# DIFFERENTIAL

A differential is a device, usually, but not necessarily, employing gears, which is connected to the outside world by three shafts, chains, or similar, through which it transmits torque and rotation. The gears or other components make the three shafts rotate in such a way that , where , , and are the angular velocities of the three shafts, and and are constants. Often, but not always, and are equal, so is proportional to the sum (or average) of and . Except in some special-purpose differentials, there are no other limitations on the rotational speeds of the shafts, apart from the usual mechanical/engineering limits. Any of the shafts can be used to input rotation and the other(s) to output it. In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, a differential is the usual way to allow the driving road wheels to rotate at different speeds. This is necessary when the vehicle turns, making the wheel that is travelling around the outside of the turning curve roll farther and faster than the other. The engine is connected to the shaft rotating at angular velocity . The driving wheels are connected to the other two shafts, and and are equal. If the engine is running at a constant speed, the rotational speed of each driving wheel can vary, but the sum (or average) of the two wheels' speeds can not change. An increase in the speed of one wheel must be balanced by an equal decrease in the speed of the other. (If one wheel is rotating backward, which is possible in very tight turns, its speed should be counted as negative.) It may seem illogical that the speed of one input shaft can determine the speeds of two output shafts, which are allowed to vary. Logically, the number of inputs should be at least as great as the number of outputs. However, the system has another constraint. Under normal conditions (i.e. only small tyre slip), the ratio of the speeds of the two driving wheels equals the ratio of the radii of the paths around which the two wheels are rolling, which is determined by the track-width of the vehicle (the distance between the driving wheels) and the radius of the turn. Thus the system does not have one input and two independent outputs. It has two inputs and two outputs. A different automotive application of differentials is in epicyclic gearing. A gearbox is constructed out of several differentials. In each differential, one shaft is connected to the engine (through a clutch or functionally similar device), another to the driving wheels (through another differential as described above), and the third shaft can be braked so its angular velocity is zero. (The braked component may not be a shaft, but something that plays an equivalent role.) When one shaft is braked, the gear ratio between the engine and wheels is determined by the value(s) of and/or for that differential, which reflect the numbers of teeth on its gears. Several differentials, with different gear ratios, are permanently connected in parallel with each other, but only one of them has one shaft braked so it can not rotate, so only that differential transmits power from the engine to the wheels. (If the transmission is in "neutral" or "park", none of the shafts is braked.) Shifting gears simply involves releasing the braked shaft of one differential and braking the appropriate shaft on another. This is a much simpler operation to do automatically than engaging and disengaging gears in a conventional gearbox. Epicyclic gearing is almost always used in automatic transmissions, and is nowadays also used in some hybrid and electric vehicles. Non-automotive uses of differentials include performing analog arithmetic. Two of the differential's three shafts are made to rotate through angles that represent (are proportional to) two numbers, and the angle of the third shaft's rotation represents the sum or difference of the two input numbers. An equation clock that used a differential for addition, made in 1720, is the earliest device definitely known to have used a differential for any purpose. In the 20th Century, large assemblies of many differentials were used as analog computers, calculating, for example, the direction in which a gun

During that time. resulting in the left wheel making 12 rotations. the left wheel will make more rotations because it has further to travel. The crown wheel gear is attached to the differential carrier or cage. commonly and informally abbreviated to 'prop-shaft'). which contains the 'sun' and 'planet' wheels or gears. most automotive applications contain two opposing planet gears. to a drive shaft (British term: 'propeller shaft'. mainly when turning corners. the inner wheel needs to travel a shorter distance than the outer wheel. In the two figures shown above. say. The crown wheel and pinion may mesh in hypoid orientation. so with no differential. Purpose A vehicle's wheels rotate at different speeds. which are a cluster of four opposed bevel gears in perpendicular plane. . however. When cornering. and the right wheel will make fewer rotations as it has less distance to travel. and this results in difficult and unpredictable handling. which runs to the final drive unit that contains the differential. As the differential carrier rotates. damage to tires nd roads. if the car is making a turn to the right. A spiral bevel pinion gear takes its drive from the end of the propeller shaft. The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds. and strain on (or possible failure of) the entire drivetrain Functional description The following description of a differential applies to a "traditional" rear-wheel-drive car or truck with an "open" or limited slip differential combined with a reduction gearset using bevel gears (these are not strictly necessary . Practically all the differentials that are now made are used in automobiles and similar vehicles. via the transmission. Thus. the sun gears can counter-rotate relative to the ring gear and to each other under the same force (in which case the same teeth do not stay in contact). for example.see spur-gear differential): Torque is supplied from the engine. but because the planet gears are not restricted from turning against each other. Other differential designs employ different numbers of planet gears. the development of electronic digital computers has made these uses of differentials obsolete. the result is the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging. within that motion. the main crown wheel may make 10 full rotations. so each bevel gear meshes with two neighbours. the changing axis orientation of the planet gears imparts the motion of the ring gear to the motion of the sun gears by pushing on them rather than turning against them (that is. the same teeth stay in the same mesh or contact position). known as the crown wheel. and is encased within the housing of the final drive unit. The sun gears (which drive the axle half-shafts) will rotate in opposite directions relative to the ring gear by. not shown. This meshes with the large spiral bevel ring gear. This article therefore emphasizes automotive uses of differentials. that it faces and does not mesh with. both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed. 2 full turns each (4 full turns relative to each other). and rotates counter to the third. such as karts . and drive the axle half shafts connected to the vehicle's driven wheels. The two sun wheel gears are aligned on the same axis as the crown wheel gear.should be aimed. usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. only one planet gear (green) is illustrated. However. depending on durability requirements. The other two planet gears are aligned on a perpendicular axis which changes orientation with the ring gear's rotation. and the right wheel making 8 rotations. In vehicles without a differential.

History here are many claims to the invention of the differential gear but it is possible that it was known. The mechanism may also be referred to as an equalizer. and from the other direction to the tips. manually rotating one driven roadwheel causes the opposite roadwheel to rotate in the opposite direction by the same amount. 1027. 1107 AD: Documented Chinese reproductions of the South Pointing Chariot by Yan Su and then Wu Deren. 1832: Richard Roberts of England patents 'gear of compensation'. mechanized compass. in the Greek Antikythera mechanism 30 BC .20 BC: Differential gear systems possibly used in China 227–239 AD: Despite doubts from fellow ministers at court. preventing the ring gear from turning inside the differential). Whippletrees may be used either in compression or tension.100 BC: Hypothesized use. 1720: Joseph Williamson uses a differential gear in a clock.The rotation of the crown wheel gear is always the average of the rotations of the side sun gears. Some historical milestones of the differential include:    150 . now discredited.leader bar or double tree. if the driven roadwheels are lifted clear of the ground with the engine off. in ancient times. which some later writers mistakenly report as a differential.       . Whippletrees were also used for subtraction and addition calculations in mechanical computers. 1810: Rudolph Ackermann of Germany invents a four-wheel steering system for carriages. 666 AD: two Chinese Buddhist monks and engineers create South Pointing Chariots for Emperor Tenji of Japan. with force applied from one direction to the pivot. 1874: Aveling and Porter of Rochester. When the vehicle is traveling in a straight line. Ma Jun from the Kingdom of Wei in China invents the first historically verifiable South Pointing Chariot. at least in some places. Whippletree (mechanism) A whippletree or whiffletree is a mechanism to distribute force evenly through linkages. a differential for road locomotives. 658. Several whippletrees may be used in series to distribute the force further. and the drive shaft is held (say leaving the transmission 'in gear'. etc. which described in detail the mechanical functions and gear ratios of the device much more so than earlier Chinese records. It consists of a bar pivoted at or near the centre. undulations in the road (which make for a longer or shorter wheel path). there will be no differential movement of the planetary system of gears other than the minute movements necessary to compensate for slight differences in wheel diameter. This is why. which provided cardinal direction as a non-magnetic. Kent list a crane locomotive in their catalogue fitted with their patent differential gear on the rear axle. such as to simulate pressure over an area as when applying loading to test plane wings. Some such chariots may have used differential gears.

A proposed way to distribute the power to the wheels. with one rear roadwheel on asphalt with good grip. gradient. et cetera. and the other on a patch of slippery ice. 1958: Vernon Gleasman patents the Torsen dual-drive differential. when one wheel is on a slippery surface. then that wheel will spin. or are a variation of the ball differential. Many newer vehicles feature traction control. A conventional "open" (non-locked or otherwise traction-aided) differential always supplies close to equal (because of limited internal friction) torque to each side. of which a review has been reported by Provatidis. before the wheel starts to slip. It takes very little torque to spin the side on slippery ice. the vehicle's momentum. . invention later used on automobiles by Karl Benz. the gradient of the road. If the torque applied to one of the drive wheels exceeds the threshold of traction. increasing the torque that can be applied to both wheels. such as the ZF B-70 available on early VWs. Since an open differential limits total torque applied to both drive wheels to the amount used by the lower traction wheel multiplied by a factor of 2. In lower gears and thus at lower speeds. which partially mitigates the poor traction characteristics of an open differential by using the anti-lock braking system to limit or stop the slippage of the low traction wheel. The reduced nett traction may still be enough to propel the vehicle. is to use the concept of gearless differential. the vehicle requires a certain amount of torque applied to the drive wheels to move forward. and thus only provide torque at each other driven wheel limited by the sliding friction at the slipping wheel. the drivetrain can supply as much torque as necessary. and unless the load is exceptionally high. how much drag and friction there is. While not as effective in propelling a vehicle under poor traction conditions as a traction-aided differential. the total torque applied to the driving wheels may be lower than the minimum torque required for vehicle propulsion. It is therefore convenient to define traction as the amount of torque that can be generated between the tire and the road surface. Loss of traction One undesirable side effect of a conventional differential is that it can limit traction under less than ideal conditions. and because a differential splits torque equally to each side. To illustrate how this can limit torque applied to the driving wheels. The torque applied to each driving wheel is a result of the engine. imagine a simple rear-wheel drive vehicle.   1876: James Starley of Coventry invents chain-drive differential for use on bicycles. Based on the load. The amount of traction required to propel the vehicle at any given moment depends on the load at that instant—how heavy the vehicle is. so the limiting factor becomes the traction under each wheel. it is better than a simple mechanical open differential with no electronic traction assistance. but the various configurations seem to correspond either to the "sliding pins and cams" type. 1897: first use of differential on an Australian steam car by David Shearer. and so on. transmission and drive axles applying a twisting force against the resistance of the traction at that roadwheel. a type of limited slip differential that relies solely on the action of gearing instead of a combination of clutches and gears. the torque that is applied to the side that is on asphalt is limited to this amount.

albeit with considerable frictional losses. but it is still possible for the differential action to occur in use. at which point it will engage. the LSD will remain open unless enough torque is applied to cause one wheel to lose traction and spin. this is equivalent to effectively bypassing the differential gears entirely. causing both wheels to turn at the same speed regardless of which has more traction. the other wheel will still rotate in the opposite direction as for an open differential but there will be some frictional losses and t he torque will be distributed at other than 50/50. so that there is locking from very high internal friction. When tested with the wheels off the ground. some of them with high enough friction to cause an inside tire to spin or outside tire to drag in turns like a spooled differential. and with the road loads at each wheel in opposite     . A LSD can use clutches like a posi when engaged. They employ a mechanism for allowing the axles to be locked relative to each other. it functions the same as a limited-slip differential. such as ones using differential gears in normal use but using air or electrically controlled mechanical system. A high-friction 'Automatic Torque Biasing' (ATB) differential.  One solution is the Positive Traction (Posi).Traction-aiding devices There are various devices for getting more usable traction from vehicles with differentials. This applies more torque to the driven roadwheel with highest resistance (grip or traction) than is available at the other driven roadwheel when the limit of friction is reached at that other wheel. such as the ZF "sliding pins and cams" type. the sun gears are coupled to the carrier via a multi-disc clutch which allows extra torque to be sent to the wheel with higher resistance than available at the other driven road wheel when the limit of friction is reached at that other wheel. Other locking systems may not even use differential gears but instead drive one wheel or both depending on torque value and direction. A locking differential. When tested with the wheels off the ground with torque applied to one wheel it will lock. While positraction units can be of varying strength. or may also be a solid mechanical connection like a locker or spool. which when locked allow no difference in speed between the two wheels on the axle. the most well-known of which is the clutch-type. Although marketed as being "torque-sensing". It is called limited slip because it does just that. 3D Animation of a Torsen Differential A very high-friction differential. Below the limit of friction more torque goes to the slower (inside) wheel. A limited slip differential (LSD) or anti-spin is another type of traction aiding device that uses a mechanical system that activates under centrifugal force to positively lock the left and right spider gears together when one wheel spins a certain amount faster than the other. while a selectable locker typically couples both axles with a solid mechanical connection like a spool when engaged. where the friction is between the gear teeth rather than at added clutches. With this differential. This type behaves as an open differential unless one wheel begins to spin and exceeds that threshold. it limits the amount that one wheel can "slip" (spin). Automatic mechanical lockers do allow for some differentiation under certain load conditions. if one wheel is rotated with the differential case held. such as the Torsen differential.

and apply the brake to that wheel. but will strongly resist high-speed movements. Porsche 964 Carrera 4 of 1989 the centre differential is an epicyclic differential (see below) to divide the torque asymmetrically. such as those caused by cornering.directions rather than the same (acting with a "locking and releasing" action rather than a distributed torque). A spool locks both axle shafts together 100% for maximum traction. where it interconnects the engine. and possibly a centre differential to apportion torque between the front and rear axles. or the entire carrier. and can cause considerable damage to the transmission or drive train. but at a fixed rate between the front and rear axle. and the differential compensates by transmitting more torque through the other roadwheel—the one with better traction. the sun gear shaft).g. This permits the four-wheel drive vehicle to drive on paved surfaces without experiencing "wind-up". a viscous coupling unit can replace a centre differential entirely. such as a Torsen—which is what Audi use in their quattro cars (withlongitudinal engines). A transfer case may also incorporate a centre differential.  Electronic traction control systems usually use the anti-lock braking system (ABS) roadwheel speed sensors to detect a spinning roadwheel. This phenomenon is known as "wind-up". by way of a system of slotted plates that operate within a viscous fluid. In the image. motor-generators. An epicyclic differential is at the heart of the Toyota Prius automotive drive train. This is typically only used in drag racing applications. and the drive wheels (which have a second differential for splitting torque as usual). In a four-wheel drive vehicle. Other methods utilise an 'Automatic Torque Biasing' (ATB) centre differential. Lancia Delta Integrale. This progressively raises the reaction torque at that roadwheel. This system is similar to a limited slip differential. paved roads in four-wheel drive mode. often silicone. A spool is just what it sounds like. It may replace the spider gears within the differential carrier. the .   A four-wheel drive (4WD) vehicle will have at least two differentials (one in each axle for each pair of driven roadwheels). allowing the drive shafts to spin at different speeds. In Volkswagen Group vehicles. In some cases (e. this specific function is called 'Electronic Differential Lock' (EDL). such as those caused by a single wheel spinning. or be used to limit slip in a conventional 'open' differential. where the vehicle is to be driven in a straight line while applying tremendous torque to both wheels. as small differences in rotational speed between the front and rear wheels cause a torque to be applied across the transmission. The fluid allows slow relative movements of the shafts. Epicyclic gears are also called planetary gears because the axes of the planet gears revolve around the common axis of the sun and ring gears that they mesh with and roll between. It has the advantage of being relatively compact along the length of its axis (that is. On loose surfaces these differences are absorbed by the tire slippage on the road surface. It works on the principle of allowing the two output shafts to counter-rotate relative to each other. 4WD vehicles without a centre differential should not be driven on dry. Epicyclic differential An epicyclic differential can use epicyclic gearing to split and apportion torque asymmetrically between the front and rear axles.

there are three input torque states: load. 1. where they convey certain dynamic advantages. Basic principle of operation Automotive limited-slip differentials all contain a few basic elements.5 way. and overrun. or the outputs and the differential housing. Examples include viscous and clutch-based LSDs. In simple terms. This means the differential will provide some level of limiting under engine braking. all have a gear train that. The torque transmitted will be equal at both wheels. 1-. In an automobile. or 2 way. like an open differential. and therefore. and thereby keeping both wheels in powered rotation. will not exceed the threshold of torque needed to move the wheel with traction. There are many mechanisms used to create this resisting torque. With no load. In this situation. as previously stated. In such a case (with a standard differential). while the contacting wheel will remain stationary. A 2-way differential will have the same limiting torque Trq d in both the forward and reverse directions. this means they have some mechanism which resists a speed difference between the outputs. by creating a resisting torque between either the two outputs. The blue gears are called planet gears and the pink gear is the ring gear or annulus. Limited-slip differential A limited-slip differential (LSD) is a type of automotive differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in angular velocity of the output shafts. at the expense of greater complexity. First. and 1.yellow shaft carries the sun gear which is almost hidden. the coupling is proportional to the input torque. such limited-slip differentials are sometimes used in place of a standard differential. The type of limited-slip differential typically gets its name from the design of this resisting mechanism. The amount of limiting torque provided by these mechanisms varies by design and is discussed later in the article. Benefits The main advantage of a limited-slip differential is demonstrated by considering the case of a standard (or "open") differential in off-roading situations where one wheel has no contact with the ground. a limited-slip differential prevents 100% of the power from being allocated to one wheel. the coupling is reduced to the static coupling. During load conditions. The behavior on overrun (particularly sudden throttle release) determines whether the LSD is 1 way. 2-. allows the output shafts to spin at different speeds while holding the sum of their speeds proportional to that of the input shaft. the non-contacting wheel will receive 100% of the power. Second.5-way LSD Broadly speaking. but imposes a mechanical bound on the disparity. . all have some sort of mechanism that applies a torque (internal to the differential) that resists the relative motion of the output shafts. no load.

A 1-way differential will provide its limiting action in only one direction. In the case of a FWD car it is argued to be safer than a 2-way differential. When torque is applied in the opposite direction it behaves like an open differential. . A 1. The argument is if there is no additional coupling on overrun. the LSD unlocks and behaves somewhat like a conventional open differential.5-way differential refers to one where the forward and reverse limiting torques. instead of ploughing forward. Trq d_fwd. This type of differential is common in racing cars where a strong limiting torque can aid stability under engine braking. are different but neither is zero as in the case of the 1-way LSD. a 1-way LSD as soon as the driver lifts the throttle. i. d_rev .e. This is also the best for FWD cars. as it allows the car to turn in on throttle release.

unequal rotational speed). and a central one between the front and rear axles (transfer case). and the torques on each side-shaft will be unequal. if used on the front axle. diff lock or locker is a variation on the standard automotive differential. regardless of the traction (or lack thereof) available to either wheel individually. but only when the traction under each wheel differs significantly. (Equal torque. automatic locking differentials are often responsible for increased tire wear. even if one is entirely stationary. locked axles provoke understeer and. they apply the same rotational force. Disadvantages Because they do not operate as smoothly as standard differentials. So although the wheels can rotate at different speeds. automatic locking differentials will affect the ability of a vehicle to steer. Also. discussed below. on that axle. This is annoying to many drivers. Furthermore.Locking differential A locking differential. A locking differential is designed to overcome the chief limitation of a standard open differential by essentially "locking" both wheels on an axle together as if on a common shaft. A locking differential may provide increased traction compared to a standard. (Unequal torque. it allows each wheel to rotate at different speeds (such as when negotiating a turn). will increase steering forces required to turn the vehicle. particularly if a locker is located in the front axle. Exceptions apply to automatic lockers. Therefore. each wheel can apply as much rotational force as the traction under it will allow. without regard to tractional differences seen at either wheel. An open (or unlocked) differential always provides the same torque (rotational force) to each of the two wheels. By contrast. automatically locking differentials can cause a loss of control on ice where an open differential would allow one wheel to . Aside from tire scuffing while turning any degree on high friction (low slip) surfaces. a locked differential forces both left and right wheels on the same axle to rotate at the same speed under nearly all circumstances. Some older automatic locking differentials are known for making a clicking or banging noise when locking and unlocking as the vehicle negotiates turns. All the above comments apply to central differentials as well as to those in each axle: full-time fourwheel-drive (more accurately as "All Wheel Drive") vehicles have three differentials. differential lock. When the differential is unlocked (open differential). equal rotational speeds). This forces both wheels to turn in unison. thus avoiding tire scuffing. A locked differential can provide a significant traction advantage over an open differential. or "open" differential by restricting each of the two wheels on an axle to the same rotational speed without regard to available traction or differences in resistance seen at each wheel. and the other spinning. one in each axle.

Applications  Race cars often use locking differentials in order to maintain traction during high speed maneuvers or when accelerating at extreme rates. and they do direct some extra torque to the wheel with the most traction compared to a standard differential. With modern tires and concrete roads. a great deal of force is required to make a tire slip. as the driver knows that neither wheel will suddenly sap power if it encounters a low-friction surface. but operates at each wheel. and if one is rotating more than 100 RPM more than the other (i. This would make turning difficult and hard on your car: For the car to be able to turn. Sensors monitor wheel speeds. If your car did not have a differential. which is the same as on cars without the EDL option. Alternatives Limited slip differentials are considered a compromise between a standard differential and a locking differential because they operate more smoothly. which have a similar action on braking and use some similar components. so they spin independently. but they are not capable of 100% lockup.e. Land Rover Defender and Land Rover Freelander models. This EDL is not in fact a differential lock. The disadvantages of selectable locking differentials are not mentioned due to their ability to function as an open differential as needed. One example is that offered by Volkswagen under the name ofelectronic differential lock (EDL). vehicle dynamics are made more predictable when there is a loss of traction. while not transferring power. When both wheels spin the vehicle will break traction and slide down the grade. the wheels would have to be locked together.  . That force would have to be transmitted through the axle from one wheel to another. Some utility vehicles such as tow trucks.this is not an issue. There is no connection between them. Such systems are used for example on the most recent Nissan Pathfinder. putting a heavy strain on the axle components. forced to spin at the same speed. forklifts. An example of this would be a vehicle parked sideways on a slippery grade. muddy. one tire would have to slip. especially when driving on soft. and heavy equipment use locking differentials to maintain traction. Traction control systems are also used in many modern vehicles either in addition or as a replacement of locking differentials.the front wheels on a rear-wheel drive car. Additionally. Electronic traction control systems may be integrated with anti-lock braking systems. This effectively transfers all the power to the other wheel but still employs the open differential. For the non-driven wheels on your car -. tractors. the back wheels on a front-wheel drive car -.spin and the other to hold. But the driven wheels are linked together so that a single engine and transmission can turn both wheels. or uneven surfaces. slipping) the EDL system momentarily brakes it.

When the vehicle turned. to allow the wheels to maintain ground contact over uneven surfaces. and other similar vehicles which were made until the 1970s by the Dutch company DAF. this group includes most three-wheeled cars. The Daffodil. but the wheel on the outside was permitted to rotate faster by its freewheel. Besides motorcycles. there is a pedal that can be stepped on with the operator's heel to lock the differential as needed. thus losing all traction to all wheels (all power goes to the lifted wheel. few such vehicles were made. On some farm tractors. the two wheels could rotate at different speeds. Driving in reverse is also impossible as is engine braking due to the freewheels. They are still common in some areas of the developing world. such as the DAF Daffodil. The system was unbalanced. such as India. High amounts of articulation are desirable for off-road driving. as well as vague steering.. Many such vehicles have a locking differential on the central differential (between the front and rear axles). the engine would continue to drive the wheel on the inside of the curve. Such 4x4s often have suspension systems designed as a compromise between articulation and handling. Some early automobiles had the engine driving two freewheels. Because of these problems. one for each driving road wheel. The engine drove two separate transmissions which ran the two driving wheels. driving the wheel that remains on the ground. or any combination of any of the three. Vehicles using two freewheels. or rocky terrain. Vehicles with continuously variable transmissions. Some early four-wheeled cars also had only one driving wheel to avoid the need for a differential. Several different types exist:  Vehicles with a single driving wheel. Four-wheel drive vehicles that drive off-road often use a locking differential to keep from getting stuck when driving on loose. However. muddy. allowing a cyclist to stop pedalling while going downhill. When the vehicle turned. Locking differentials are considered essential equipment for serious off-road driving. Differential locks are also used on some "non-utility" fourwheel-drive vehicles (such as the Mitsubishi Shogun) to compensate for a relative lack of axle articulation (vertical wheel movement). which are generally not classified as automobiles. the driving wheel would easily spin. allows a road wheel to rotate faster than the mechanism that drives it. etc. If articulation is limited. A freewheel. had a type of transmission that used an arrangement of belts and pulleys to provide an infinite number of gear ratios. making the two transmissions shift   . as used on a pedal bicycle for example. the vehicle had only one driving wheel. These were quite common in Europe in the mid-20th Century. rear differential and front differential. but this can lead to excessive body-roll at high speeds on the road. while turning.Lockers are common in agricultural equipment and military trucks. Thus. one wheel on an axle may be lifted off the ground by rough terrain. the locking differential can be brought into play. but have now become rare there.   Differential locking can also be used in the sport of drifting as an alternative to a limited slip differential. Automobiles without differentials Although most automobiles in the developed world use differentials there are a few that do not. A rear locking differential is often supplied to make up for this compromise – if a wheel is lifted off the ground. this arrangement led to many problems. which spins freely).

Hybrid vehicles in which the final drive is electric can be configured similarly. If one belt broke. eliminating the need for a differential. so the system had limited-slip characteristics. or very low mass vehicles. but usually with some form of gearing at each motor to get the large wheel torques necessary. The duplication also provided redundancy. the vehicle could still be driven. Vehicles with separate motors for the driving wheels.to different gear ratios. The slower moving wheel received more driving torque than the faster one. such as the Isetta and Opperman Unicar. Electric cars can have a separate motor for each driving wheel.  Light vehicles with closely spaced rear wheels.  . thus functionally substituting for a differential.

SELF STUDY By: Ashish Diwakar 2K12/ME/058 .