s-gn-f-cance -n the eng-neer-ng 9ork# Many pro ucts/ 9h-ch fulf-ll the househol nee s/ ecorat-on 9ork an . $%P$R&M$NT ' ? M$) (*+.er the center marke # 2 Motor -s no9 starte to rotate the r-ll an -s gently presse -n to the <o> to pro uce the es-re hole# 7or f-n-sh-ng of the r-lle holes a reamer -s use an counter. 7or scre9-ng fasten-ng e#g# nuts 4 >olts/ threa s are cut on the surface of the 9ork p-ece# 7or mak-ng e=ternal threa s l-ke >olt/ 9e use -e as tool 9-th -e stock an for -nternal threa s l-ke nuts 9e use taps as tool# The -e an tap can >e use up to the l-m-t s-:e# "eyon that 9e make threa s on the lathe mach-ne 9-th threa -ng tool# M-scellaneous Tools 2 Pl-ers 2 Scre9 r-.e/ l-ghter -n 9e-ght an -n some cases sheet metal pro ucts replace the use of cast-ngs or forg-ngs# # SH$$T M$TAL TOOLS (# Rules 2 Steel rule.

The s9-ng-ng >la e protractor -s use -n sheet metal 9ork for mark-ng an measur-ng of angles# &t -s ma e of steel# +# 0-.. &t -s calle han shear an s-m-lar to sc-ssors# &t -s use to cut th-n 4 soft metal 6not more.e face an a roun hea # &t -s use for general purposes# 2 R-. &t -s use for mak-ng holes 9-th punch 4 -e/ 9hen a large num>er of holes to >e punche >y han pressure# ((# .The mallet may >e ma e from f->re or 9oo # &t -s use to str-ke a soft an l-ght >lo9 -n the metal# (?# Pl-ers. M# Trammel Po-nts.ers are of t9o types# Spr-ng -.a-la>le -n the market# (J# Stakes..e on the >eam an are locke at that place >y thum> scre9s# A spec-al clamp for a penc-l can >e attache to one of the po-nts# &t -s use to ra9 large arcs an c-rcles that are >eyon the l-m-t of -.-ls use for >en -ng/ seam-ng an form-ng >y us-ng a hammer or mallet# The follo9-ng are the types of stakes# 2 "lo9 horn stake 2 "eak horn stake 2 Hollo9 man rel stake 2 Sol.&n sheet metal 9ork/ col ch-sels are use # These are use for cutt-ng th-ck sheets/ r-. &t -s also use for measur-ng the th-ckness of metal sheets# 7or further eta-l refer e=per-ment ' (# J# S9-ng-ng "la e Protractor. These are use for hol -ng/ cutt-ng an >en -ng 9ork# 0-fferent types of pl-ers are a.et-ng hammer.e part -s kno9n as >o y# F# Stra-ght $ ge.-ng the -stances -nto e@ual parts# .e # (F# Hammers.et-ng operat-on# .enter punch. &t -s use to make small marks on layout l-nes# Po-nt angle -s F*S &t -s use for punch-ng small holes -n th-n metal sheets# 2 .er# The legs of the spr-ng -.et Set. th-cker than 5* gauge8# These are stra-ght an cur.man rel stake 2 "e. &t has a s@uare/ flat face an a tapere peen 9-th >e.er an 9-ng -. &t -s use for punch-ng holes -n the sheets# &nner an outer faces of the punch meet at an angle of A*S 2 Han le.h-sels. Th-s -s use for measur-ng the -mens-ons -n fract-ons# 7or further eta-l refer e=per-ment ' (# ?# M-crometer.han (B# R-. These are the sheet metal an. (+# Stake Hol er. &t has a s@uare/ sl-ghtly cur. &t -s use -n r-...measur-ng# The narro9 arm of the s@uare -s calle the tongue an the 9.ers. &t -s use -n sheet metal shop an -s a rectangular >ench plate to accommo ate the stakes# (M# Han Groo.ele en # 7lat face -s use for flatten-ng seams/ 9h-le peen en -s use for peen-ng operat-ons# 2 Ra-s-ng hammer.et-ng# 2 Sett-ng hammer. &t -s use to scr->e or mark l-ne on a metal surface for a .er punch.ers# B# Scr->ers. &t has a roun / sl-ghtly cur..(M.er -s ma e >y the scre9 of the 9-ng an the knurle nut on the en of the 9-ng# &t -s use for ra9-ng c-rcle/ arc on sheet metal/ transferr-ng the -mens-ons/ or -.a>le legs tapere to nee le po-nts an attache to separate hea s# These hea s sl.. The -.er.el e ge stake 2 0ou>le seam-ng stake . &t -s use to mark the centre of holes to >e r-lle # Po-nt angle -s B*S 2 Hollo9 Punch...ers are ma e 9-th each leg tapere to a nee le po-nt# The -.-ng a seam >y.er are a <uste >y turn-ng the knurle nut# The leg a <ustment on the 9-ng -.e face an use for r-. &t has o>long flat face 9-th corners sl-ghtly roun e off# &t -s use for ra-s-ng operat-ons to form saucer/ >o9l/ tray or spoon# (A# Mallets. These are also calle seam set an -s use for groo..ar-ety of lengths rang-ng from ( metre to F metre# &t -s useful for ra9-ng long l-nes# A# 3ern-er cal-per. Hammers are use for form-ng shapes >y hollo9-ng/ ra-s-ng/ stretch-ng or thro9-ng off# 3ar-ous types of hammers are) 2 "all peen hammers.ele e ge# Th-s >ar comes -n a .Punches are use -n sheet metal 9ork for mark-ng an locat-ng centers -n a more permanent manner# 3ar-ous types of punches are) 2 Pr-ck punch.The trammel po-nts also calle a >eam compass cons-sts of t9o stra-ght/ remo.ets/ >olts an ch-pp-ng operat-ons# (5# Sn-p.(+. &T -s a flat >ar of steel 9-th a >e.ar-ety of purposes# &t -s a metal 9orkerKs penc-l# (*# Punches.

(B.utt-ng an shear-ng "en -ng Stretch 7orm-ng 0eep 0ra9-ng R-.e or re@u-rement# ."lank-ng Th-s means cutt-ng a 9hole p-ece from sheet matel# Aroun th-s p-ece there -s enough scrap left all aroun th-s p-ece# Th-s p-ece 9-th -s cut from the sheet metal -s our o><ect-. Th-s -s use to check the -ameter of 9-re or th-ckness of sheets# SH$$T M$TAL OP$RAT&ONS The follo9-ng are the .th than re@u-re # .an 5* parts 9ater after allo9-ng suff-c-ent t-me for p-ckl-ng the tanks are thoroughly 9ashe -n a stream of 9ater an then allo9e to ry# 2 Lay-ng out Wh-le o-ng the mark-ng of e.-ng larger 9.Punch-ng Punch-ng -s the operat-on of pro uc-ng c-rcular holes on a sheet metal >y a punch an -e# The mater-al punche out -s remo.Tr-mm-ng .5*# Sol er-ng &ron.er-ng a p-ece from a str-p 9-th a cut along a s-ngle l-ne# .e >et9een the p-eces to part them .e as 9aste an the sheet# Wh-ch -s ha.es Mark-ng -n entat-on marks Transferr-ng a pattern 2 .Part-ng Part-ng s-gn-f-es that scrap -s remo.lean-ng Somet-mes the >lank surfaces nee proper clean-ng >efore >e-ng processe # 7or lean-ng p-ckl-ng process -s use # &n th-s process sheets/ are -mmerse -n a hot >ath of part -lute sulphur-c ac.utt-ng off Th-s means se.ar-ous allo9ance are a e # Such a layout 9hen ma e on the sheet -s calle lay-ng out process# .ar-ous sheet metal operat-ons) Measur-ng an Mark-ng . .N->>l-ng N->>l-ng or n->>l-ng -s a process of cont-nuous cutt-ng along a contour/ 9h-ch may >e a stra-ght l-ne or an -rregular prof-le# The mach-nes use -n th-s operat-on are kno9n as n->>lers/ 9h-ch are porta>le type shear-ng mach-nes# .-ng holes -s our o><ect-.Sl-tt-ng When shear-ng -s con ucte >et9een rotary >la es/ the process -s referre to as sl-tt-ng# &t cuts the sheets/ 9h-ch are ha.utt-ng an shear-ng .-ng the holes of es-re shape -s our re@u-rement# .P-erc-ng P-erc-ng -s s-m-lar to punch-ng/ c-rcular holes are pro uce -n a sheet 9here as -n p-erc-ng holes other than c-rcular are pro uce -n a sheet# The sheet 9h-ch -s ha.elopment of the surface of component on the sheet certa-n mater-al for . These are use to <o-n t9o p-eces of th-n metal >y us-ng sol ers 6alloy of t-n 4 lea 8# 5(# 7ol -ng "ars.et-ng Sol er-ng Hollo9-ng or "lock-ng S-nk-ng Ra-s-ng Plan-sh-ng 2 Measur-ng an Mark-ng Mark-ng stra-ght l-nes Mark-ng c-rcles an arcs Mark-ng -rregular cur. These are use for >en -ng an fol -ng stra-ght metal p-eces# 55# W-re Gauge.lean-ng Lay-ng out .e# The s-:es of the >lank -s our re@u-rement an the rema-n-ng sheet -s scrap ..

Types of notches are) Stra-ght notch an S@uare notch/ The follo9-ng are some common an -mportant operat-ons performe -n sheet metal 9ork# 2 "en -ng 2 Stretch form-ng 2 R-. $%P$R&M$NT ' ? .ent o.Notch-ng Th-s -s a process of remo.e or e ge of a sheet or str-p# Some t-mes notch-ng operat-on -s also performe to pre.5*.e so -n th-s 9ay open-ng -s create -n a >o=# .e the sheet open-ngs 6s@uare notch etc#8 that operat-on -s kno9n as notch-ng .es a ta> 9-th out remo.5(.-ng any mater-al# Somet-mes lanc-ng operat-on means that cut -s pro uce along three s.ar-ous cutt-ng operat-ons are performe to remo.Lanc-ng Th-s makes a cut part 9ay across a str-p# So th-s operat-on lea.er-ng a >ook 9-th a paper# No9 suppose paper -s sheet metal an the .es an the cutt-ng part -s >ent to9ar s the forth s.erlapp-ng of metal 9here the corners come together# So open-ngs are create at the corners# A .et-ng 2 Sol er-ng Sheet metal <o-nts 2 S-ngle hem 2 0ou>le hem 2 W-re e ge 2 Seams Sheet Metal Mach-nes 2 Shear-ng mach-ne 2 7ol -ng mach-ne 2 "en -ng mach-ne 2 W-r-ng mach-ne 2 Turn-ng mach-ne 2 "urr-ng mach-ne 2 0ou>le seam-ng mach-ne .-ng metal to the es-re shape from the s.Tr-mm-ng -s the operat-on of cutt-ng a9ay e=cess metal -n a flange or flash from a p-ece 9hen holes are pro uce -n a manually/ f-rst c-rcular >lank -s cut 9-th a ch-sel an hammer# Then f-ne shape 6accurate s-:e8 -s tr-mme 9-th the help of a shear or sn-p# Th-s operat-on -#e# cutt-ng sn-p -s calle tr-mm-ng .ery goo e=ample -s co.

elopment ra9-ng as template 9-th the help of steel rule an scr->er# 2 Marke the l-nes of >en -ng an >ent as re@u-re to get the shape of the o><ect# .ely use -n automo>-le -n ustr-es e#g# .M$) (*+.en to get the accurate s-:e of the <o># 2 Sn-ps are to >e use 4 kept carefully# 2 "en -ng of the sheet shoul >e one after >e-ng conf-rme / other9-se sheet 9-ll >e spo-le # 2 Sol er-ng -ron shoul >e properly heate an shoul not >e touche 9hen hot# 2 The surface to >e sol ere must >e cleane an free from o-l 4 -rt# 2 There shoul >e perfect cap-llary act-on/ 9h-le sol er-ng# .utt-ng an shear-ng 2 "en -ng 2 Stretch form-ng.$ A&M) To prepare layout on a metal sheet >y mak-ng an prepare rectangular tray/ p-pe shape component e#g# funnel# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 0ra9-ng of the <o> 2 0ra9-ng sheet 4 ra9-ng -nstruments 2 G& sheet as per ra9-ng spec 4 s-:e 2 Steel rule 4 scr->er 2 Try s@uare 2 0-.55.e/ l-ghter -n 9e-ght/ an -n some cases sheet metal pro ucts replace the use of forg-ng 4 cast-ng# &t -s 9.leg cal-per 2 "ench . 2 Stra-ghtene an cleane the port-on to >e <o-ne # 2 7or tray the <o-nt 9as sol ere # 2 7or funnel the hem <o-nts 9ere performe 9-th the help of mallet 4 stakes# O"S$R3AT&ONS) We un erstoo the -mportance of sheet metal 9ork-ng that -t -s less e=pens-.elopment of surface8 for tray an funnel on ra9-ng sheet# 2 .lean-ng of the G& sheet Suppl-e 2 Measur-ng 4 mark-ng 2 .es an goggles -f/ re@u-re # 2 The e.elopment ra9-ng on ra9-ng sheet for the tray an funnel# 2 A e >en -ng an <o-n-ng allo9ance on seams# 2 Marke the layout on the G& sheet/ >e-ng e.eh-cleKs >o y parts# R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# SA7$TI PR$..er 4 o .elopment of surface must >e ra9n after un erstan -ng -t thoroughly# 2 Ro-n-ng allo9ances must >e g-.AUT&ON) 2 All -nstruct-ons suppl-e >y the manufacture shoul >e str-ctly follo9e # 2 Use safety shoes/ han glo.$0UR$) 2 0ra9n e.-ce 4 stake 2 Sn-ps 4 pl-ers 2 Mallet 4 hammer 2 Sol er-ng -ron/ sol er an flu= 2 $mery paper OP$RAT&ON &N3OL3$0 2 Penc-l ra9-ng of layout 6 e.con-cal shape of funnel 2 Match-ng the <o-nt 2 Hemm-ngD seam-ng 2 Sol er-ng 2 7-n-sh-ng PRO.es/ apron 4 arm slee.

$%P$R&M$NT ' J M$) (*+. .5F.$ A&M) To prepare <o-nts for 9el -ng su-ta>le for >utt an lap 9el -ng# W$L0&NGA 7A"R&.AT&ON PRO.ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm .e -nto the follo9-ng t9o groups 7orge or pressure 9el -ng 6Plast-c Wel -ng8) &n forge or pressure 9el -ng/ the 9ork p-eces are heate to plast-c state an then the 9ork p-eces are <o-ne together >y apply-ng e=ternal pressure on them# ..$SS &NTRO0U.T&ON Wel -ng -s a process of <o-n-ng t9o s-m-lar or -ss-m-lar metals >y fus-on/ 9-th or 9-thout the appl-cat-on of pressure/ 9-th or 9-thout use of f-ller metal# 7us-on of the metals takes place >y means of heat# Heat -s o>ta-ne >y electr-c arc/ electr-cal res-stance/ chem-cal react-on/ gases/ fr-ct-on or ra -ant energy# Wel -ng processes can also >e -.5A.

7us-on or non.ery costly# 2 Total <o-n-ng cost -s less -n case of 9el -ng <o-nts# 0-sa .ery easy# 2 Wel -ng can >e eas-ly mechan-:e # 2 Porta>le 9el -ng e@u-pment -s a.opper an -ts alloys 2 Magnes-um an -ts alloys 2 N-ckel an -ts alloys 2 T-nc an -ts alloys etc A .-fy# .e use# 7errous mater-als 9h-ch can >e use -n 9el -ng appl-cat-on are) 2 Wrought &ron 2 .ar>on Steel 6lo9/ me -um 4 h-gh car>on steel8 .7errous 7errous mater-als conta-n -ron an these are the most -mportant metalsD alloys -n the metallurg-cal an mechan-cal -n ustr-es >ecause of the-r e=tens-.antages of 9el -ng 2 Wel -ng pro uces the harmful ra -at-on fumes an spatter# .a-la>le# 2 General 9el -ng e@u-pment -s not .5?. pressure 9el -ng) &n th-s 9el -ng/ the mater-al at the <o-nt -s heate to a molten state an then allo9e to sol.ommonly 9el e >ase metals) Metals can >e class-f-e as) ( #7errous 5# Non.ast &ron 2 Alloy Steel 2 Sta-nless Steel 2 . Non ferrous mater-als are those that are not -ron >ase # N#7# mater-als/ 9h-ch can >e use -n 9el -ng appl-cat-ons/ are) 2 Alum-n-um an -ts alloys 2 .antages of 9el -ng 2 A goo 9el -s as strong as the >ase metal# 2 A large no# of metalsDalloys can >e <o-ne >y 9el -ng# 2 Repa-r >y 9el -ng -s .

-ces are re@u-re # 2 R-gs an f-=tures are re@u-re to hol the parts to >e 9el e # Appl-cat-ons of 9el -ng 2 Automo>-le construct-on 2 Ra-lroa e@u-pment 4 Sh-ps 2 A-rcraft construct-on 2 "u-l -ng construct-on 2 "r.-:-ng flame 2 Re uc-ng flame Arc 9el -ng Arc 9el -ng -s a group of 9el -ng processes 9here-n heat-ng -s pro uce 9-th an electr-c arc/ mostly 9-thout the appl-cat-on of pressure an 9-th or 9-thout the use of f-ller metal/ epen -ng upon the >ase plate th-ckness# Arc 9el -ng e@u-pment The most commonly use e@u-pments for arc 9el -ng are) .5J.essels 2 Storage tanks 2 P-p-ng an p-pe l-nes 2 7a>r-cat-on of <-gs/ f-=tures an mach-ne tools 2 Repa-r of >roken an amage parts 2 House hol furn-ture 2 Mater-al han l-ng e@u-pment Types of 9el -ng <o-nts 2 Lap <o-nt 2 "utt <o-nt 2 . $ ge Preparat-on) &n or er to o>ta-n soun 9el e <o-nt/ e ge preparat-on -s . Ro-nt .2 A sk-lle 9el er -s re@u-re # 2 Wel -ng heat pro uces metallurg-cal changes# 2 .el-ng the e ges #After that clean-ng of faces -s one# S@uare/ s-ngle 3/ ou>le 3/ s-ngle U/ ou>le U are the common types of e ge preparat-on# Wel -ng Pos-t-on 2 7lat pos-t-on 2 Hor-:ontal pos-t-on 2 3ert-cal pos-t-on 2 O.es/ goggles etc#8 7lames 2 Neutral flame 2 O=. fuel gas 9el -ng/ er-.ery essent-al# &t cons-sts of >e.orner <o-nt 2 $ ge <o-nt 2 T.ges construct-on 2 Pressure .ost of e@u-pments -s h-gh# 2 $ ge preparat-on -s re@u-re >efore 9el -ng# 2 More safety e.e cloth-ng for 9el er 6e#g# As>estos apron/ glo.es the heat from the com>ust-on of a fuel gas such as acetylene -n com>-nat-on 9-th o=ygen# The process -s a fus-on 9el -ng process 9here-n <o-nt -s completely melte to o>ta-n the fus-on# Gas Wel -ng $@u-pments 2 O=ygen gas cyl-n er 2 Acetylene gas cyl-n er 2 O=ygen an Acetylene pressure regulators 2 Wel -ng torch or >lo9 p-pe 2 Trolleys for the transportat-on of o=ygen an acetylene cyl-n ers 2 Set of keys an spanners 2 7-ller ro s an flu=es 2 Gas l-ghter 2 Protect-.er Hea pos-t-on 2 &ncl-ne pos-t-on Gas Wel -ng) Gas 9el -ng also calle an o=y.

$ A&M) To prepare <o-nts for 9el -ng su-ta>le for >utt an lap 9el -ng# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 M-l steel p-eces .a-la>le#8 2 $lectro e hol er 2 $lectro e 2 .h-pp-ng hammer 2 7arth-ng clamps 2 W-re >rush 4 Tong 2 Wel -ng screen 6Helmet screen 4 Han screen8 2 Safety goggles 2 Han glo.5M.5+.# or 0#. $%P$R&M$NT ' J M$) (*+.y 9ork an at s-tes 9here electr-c-ty -s not a.# po9er supply source# 60#.es etc # $L$.oate electro es 2 "are electro es R$S&STAN. .a>le lug . consuma>le electro es 2 .$ W$L0&NG Res-stance 9el -ng -s a group of 9el -ng processes -n 9h-ch 9el -ng heat -s o>ta-ne from res-stance of the 9ork to the flo9 of electr-c current an >y the appl-cat-on of pressure# No f-ller metal or flu= -s a e # Types of Res-stance 9el -ng 2 Spot 9el -ng 2 Seam 9el -ng 2 Pro<ect-on 9el -ng 2 Res-stance >utt 9el -ng 2 7lash >utt 9el -ng 2 Percuss-on 9el -ng ..onsuma>le electro es 2 Non.TRO0$S The electro es are use for pro.a>le 4 .-ng heat -nput -n arc 9el -ng #$lectro es can >e class-f-e on the follo9-ng >as-s) 2 .# 9el -ng -s mostly use for hea.a>le connectors 2 .es 2 Aprons/ Arm slee.F Nos# .2 A#.

2 Wel -ng transformer 2 $lectro e 4 electro e hol er 2 Arc.es/ apron 4 arm slee.utt-ng to s-:e from MS flat 2 $ ge preparat-on 2 Tack-ng of 9ork p-eces 2 Wel -ng run 2 Remo.ent-late placeD locat-on# 2Ne. 2 Another run 9as one on other s.-ng of the slag 2 7-n-sh-ng of 9el .hose the electro e as F#(?mm 4 put -nto the hol er# 2 S9-tche on the transformer 4 set the current from B*.e us a strong <o-nt as goo as the >ase metal# R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# SA7$TI PR$.e of the 9ork p-ece# 2 After complet-ng the four runs t9o each s.es# 2We use safety goggles ur-ng ch-pp-ng of slag# 2Wel -ng shoul >e carr-e out -n clean/ ry 4 9ell .es 2 Safety shoes 2 Wel -ng goggles OP$RAT&ON &N3OL3$0 2 .<o-nt >y us-ng correct arc an angle as tol >y -nstructor# 2 Wel e the lap.ut the p-eces to s-:e M* = ?* = ? mm from MS flat >y po9er hacksa9# 2 All the F p-eces 9ere cleane after the e ge preparat-on# 2 .9el -ng >ooth 2 .e/ the <o> 9as l-fte >y tong an kept on the 9ork-ng ta>le an let -t to >e coole # 2 No9 ch-pp-ng -s one >y ch-pp-ng hammer an cleane the 9el >y 9-re >rush# 2 7-n-she the <o-nts >y f-l-ng -f re@u-re # O"S$R3AT&ONS) We un erstoo that 9el -ng -s a permanent fasten-ng/ >y 9h-ch t9o metal p-eces are <o-ne together an g-.5B.<o-nt >y us-ng correct arc an angle as tol >y -nstructor# .(5*A# 2 Set the 9ork p-eces -nto flat pos-t-on for >utt <o-nt an tacke # 2 Set the 9ork p-eces -nto flat pos-t-on for lap <o-nt an tacke # 2 Stroke the electro e on the earth p-ece# 2 Wel e the >utt.AUT&ON &N W$L0&NG) 2All -nstruct-ons suppl-e >y the manufacture shoul >e str-ctly follo9e # 2Po9er supply source shoul >e -solate from the ma-n supply 2"efore start-ng 9el -ng/ ensure that the 9el -ng e@u-pment -s properly earthe # 2$lectro e hol er shoul >e soun ly connecte to the 9el -ng lea # 2Use 9el -ng screen ur-ng 9el -ng# 2Use safety shoes/ han glo.er repa-r unless @ual-f-e to o so# .es 2 Apron 2 Arm slee.>ea 2 &nspect-on 4 Test-ng PRO.$0UR$ 2 .h-pp-ng hammer 2 W-re >rush 2 Wel -ng Screen 2 Han glo.

ely hea.ar-ous types of carpentry tools an prepare s-mple types of at least t9o 9oo en <o-nts# &NTRO0U.ery stra-ght# 2 These are e@ually strong >oth along an across the f->res# 2 $=amples are teak/ sh-sham/ sal/ mango/ neam/ mahogany# .omparat-.eKs trees an they are) 2 L-ght -n 9e-ght an l-ght -n colour# 2 7->res are generally coarse >ut stra-ght# 2 .T&ON .-ng more strength than soft 9oo # 2 7->res are f-ne gra-ne / compact an foun .erte -nto t-m>er# Trunk -s the most useful part of the tree# A03ANTAG$S O7 T&M"$R 2 $asy to 9ork an lo9 cost 2 $as-ly a.$ A&M) To stu y .AT&ON O7 TR$$S Trees are class-f-e -nto follo9-ng t9o classes) 2 $=ogenous Trees 2 $n ogenous Trees TIP$S O7 WOO0 T-m>er -s -.arpentry an <o-nery are common terms relate 9-th the 9ork of 9oo # .F*.ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm . Th-s >elongs to >ore lea.LASS&7&.eKs trees an they are) 2 0ark -n colour an . $%P$R&M$NT ' M M$) (*+.e -nto t9o ma-n classes) (# Soft 9oo # 5# Har 9oo # (# Soft 9oo . S$ASON&NG O7 T&M"$R The process of remo.olour of the sap9oo -s not -fferent than heart 9oo # 2 $=amples are eo ar/ p-ne/ ch-r/ ka-l/ etc# 5# Har 9oo .a-la>le an goo strength# 2 &t -s non con uctor of heat# 2 Soun proof -n nature# 2 3ery su-ta>le for oors/ 9-n o9 an furn-ture 9ork# .y# 2 Ha.-ng mo-sture from the freshly cut trees are kno9n as season-ng# &f th-s e=cess or un9ante mo-sture -s not r-e / -t creates lot of pro>lems l-ke shr-nkage/ 9arp-ng/ t9-st-ng etc# Season-ng Metho s ..a-la>le -n the nature -n the form of trees# Useful part of the tree -s cut an -s con. Th-s >elongs to narro9 lea.arpentry -s relate 9-th the 9orks of roofs/ floors/ part-t-ons etc/ 9h-le <o-nery -s relate 9-th the mak-ng of oors/ 9-n o9s/ cup>oar s etc for a >u-l -ng# The t-m>er -s the mater-al use for carpentry an <o-nery 9ork# &t -s 9oo o>ta-ne from e=ogenous trees >y cutt-ng these trees after the-r full gro9th# Woo -s a.F(.

metre scale# >8 Steel Rule) &t ma e up of sta-nless steel an -s marke 9-th cent-meter scale an -nch scale# .es are use -n 9oo 9ork for <o-n-ng the 9oo p-eces together# 7or th-s purpose glue -s 9.a>le port-on an can >e a <uste any pos-t-on on the stem 9-th the help of thum> scre9# c8 Mort-se Gauge) &t -s use to ra9 t9o parallel l-nes -ts 9ork-ng -s a s-m-lar to mark-ng gauge e=cept -t has t9o sharp e ges# One p-n -s f-=e 9h-le other -s mo.ARP$NTRI TOOLS The eff-c-ency of the 9orkman epen s upon the tools use -n the 9orkshop# Goo @ual-ty tools al9ays mark the 9ork easy# &n the carpentry shop the tools are class-f-e as un er# 2 Measur-ng tools 2 Mark-ng tools 2 .ARP$NTRI 2 Na-ls 2 Scre9s 2 "olts an Nuts 2 0o9els .en har surfaces# The front e ge -s har ene to re uce the 9ear an tear# &t -s ma e up car>on steel# c8 Mark-ng Gauge) &t -s use to scr->e the l-ne parallel to an at a es-re -stance from a f-n-she face or e ge# Stock -s mo.utt-ng tools 2 Plan-ng tools 2 0r-ll-ng tools 2 Hol -ng tools 2 Str-k-ng tools 2 Sharpen-ng tools M$ASUR&NG TOOLS) a8 7our 7ol >o= 9oo rule) &t -s generally 5 feet long an -s fol e from F 6three8 places# &t -s marke 9-th -nch an m-ll-.ontact .F5.-ng e@ual num>er of parts an for ra9-ng arcs an c-rcles# &t cons-sts of t9o legs 9-th a spr-ng on the legsU a scre9 -s also attache at the center of legs for a <ustment# .y >ase# e8 .ARP$NTRI The a hes-.UTT&NG TOOLS) Sa9 an ch-sel are use as cutt-ng tools -n carpentry shop Sa9) A sa9 -s a mult.ement AU%&L&ARI MAT$R&ALS US$0 &N .ely use # 3ar-ous types of glue are) 2 An-mal Glue 2 Res-n Glue 2 3egeta>le Glue 2 "loo Al>umen Glue 2 ..ompass) These are use for -.tooth tool up of th-n steel attache 9-th a 9oo en han le# &ts teeth are groun an .ea>le# 8 Try S@uare) &t -s use to ra9 l-nes at r-ght angle/ parallel or to check the trueness of plane surface# &t ma e up steel >la e 9-th hea. c8 Measur-ng Tape) &t -s ma e up of a fle=->le th-n steel str-p# &t -s flo9e aroun a center p-n attache 9-th a small han le# &t -s gra uate MARK&NG TOOLS a8 Penc-l) Lea penc-l -s generally use for mark-ng purposes# >8 Scr->er)U &t has a sharp con-cal e ge use to mark on e.2 Natural or A-r Season-ng 2 Water Season-ng 2 K-ln Season-ng A0H$S&3$S US$0 &N .

e >la e# W.th of the >la e .e 9-th a 9oo en han le# There are three type of ch-sel commonly use -n the carpentry shop) a8 7-rmer .e# PLAN&NG TOOLS) Planes) Planes are use to ma-nta-n the <o> smooth an of proper s-:e# Somet-mes groo.e on -ts surface for th-s purpose an can >e use for 9oo 9ork only# .ross .th of >la e -s a>out (5* mm to (?* mm near the han le an J* mm to +* mm at the toe# Sett-ng of Sa9 teeth) The teeth of sa9 >en -n oppos-te -rect-on alternat-. .ommonly use planes are) a8 Woo en Rack Plane) The ma-n cutt-ng part kno9n as >la e or -ron cutter -s f-tte -n the stock such that -t rema-ns at an angle of A?S 9-th the sole6The >ottom port-on of the stock8# >8 &ron Rack Plane) &t g-. 0R&LL&NG AN0 "OR&NG TOOLS The r-ll-ng an >or-ng tools are use to pro uce the holes -n a <o># .y an eep cuts/ so more mater-al remo.es >etter surface f-n-sh an are more ura>le than 9oo en <ack plane# &ts use -s s-m-lar to 9oo en <ack plane# c8 Try-ng Plane) &t -s noth-ng >ut a longer 9oo en <ack plane# &t -s appl-e after the <ack plane to pro uce a true flat surface# 8 Smooth-ng Plane) &t -s use for smooth-ng the 9oo en surface after <ack plane an try-ng plane# &t has no han le# e8 Spec-al Planes) A large num>er of spec-al planes are use epen -ng upon the <o>/ for e=ample re>ate plane/ plough plane/ router plane/ spoke shea.opp-ng Sa9) 2 .eta-l .ut 7-le) &t -s f-n-sh-ng tool use to make the 9oo en surface smooth/ remo.ele >ack/ so that -t can enter -n the sharp corners to f-n-sh them# &t -s generally re@u-re -n o.als are poss->le >y th-s ch-sel# The >la e th-ckness .e smooth cutt-ng# 0-fferent types of sa9 are) 2 R-p Sa9) 2 Tenon Sa9) 2 .ompass Sa9) 2 Key Hole Sa9) 2 "o9 Sa9) 2 .ely# Th-s -s one to generate the clearance for the mo.e etc# f8 Rasp .ar-es from ? mm to F? mm# >8 0o. -ns.es can also >e prepare # .ar-ous from ? mm to (5 mm# 8 Gouge ch-sel) &t -s use to f-n-sh the cur.ut Sa9) R-p Sa9) &t -s han sa9 from F* cm# to +? cm long# The 9.h-sel) &t has long car>on steel >la e 9-th a >e.e an outs.h-sel) &t -s flat th-ck p-ece of tool steel/ 9hose one e ge -s groun e to from a cutt-ng e ge an the other -s pro.ement of >la e# .ommonly use >or-ng tools are) r-ll-ng an .FF.FA.eta-l <o-nts# c8 Mort-se ch-sel) &t -s use for tak-ng hea.e sharp e ge/ f-n-sh-ng f-llet an other -nter-or surfaces# Sharp cutt-ng teeth are pro.e holes# Gouge ch-sel are of t9o types..sharpene to ach-e.h-sel) &t -s a me -um uty tool use for general 9ork# &t carr-es 9.

-ces use are) a8 Work-ng "ench) &t -s a ta>le/ 9h-ch -s ma e of sal or sea..a>le >y means of a scre9 an a han le# The 9hole .ARP$NTRI PRO.sharpen the ch-sels/ >-ts/ plane >la es an other tools# .sour 9oo # S-:e of ta>le -s JKFK# T9o of four carpentry ..F?.la9 Hammer) &t -s use for str-k-ng as 9ell as for pull-ng the na-ls form the 9oo # The mater-al of the 9oo -s the case steel# One en -s ma e str-k-ng an the secon -s cla9 face# &ts 9e-ght .ar-es from *#5? kg to *#+? kg# c8 Mallet) &t -s use to str-ke the ch-sels 9-tch ha.H&N$ .ge place at r-ght angle to the a=-s of the han le# >8 .en-ng Ro-nts 7ram-ng Ro-nts "o= Ro-nts .h-sel-ng +# Re>at-ng M# Mol -ng WOO0 WORK&NG RO&NTS Lengthen-ng Ro-nts W.el gears are f-tte on the >o y# 0r-ll -s hel -n chuck an rotat-on to sp-n le -s g-.el gears# "e.a8 Han 0r-ll) Han r-ll cons-sts of a sp-n le/ r-ll chuck/ han le an t9o >e.roun e ge r.ross Pean Hammer) &t has a cast steel >o y an 9oo en han le# "o y has t9o parts face an pean# &n cross pean hammer the pean -s -n the form of a narro9.en through gears 9-th the help of a crank# &n -ts operat-on/ han le -s presse o9n9ar s 9-th one han an the crank han le -s rotate >y other han # 0ue to th-s >-t rotates 9h-ch -s gr-ppe -n the <a9s of the chuck an the hole -s r-lle # >8 G-mlet 0r-ll) G-mlet r-ll -s a . SHARP$N&NG TOOL Water Stone) &t -s a rectangular p-ece of stone generally kept -n a 9oo en >ase# &t -s use to re.-ce -s ma e of -ron an steel# 3-ce -s ma e up cast steel an <a9s are l-ne 9-th har 9oo # c8 .e 9oo en han le# &t -s ma e up of a har 9oo an -s roun or rectangular -n shape ..-ce -s f-=e to the ta>le 9h-le the other -s kept mo.-rcular Ro-nts WOO0 WORK&NG MA.-ces are f-=e at the four corners of the ta>le# Th-s ta>le acts as a >ase for all the carpentry or 9oo 9ork-ng operat-ons# >8 .clamp -s s-mple type of clamp-ng e.-ng J# .-ce# &t -s generally use to past one 9oo on the other or for al-gnment purposes# STR&K&NG TOOLS Str-k-ng tools are use to force the na-ls or ch-sels -nto the 9oo # Ma-n str-k-ng tools are as un er# a8 .lamp-ng 3-ce) One <a9 of the clamp-ng .$SS$S (# Mark-ng 5# Sa9-ng F# Plan-ng A# "or-ng ?# Groo.ery s-mple type of r-ll-ng tool# &t cons-sts of t9o parts# One -s g-mlet an secon -s han le# G-mlet -s ma e up long t9-ste >ar# &t has a scre9 type start-ng e ge# Wh-le r-ll-ng/ -t -s rotate an presse on to 9oo en 9ork p-ece 9-th the help of the han le# HOL0&NG TOOL The hol -ng tool are use to hol the 9ork so that -t can >e 9orke eas-ly an eff-c-ently# The .lamp) .ar-ous e.

en# 2 .h-sel-ng 2 7-l-ng 4 f-tt-ng of p-eces 2 7-n-sh-ng PRO.e one <o-nery 9ork/ 9h-ch -s generally performe -n oors/ 9-n o9s an .-rcular Sa9 "an Sa9 Th-ckness Planer .-ce for surfac-ng# 2 Ma e all the surface pla-n at the r-ght angle.faces 9-th each other the help of try s@uare 4 metal <ack planer# 2 &t 9as then cut -n to t9o p-eces of s-:e JH=5H=(H >y r-p.Woo Work-ng Lathe .$ A&M) To prepare s-mple types of at least t9o 9oo en <o-nts 6T.lap <o-nt# .shape lap 4 cross lap8 MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 $ng-neer-ng ra9-ng of the <o> 2 Rectangular Woo en P-ece 6(5H=5H=(H8 .5nos# 2 Metal Rack planner 2 7-les 2 Try S@uare 2 Steel Rule 2 Penc-l 2 .utt-ng 2 Plan-ng 2 .F+.sa9# 2 Marke the cut p-eces for cutt-ng as per ra9-ng g-.e proce ure -s repeate to make the other <o> of cross.h-sele the marke port-on as per s-:e an @uant-ty re@u-re # 2 7-n-she the one p-ece >y f-l-ng# 2 S-m-larly the secon p-ece 9as prepare as per ra9-ng >y repeat-ng the a>o.$0UR$) 2 A (5NV5NV(N 9oo en p-ece 9as taken an 9as hel -n .h-sel 2 R-p. $%P$R&M$NT ' M M$) (*+. O"S$R3AT&ONS) We ha.FJ.e operat-ons# 2 "oth the p-eces are <o-ne >y us-ng hammers for complet-ng the lap <o-nt# The a>o.Sa9 N 2 Hammers etc# OP$RAT&ONS &N3OL3$0) 2 Mark-ng 2 .

AUT&ONS &N .e cal-per 2 7lat f-le6smooth8 N 2 Spanners 2 $mery paper 2 "rush OP$RAT&ONS &N3OL3$0) 2 Mark-ng .$ A&M) To prepare hor-:ontal surfaceD .-ce 2 A cu>-cal metall-c >lock 2 Shaper tool 2 Steel rule 2 3ern-er cal-per 2 Outs.es on a shaperD planer# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 $ng-neer-ng ra9-ng of the <o> 2 Shaper Mach-ne 9-th .groo.e appl-cat-on for mak-ng -t permanent# SA7$TI PR$. $%P$R&M$NT ' (( M$) (*+.cup>oar s etc R$SULT) The <o-nt -s temporary an nee s an a hes-.utt-ng shoul >e one at full spee of sa9# ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm .ARP$NTRI SHOP) 2 Tool shoul >e place on the 9ork-ng >ench properly# 2 "lunt tools shoul not use # 2 Ne.ert-cal surfaceD cur.FM.e surfaceD slot or 3.er stan -n front of the >la e 9h-le 9ork-ng 9-th a r-p sa9# 2 Mach-neD Tools shoul not >e use 9-thout any proper kno9le ge# 2 .

FB.ement of the tool -n same plane -s repeate unt-l 9e reach near to epth marke # 27or f-n-sh-ng the slot 9e f-le all the three faces 65 .e measure the f-n-she <o> an foun the -mens-ons are accurate an 9ere 9-th-n the perm-ss->le l-m-t# R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# SA7$TI PR$.th of the slot# .$0UR$) 2 A >lock of .-ce such that -ts top surface -s hor-:ontal# 2Stroke tra.AUT&ONS) 2 "e sure/ ram/ tool/ 9ork/ ta>le support/ clamp-ng scre9s an .e ch-ps 9h-le ram -s -n mot-on# ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm .A*.ert-cal 4 ( hor-:ontal8# 2The slotKs -mens-ons 9ere checke / 9hether more mach-n-ng -s nee e or not# O"S$R3AT&ONS) We ha.th9-se t-ll 9e got the 9.en to cut 9.heck up all the controls of the mach-nes >efore start-ng the operat-on# 2 Ne.er remo.#&# 6J*=J*=J*8 mm 9as taken an cleane 9-th cloth# 2The cutt-ng port-on of the slot -s marke -n f-tt-ng shop an punche # 2 The >lock -s hel -n .-ng 2 7ac-ng 2 7-l-ng 2 7-n-sh-ng PRO.ert-cal surface at the top of the <o> an cut -s set 65mm8 >y l-ft-ng.2 Sett-ng of mach-ne as per <o> 2 Slott-ngD groo.le# 2&n su>se@uent stroke cross fee of (mm -s g-. No9 ta>le -s l-fte >y 5mm an same proce ure 9as a opte unt-l tool reache at the start-ng po-nt# 2The same to an fro mo.-ce are properly secure -n pos-t-on an that the tool hea an tool clear the 9ork >efore start-ng the shaper# 2 Al9ays ma-nta-n the parallel clean# 2 Place a metal sh-el o.er the tool to catch the ch-ps# 2 Al9ays select a proper tool/ proper tool mater-al/ proper tool angles/ proper spee an fee # 2 After sett-ng the stroke length an pos-t-on/ see that the a <ust-ng nuts are t-ght# 2 . $%P$R&M$NT ' (5 .up the ta>le >y 5mm# 2After sett-ng the <o>/ tool an cut at r-ght spot/ mach-ne -s s9-tche on# 2The tool cut the length of the <o> -n for9ar stroke an >ack9ar stroke 9as .el 9as set as per <o>Ks cutt-ng length# 2 Tool -s hel -n tool post t-ghtly# 2The tool -s >rought near to the .

A(.er a re.-ce such that -ts top surface -s hor-:ontal# 2 The tool -s hel -n ar>or an checke that -t -s re.$ A&M) To prepare a <o> -n.ely hea.-ng s.y cut or fee # 2 Ne. O"S$R3AT&ONS) We ha.-ce 2 A cu>-cal metall-c >lock 2 M-ll-ng cutter 2 Steel rule 2 3ern-er cal-per 2 Outs.AUT&ONS) 2 Make sure that the cutter an ar>or are secure # 2 See that the cutter an ar>or support clear the 9ork# 2 Use cutters that are correctly groun an -n goo con -t-on# 2 0onKt try to t-ghten or to take off ar>or nut >y apply-ng po9er to mach-ne# 2 When us-ng cutters -n a .e measure the f-n-she <o> an foun the -mens-ons are accurate an 9ere 9-th-n the perm-ss->le l-m-t# R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# SA7$TI PR$.er reach o.ol.heck spee an fee s an to >e kept proper# .ert-cal surface at the top of the <o> an cut -s set 65mm8 >y l-ft-ng.ert-cal m-ll-ng mach-ne/ onKt take an e=cess-.ery cut unt-l the face -s totally mach-ne # 2 Th-s operat-on -s repeate unt-l 9e get the re@u-re -mens-on of the <o> an no9 one face -s mach-ne # 2 The <o> -s no9 turne B*W an same operat-on -s one to mach-ne upper surface 6face8 of the <o># 2 All the J faces are mach-ne to get a cu>-cal >lock of J*=J*=J*mm# 2 7or f-n-sh-ng of all the faces/ f-l-ng operat-on 9as performe an <o> -s complete .e cal-per 2 7lat f-le6smooth8 2 Spanners 2 $mery paper 2 "rush OP$RAT&ONS &N3OL3$0) 2 Mark-ng 2 Sett-ng of mach-ne as per <o> 2 S.e m-ll-ng 2 7ac-ng 2 7-l-ng 2 7-n-sh-ng PRO.M$) (*+.e an face m-ll-ng on a m-ll-ng mach-ne# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 $ng-neer-ng ra9-ng of the <o> 2 M-ll-ng Mach-ne 9-th .-ng cutter# 2 .ol.ol.$0UR$) 2 A >lock of .#&# 6+*=+*=+*8 mm 9as taken an cleane 9-th cloth# 2 The >lock -s hel -n .-ng perfectly# 2 The tool -s >rought near to the .up the ta>le >y 5mm# 2 After sett-ng the <o>/ tool an cut at r-ght spot/ mach-ne -s s9-tche on# 2 The fee 9as g-.en to the ta>le manually after complet-on of e.

ounter sunk-ng 2 7-n-sh-ng 4 measur-ng 2 Tapp-ng 2 Stamp-ng PRO.A5.halk 4 >rush 2 Surface plate 4 3 >lock 2 .ALL 0&M$NS&ONS AR$ &N mm .heck-ng 4mark-ng of -mens-ons as per ra9-ng 2 Sa9-ng 2 7-l-ng 2 .oolant 4 lu>r-cant OP$RAT&ON &N3OL3$0 2 .$0UR$ 2 The 9ork p-ece -s clampe -n >ench .-ce 2 0r-ll M#? mm/ counter sunk tool 2 3ern-er cal-per 4 3ern-er he-ght gauge 2 Tap M(*=(#? 9-th han le 2 Num>er 4 Letter punch 2 .$ A&M) To prepare a <o> -n f-tt-ng shop as per ra9-ng# MAT$R&AL AN0 TOOLS R$1U&R$0) 2 0ra9-ng of the <o> 2 MS flat ?*=?*=M mm 2 Steel rule 4 scr->er 2 Try s@uare 2 Hacksa9 (5H 2 "ench .-ce after mark-ng# .oat-ng 2 Mark-ng 2 Punch-ng 2 0r-ll-ng 2 . $%P$R&M$NT ' (F M$) (*+.enter punch/ ot punch 4 hammers 2 0r-ll-ng mach-ne 4 mach-ne .-ce 4 flat rough f-le(5H 2 .

e -nterm-ttently# .en to the r-ll >y press-ng the han le -n ant-.es/ apron 4 arm slee.punch# 2 The 9ork p-ece place 4 clampe -n the .er >e use as hammer# 2 Too much fee shoul not >e g-.set of (*mm -s taken an tappe as re@u-re # The tapp-ng operat-on -s repeate to get the re@u-re epth of the threa >y -fferent taps of the set# 2 After gett-ng the holes r-lle an tappe / the 9ork. 2 Lu>r-cants are to >e use as an 9hen nee e # 2 O-l.ert-cal surfaces smooth/ accurate an perpen -cular# 2 The s@uare surface 6?*=?*mm8 9as coate 9-th chalk 4 put on the surface plate for mark-ng of the centres of the holes >y the centre.oolant must >e use -n r-ll-ng an not to >e r-lle 9hole length at a stretch# 2 &n >l-n holes ch-ps shoul >e remo.For any welding question.AF.5h8 for tapp-ng# 2 The tap.er >e use 9-thout han le or 9-th loose han le# 2 7-lesD tools shoul not >e allo9e to rust# 2 W-re >rush shoul >e use to clean the f-les# 2 Ne9 f-le shoul >e use of copper/ >rass an then on W& or MS# 2 7-le shoul ne.-ce an f-n-she >y f-nal f-l-ng 9-th smooth f-le# 2 When the <o> -s f-n-she an checke / -t -s punche 9-th roll no >y num>er 4 letter punch# O"S$R3AT&ONS) We un erstoo that f-tt-ng operat-ons are .er the center marks an the fee -s g-.-ce of r-ll-ng mach-ne# 2 The top 6punche 8 surface 9as place -n the .ness shoul >e cleane >efore us-ng the f-les etc# 2 Use safety shoes/ han glo.-ce such that -t -s perpen -cular to the r-ll a=-s# 2 The r-ll po-nt -s kept <ust o.clock9-se an coolant -s use 9h-le r-ll-ng# 2 The r-ll-ng operat-on -s repeate for gett-ng the re@u-re s-:e of the hole# 2 The counter.-ce# 2 Too much pressure shoul not >e appl-e # 2 $nt-re length of the >la e shoul >e use # 2 7-les shoul >e store -n 9oo en racks# 2 7-les shoul ne.AUT&ON) 2 All -nstruct-ons suppl-e >y the manufacture shoul >e str-ctly follo9e # 2 Al9ays mo. f-rst 9r-te efn-t-on of 9el -ng an then .sunk tool -s use for gett-ng cK sunk hole to the s-:e# 2 The another hole -s r-lle to s-:e 60..ery -mportant role -n assem>l-ng the parts of a <o># R$SULT) The <o> 9as checke >y the 9orkshop -nstructor an foun o#k# The tappe hole 9as checke >y scre9-ng on a scre9 -n the hole# SA7$TI PR$.p-ece -s taken from the .s@uare# 2 7-n-she all the .AA..hecke the perpen -cular-ty >y try.es an goggles -f/ re@u-re # 2 .2 The 9ork p-ece 9as ma e to s-:e >y hacksa9 as per ra9-ngKs -mens-ons# 2 The f-l-ng operat-on 9as one >y flat rough f-le .A?.ery prec-se an accuracy 4 correctness plays .e the hacksa9 -n perfect stra-ght an hor-:ontal -rect-on# 2 Work shoul >e hel f-rmly -n the .. 2 . Dear students.en to the r-lls# .

dirt.ar>ur-:-ng or Re uc-ng 7lame) 3olume of o=ygen -s re uce / r-ch -n Acetylene# Acetylene feather e=-sts -n -nner an outer ene.9r-te the type of 9el -ng of the @uest-on aske for) 9r-te of pr-nc-ple of that 9el -ng an ra9 the f-gure of the sa. water is %ept running for cooling# .elope -s much shorter# 7lame temprature -s a>out JF** 7# &t -s harmful to steels# US$S) copper an copper alloys# F#.elope -s ark >lue -n colour#&t 9-ll not o=. paint.Acelytene Wel -ng6refer 9e> s-te8# TIP$S O7 7LAM$S) (#Neutral 7lame) O=y to Acetylene rat-o (#()(/ 7lame temprature -s F5** .opper/ .# The f-ller ro -s use to >u-l up the seam for strength#Make the f-gure of o=y.9el -ng an proce ure of that 9el -ng as e=pla-ne -n the class# Un er fus-on or non.elope#7lame temprature -s ??** 7# Metals ten to a>sor> car>on are not to >e 9el e # US$S) Wel -ng of Lea anf surface Har en-ng/ 9el -ng of h-gh car>on steels 9-th lo9 alloy steel ro s# NOT$S SPOT WELDING Write the definition of welding Spot welding is a pressure resistance welding in which overlapping sheets are joined "ore spots# $eat is produced ! electrodes placed a ove and elow the wor%piece# ! local fusion at one or Write the principle of resistance welding#i#e# heat is generated current through the wor%piece# ecause of resistance to the flow of elect P&O'ED(&E) *# +o should e cleaned fro" grease.-:e or car>ur-:e the metal# US$S) MS/ SS/ .-:-ng 7lame) Supply of o=ygen -s -ncrease #&nner cone -s more po-nte an outer ene.& an Alum-n-um# 5#O=. rust. scale.# The tip of electrodes "ust /# To avoid the electrodes getting overheated.pressure 9el -ng 9e 9oul -scuss a>out gas 9el -ng# escr->e the processD GAS W$L0&NG)&t -s type of fus-on 9el -ng/9here-n <o-nt -s completely melte to o>ta-n the fus-on#The fuel gases are Acetylene/ Propylene/ Propane/ Hy rogen an Natural gas# PR&N.&PL$ O7 GAS W$L0&NG)When Acelytene -s m-=e 9-th O=ygen -n correct proport-on -n the 9el -ng torch an -gn-te #The temprature of flame -s a>out F(** . o-ides etc# e cleaned ! e"er! paper regularl!# ./&nner cone -s l-ght >lue an outer ene.

>O&6ING This is a pri"ar! shaping operation i#e# attaining the re?uired for" of a jo spinning. coining. disadvantages# Write application9 uses of spot welding# Instructions Dear students. forging. Aindling refer sheet "etal processes in 6P 'O(&SE 65TE&I5L on 6E'$5NI'5L WO&AING O> 6ET5LS) It is shaping of "etalsBplastic defor"ationC 6echanical wor%ing "a! log or site# ! "eans of e-ternal force# e either hot or cold wor%ing# ut elow the urning point#So"e ut "ost of the $ot Wor%ing) The wor%ing of "etals a ove the recr!stalline te"perature "etals such as lead and tin have low recr!stalline range so can "etals have high recr!stalline te"p# Write advantages and disadvantages# e wor%ed at roo" te"p. punching. s?uee@ing. ! pressing. piercing. ending. lan%ing. rollong. I have put al"ost ever!thing on this that) <Gas welding is on other <There "a! log = "p course"aterial=# ecause I could not do it till date# log for !r preparation for e-a"ination#6oreover I would li%e to "ention e so"e spelling "ista%es. .0# Proper welding current is to 1# Proper ti"e has to 2# Electrodes are ph!sical contact# e set on current selector switch# e set on ti"er# rought against the overlapping surfaces of wor%piece and s"all pressure is applied for just 3# Welding current is switched on for proper ti"e# 4# 5s current passes. e-trusion. drawing. si@ing etc. a s"all spot area is heated and weld ta%es place# TE6P is a out 4*1 to 7/8 degree centigrade# 7# Now current is cut off and e-tra force9 pressure is applied to electrodes: tips# $old until the "etal cools down and gains strength# *8# 5fter that electrode pressure is released to re"ove the spot welded piece# Draw figure and write advantages .

Era@ing and Soldering# E-a"ple for answering a welding ?uestion# TIG WELDING) <write the definition of welding# <TIG welding or Gas Tungsten 5rc WeldingBGT5WC is a non<pressure arc welding# <Write principle of arc welding# <Draw figure# . WI and STEEL in furnaces B'upola. spinning. $'S. 'I.e#g#industrial safet!. ho Dictated "aterial Dear students. cold drawing. peening. ironing. 6'S. e" ossing. hot spinning. WI and Steels B6S. $SS and *4)0)*C <6oulding SandBclassification and preparation of "oulding sandC <'O&E and preparation of core sand# <&iser. si@ing. hot e-trusion. which is annealed. Era@e welding. streach for"ing. e-trusion. ending. Aindl! go through the "aterial. which I have dicdated in "! lectures as follows) <T!pes of production s!ste"s# <'lassification of 6anufacturing Processes# <6P course"aterial on log and site too. coining. drawing s?uee@ing. to e further wor%ed to re"ove the hardness and residual stresses# ut stresses are set.etc ending cold heading. shearing. sta%ing. E5> . Puddling and Eesse"er converter. hot drawing or cupping hot piercing etc# Aindl! go through these hot wor%ing processes<e-plained on site# 'old Wor%ing) The wor%ing of "etal elow the recr!stalline te"p and defor"ation is achieved ! slip of planes#>orce re?uired is "ore as co"pared to hot wor%ing# NE) During cold wor%ing strength and hardness of "etal increases. hot forging. open hearthC# <'ar on F in PI. rotar! ing. swaging. first aid and sheet "etal etc# <'hart fro" input of E> to output as Pig Iron and then 'I.Darious hot wor%inh processes are) $ot rolling. &unner and Gating s!ste" <Differance etween Welding.if Write so"e advantages and disadvantages# 'old wor%ing processes are< Sheet "etal wor%.

when "etal is heated in air. graphite for D' welding# Tungsten electrodes are used for D' .and flu. consu"a le and non<consu"a le# ase "etal are "i-ed under the arc provides 'onsu"a le electrodes) 6olen "etal fro" the electrodes and necessar! joint#Electrode is serving the purpose of filler rod as wellas input for heat# Non consu"a le electrodes) not consu"ed during welding#Separate filler rod is used if necessar! to fill the gap#These are of car on . easier arc starting and provides a s"ooth arc action#It is econo"ical and heaviest# $ELI(6) $igher arc voltage.which results poor ?ualit!. heliu"n nitrogen etcC is used as flu-#>iller "etal if re?uired is fed separatel!# 5&GON) It re?uires a lower arc voltage. low strength weld and even so"e cases welding eco"es i"possi le# To protect the weld pool fro" o-!gen of a" ient air.is used separatel! as non<consu"a le electrodes#The stri%ing of arc is difficult in such electrodes especiall! with 5' suppl!# 'oated electrodes are coated with flu.8 degree respectivel! with the flat wor%piece# <Write advantages and disadvantages# <Write applications <>inall! precautions# Welding contd# T!pes of electrodes) are. TIG welding# Eare electrodes are without coating of flu.and called STI'A electrodes#The pro le" is "oisture pic%ed<up flu. hence is used where higher heat input is re?uired# So"eti"es active car on dio-ide is used "ore econo"ical and re?uires higher current#(sed nor"all! with onl! D' with Gve electrode# 5rgon and heliu" are used for Welding operation is done oth 5' and D' power sources# etween the wor%piece and tungsten electrode "ounted on a and a weld pool is created#The ! stri%ing an arc special holder#Inert gas is used as flu-#The arc is allowed to i"pinge on the jo welding torch and filler "etal are generall! %ept inclined at angles 38<48 degree and *8<.flu.Welding heat is produced fro" an electric arc esta lished etween the jo and are non<consu"a le tungsten electrode#5 shielded gasBargon. the o-!gen fro" air co" ines the "etal and for"s o-ides.is used and does not allow the air to co"e in contact .and dissociates into o-!gen and h!drogen and eing a sor ed ! !he etter control over the heat input ecause ! the li?uid "etaland released during solidification causing porosit! and so advised to %eep the electrodes in a dr! place# >L(H)During welding. coated. 5' welding and have sources are separate#(sed in car on arc .

thus isolating the welding @one fro" the a" ient air# Slag >or"ing) The slag for"ing co"ponents are chinacla!.1 secC# This high a"pere current heats the joint#The following are the t!pes of resistance welding# <Spot welding <Sea" welding <Projection welding <&esistance <>lash utt welding utt welding <Percussion welding Electrodes for resistance welding) Since electrodes carr! large a"ount of current9 pressure and also help to re"ove the heat fro" weld @one# Thus to prevent overheating.with fused "etal# Thus flu-es "a! e divided into the following categories# Gas >or"ing) 'o"ponents are organic "atters such as starch.is added# P&IN'IPLE O> &ESIST5N'E WELDING) In this welding. hence copper allo!s are preferred# 'opper<'ad"iu" for welding 5l and 6g# 'opper<'hro"iu" for welding 6S and low allo! steels# Go through the advantages9 disadvantages and uses for ever! t!pe of welding# . pulp etc.wood. "anganese and titaniu" ores etc and enhance slag for"ation#Slag covering the "olten "etal to co"e in contact with air# &ESIST5N'E WELDING This is a process of welding in which heat is o tained fro" resistance of the wor% to the flow of current and then appl!ing pressure# No filler "etal or flu. felspar.a low voltageBt!picall! * voltC and ver! high currentBt!picall! *1888 5Cis passed to the point for a ver! short ti"eBt!picall! 8#. which for" gas la!er. the electrodes "ust have higher electrical conductivit! and hardness.

fu"es . where casting is done#'asting is a process of pouring "olten "etal in a cavit! called 6O(LD#When this "ould is filled with "olten "etal. Aindl! "a%e la!outs i#e# Product and Process la!outs# The o jectives of a good plant la!out are laid down# *#6ini"ising .well ventilated. e"plo!ees# >O(ND&I#########>O&GING##########>O&6ING >O(ND5&I) >oundar! is a place. and free fro" dust. Erass. odour# e "ini"ised# 1#Waiting ti"e for se"ifinished product should 2#'u ic space should e utilised in effective "anner# 3#To increase productivit! with reduced capital invest"ent# 4#To provide fle-i ilit! of "anufacturing and "anage"ent# 7#To allow the "ove"ent of "aterial with desired speed and lowest cost# *8#To pro"ote jo satisfaction and good relation etween "anage"ent .noise.#Eottlenec%s and congestion to /#6ove"ent of persons to 0#Wor%ing place to e eli"inated for s"ooth and continuous flow# e "ini"ised for effective utilisation of e?uip"ent . efficientl! control of "aterial handling and transportation# . 5lu"iniu" allo!s . >oundr! Dear Students. it solidifies and produces a casting# P5TTE&N)Pattern is a "odel of desired productBcastingCi#e# constructed in such a wa! that it can for"ing an i"pression called "ould#Pattern is replica of casting# e used for Pattern 6aterials) J Wood J 6etalB'ast Iron. White 6etal etcC J Plaster J Plastic 'o"pound J Wa- The following factors are to *# Design of casting e considered for selection of pattern "aterial# .Plant La!out contd# . space# e safe.# Kualit! and ?uantit! of casting .

resistant to wear a rasion.Sweep.# Low cost.6atch plate. 6oulding shop and "elting shopB >urnaceC# Na"e the t!pes of patterns and draw the figures# Write wh! .unaffected *. hard. 'ope .% and draw of !our own and write asic steps ta%en in a casting process as e-plained in the class i#e# fro" pattern "a%ing to dispatch of the cast product# 6ain shops in the >O(ND&I# Pattern Shop. easil! repaira le and re<usa le# */# 5 ilit! to ta%e a good finish# &efer 'asting processes figure at "! site 7./# Shape and si@e of casting 0# T!pes of "oulding 1# T!pes of process of casting 2# 6oulding "aterial 3# Possi ilit! of design changes 4# 'hances of repeat orders 7# Pattern "aterial should *8#It should e light in weight. S%eleton. where are these used# T!pes) Solid and single piece. drag pattern.2. shaped and joina le# e dura le. Pattern with loose pieces. 6ulti<piece. easil! wor%ed. "ass production of plastic goods and still "ills etc# 5dvantages) <6ini"i@ing "aterial handling due to straight flow# <Product co"pletes in lesser ti"e# . SplitBtwo PiecesC. Gated. >ollow oard pattern and Seg"ental pattern# Plant la!out contd# aC P&OD('T L5IO(T 6achines are arranged according to se?uence of operations# This t!pe of la!out is preferred for "ass production with less variet!<nor"all! used in asse" l! shop of auto"o iles.strong. corrosion and che"ical reaction# ! variation in te"prature and hu"idit!# **# Di"ensionall! sta le.

control of production# <Less floor area for sa"e volu"e of wor%# <Less s%illed wor%er# C P&O'ESS L5IO(T 6achines perfor"ing si"ilar operations are arranged in groups at one location not according to se?uence of operation# >or e-a"ples all lathe "9cs are placed at one place and all "illing "9cs are placed at another place# Generall! used for low volu"e of production needed at regular interval# 5dvantages) <Lower initial invest"ent <General purpose "9cs "a! serve the purpose <Greater fle-i ilit! in utilisation# <Opti"u" use of "9cs# <5t the ti"e of rea%down.# E-pansion of e-isting plant /# 6odification9 i"prove"ent of e-isting plant# Plant la!out "a! e divided "ainl! into two t!pes# .as supervisor and wor%er attend one t!pe of "9c# OE+E'TIDES O> GOOD PL5NT L5IO(T < Plant La!out Plant is a place. transferring of wor% to other "9cs "a! easil! e done# <Dariet! of parts "a%e the wor% interesting and challanging# <Eetter productivit!. perfect "anner so that all the functions are carried out effectivel! and econo"icall!# La!out is not restricted to plant onl! it is e?uall! necessar! for houses. "one!. colleges.schools. "aterial. 5gain plant la!out does not "ean of planning new plants onl!# It "a! involve) *# &e<la!out of e-isting plant i#e# relocation .<'ontinuous flow of wor%# <Eetter coordination in planning . "alls and other such constructions# uildings. "achiner!. e?uip"ent and tools etc are rought together for producing9 "anufacturing products# La!out "eans a plan9 "ethod for arranging all these facilities9 things in an effective . hospitals. where persons.

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