3 Local Governments

Article X of the 1987 Constitution provides for the territorial and political subdivisions of the Philippines as follows: Province Cities Municipalities Barangays Each territorial or political subdivision enjoys local autonomy as defined in the Constitution. The President exercises supervision over Local Governments. RA 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991 (as amended by RA 9009) – provides the details that implements the provision of the Constitution. Each region is composed of several provinces while each province is composed of a cluster of municipalities and component cities. The Philippines is divided into the following local government units: Region I (Ilocos Region) Region II (Cagayan Valley) Region III (Central Luzon) Region IV ( Calabarzon and MIMAROPA) Region V (Bicol Region) Region VI (Western Visayas) Region VII (Central Visayas) Region VIII (Eastern Visayas) Regions IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) Region X (Northern Mindanao) Region XI (Davao Region) Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN) Region XIII (CARAGA) Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) – created through RA 6734 Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) – created through Ra 6766 National Capital Region (NCR) The Provincial government is composed of the governor, vice-governor, members of the sangguniang panlalawigan and other appointed officials. A city may be classified either as component or highly urbanized. The city government is composed of the mayor, vice-mayor, members of the sangguniang panlunsod and other appointed officials. The municipal government is composed of the mayor, vice-mayor, sangguniang bayan members and other appointed officials. In order for a municipality to be converted into cities, a law or act of Congress must be passed by virtue of the provisions of the Local Government Code and the Constitution. A plebiscite must be conducted to determine if majority are in favor of converting the municipality into a city. Although laws have been passed, their constitutionality can be questioned in the Supreme Court. This can be seen in the November 18, 2008 decision penned by Justice Antonio T. Carpio. The League of Cities of the Philippines, City of Iloilo, City of Calbayog filed consolidated petitions questioning the constitutionality of the Cityhood Laws and enjoined the Commission of Elections and respondent municipality from conducting plebiscites. Barangay is the smallest local government unit which is created, divided, merged, abolished or

its boundary altered by law or by an ordinance of the sangguniang panlalawigan or sangguniang panlunsod, subject to the approval of majority votes casts in a plebiscite conducted by the Comelec, the manner provided in the Local Government Code Title I, Chapter 1 Sec 384-385.