Induction Book

Ruaumoko Manual
Volume 5:
Appendices
Author:
Athol J. Carr
Civil Engineering
1
Department of Civil Engineering COMPUTER PROGRAM LIBRARY
Program name:–
RUAUMOKO
Program type:–
In-elastic Time-History Analysis
Program code:–
ANSI Fortran77
Author:–
Athol J Carr
Date:–
November 27, 2008
APPENDICES
for programs
RUAUMOKO2D, RUAUMOKO3D, HYSTERES & INSPECT
-
APPENDIX A - STRENGTH DEGRADATION
-
APPENDIX B - STIFFNESS DEGRADATION
Hysteresis Loop data
Copyright \ Athol J. Carr, University of Canterbury, 1981-2007. All Rights reserved.
2
APPENDIX A
DEGRADING STRENGTH parameters (Only if ILOS > 0)
DUCT1 DUCT2 RDUCT DUCT3 RCYC
DUCT1 Ductility at which degradation begins ( > 1.0) F
DUCT2 Ductility at which degradation stops ( > DUCT1) F
RDUCT Residual Strength as a fraction of the Initial Yield Strength F
DUCT3 Ductility at 0.01 initial strength ( blank or > DUCT2) F
RCYC % reduction of strength per cycle of inelastic behaviour (ILOS = 4, 5, 6 or 7 only) F
Notes:
1. ILOS, the parameter that controls the strength degradation (see Properties tables)
ILOS = 0, No Strength Degradation.
ILOS = 1, Strength loss in each direction is a function of the ductility in that direction.
ILOS = 2, Strength loss in each direction is a function of the number of inelastic cycles.
ILOS = 3, Strength loss in each direction is a function of the maximum ductility.
ILOS = 4, As for ILOS = 1 above but strength loss is also proportional to the number of inelastic
cycles.
ILOS = 5, As for ILOS = 4 above but strength loss is also proportional to the number of inelastic cycles
and the strength due to ductility for ductilities greater than DUCT2 remains at the level of
RDUCT until the ductility reaches DUCT3 when the strength suddenly reduces to 1% of the
original strength.
ILOS = 6, As for ILOS = 3 above but strength loss is also proportional to the number of inelastic
cycles.
ILOS = 7 As for ILOS = 6 above but strength loss is also proportional to the number of inelastic cycles
and the strength due to ductility for ductilities greater than DUCT2 remains at the level of
RDUCT until the ductility reaches DUCT3 when the strength suddenly reduces to 1% of the
original strength.
2. If Strength Loss is based on cycle number rather than the ductility then DUCT1 is the cycle number that
the strength starts to reduce and DUCT2 is the cycle number at which the strength reaches the residual
value. It must be noted that the cycle number is computed as the number of times the hysteresis rule
leaves the post-yield back-bone or skeleton curve divided by 2 and this might be greater than the
number of cycles of hysteresis particularly if there has been a one sided ratchet-like behaviour of the
hysteresis. The minimum value permitted for RDUCT is 0.01. If the strength was to reduce to 0.0,
Ruaumoko would then take the member behaviour as elastic which would not be the intention of the
user.
3. If a number is provided for the variable DUCT3 above then the strength decreases linearly from
RDUCT times the initial strength at DUCT2 to 0.01 of the initial strength at ductility (cycle number)
DUCT3. If this number is omitted then the strength remains constant after DUCT2 is reached.
4. See Appendix B for information on which Hysteresis rules are able to accept strength degradation.
5. If ILOS is greater than 0 then as the strength is reduced the stiffness is reduced to match. This means
that the yield displacement, rotation or curvature remains constant as the strength decreases making
the definition of member ductility consistent. If the hysteresis loop being used has other strength
parameters such as a cracking force or moment then these are also reduced proportionally to the yield
strength. If this is not done then some of the hysteresis loops may be impossible to follow where the
yield strength would become less than the cracking strength.
6. If ILOS is supplied as a negative number, i.e. -5, the strength degradation rule would follow that for
ILOS=5 but the stiffness would not be reduced and other hysteresis rule actions would also not be
reduced. This means that the definition of ductility would be difficult to follow as the yield displacement.
rotation or curvature, which is the denominator in the expression for ductility, would decrease as the
strength decreases. Care would also be necessary insetting the levels of strength degradation to
ensure that the hysteresis loop does not become impossible to follow. See the note below.
3
Strength Reduction Variation
In earlier versions of Ruaumoko when the strength degraded the stiffness remained using its input values.
This causes problems with the definition of ductility in that as the yield force reduces and the stiffness
remains constant the yield displacement reduces and therefore for a given member deformation the apparent
ductility increases. This has shown up in that the residual strength, or the 1% strength, is reached at much
smaller displacements, or curvatures, than the user had expected. The program has now been modified
such that as the yield forces, or moments, degrade the stiffness also degrades. This means that the yield
displacements remain constant and the definitions of ductilities remain more consistant. As some hysteresis
rules have other force, or moment quantities such as cracking forces, or intercept forces (see Appendix B),
which can also cause difficulties when the yield strength degrades, such that the yield strength may reduce to
a smaller level than say the cracking moment leading to confusion within the hysteresis rule, such force
quantities are now also degraded as the yield strength degrades. This is more likely to be realistic than the
earlier operation of the strength degradation in that for most member sections the yield point is defined by the
extreme fibre yield strain and given the section properties the yield strain, or curvature, is more likely to
remain constant than is the yield force or moment. There are still some difficulties when there are different
degradations in each direction, ILOS =1, 4 or 5 as the stiffness will vary depending whether the member
displacement is positive or negative.
4
APPENDIX B
STIFFNESS DEGRADATION parameters
Hysteresis Rules for Inelastic Member Behaviour
Each of the rules is designated by the number as shown below.
0 = Elastic (default)
1 = Elasto-plastic
2 = Bi-linear
3 = Ramberg-Osgood
4 = Modified Takeda Degrading Stiffness
5 = Bi-linear with Slackness
6 = Kivell Degrading Stiffness
7 = Origin Centered Bi-linear Hysteresis
8 = SINA Degrading Stiffness
9 = Stewart Degrading Stiffness with Slackness
10 = Bi-linear Degrading Stiffness
11 = Clough Degrading Stiffness
12 = Q-HYST Degrading Stiffness
13 = Muto Tri-linear Degrading Stiffness
14 = Fukada Tri-linear Degrading Stiffness
15 = Bi-linear Elastic
16 = Non-linear Elastic (Un-Reinforced Masonry)
17 = Degrading Elastic
18 = Ring-Spring Isolator or Damper
19 = Hertzian Contact Non-linear Spring
20 = Mehran Keshavarzian's Degrading Stiffness
21 = Widodo Foundation Compliance
22 = Li Xinrong Reinforced Concrete Column Degrading Stiffness
23 = Bouc Degrading Stiffness
24 = Remennikov Out-of-plane Buckling Steel Brace
25 = Takeda with Slip Degrading Stiffness
26 = Al-Bermani Bounding Surface Hysteresis
27 = Peak Oriented Hysteresis
28 = Matsushima Strength Decay model
29 = Kato Shear model
30 = Elastomeric Damper Spring
31 = Composite Section, modified SINA model
32 = Different Stiffness in Positive and Negative directions. Modified Bi-linear rule
33 = Masonry Strut Hysteresis
34 = Hyperbolic Hysteresis
35 = Degrading Bi-linear with Gap Hysteresis
36 = Bi-linear with Differing Positive and Negative Stiffness Hysteresis
37 = Non-linear Elastic Power Rule Hysteresis
38 = Revised Origin Centred Hysteresis
39 = Dodd-Restrepo Steel Hysteresis
40 = Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
41 = Modified (Pyke) Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
42 = HERA-SHJ Steel Hinge unit.
43 = Resetting Origin Loop
44 = Pampanin Reinforced Concrete Hinge hysteresis
45 = Degrading Stiffness Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
46 = Dean Saunders Reinforced Concrete Column
47 = Multi-linear Elastic
48 = Isotropic/Kinematic Strain Hardening Bi-Linear
49 = Isotropic/Kinematic Strain-Hardening Ramberg-Osgood
50 = Flag-shaped Bi-linear Hysteresis
51 = Two-Four Hysteretic damper
52 = Schoettler-Restrepo Reinforced Concrete Hysteresis
53 = Rajesh Dhakal Steel Hysteresis
54 = Brian peng Concrete Hysteresis
55 = Air-column Damper
56 = Modified SINA hysteresis
5
57 = Revised TAKEDA hysteresis
58 = Shape memory Alloy Flag-shaped hysteresis
59 = Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha hysteresis
60 = IBARRA with pinching hysteresis
61 = IBARRA Peak Oriented hysteresis
62 = IBARRA Bi-linear hysteresis
63 = Bi-linear Elastic with Gap hysteresis
6
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Frame members in RUAUMOKO-2Dand RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST
Hysteresis
Rule
1cpt
beam
R-C
col.
Steel
col.
Gen
col.
2cpt
beam
VFlex
beam
0 Elastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1 Elasto-Plastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
2 Bi-linear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Takeda Yes Yes* Yes* Yes* Yes Yes
5 Bi-linear - Slackness Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Kivell Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
7 Origin-Centered Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 SINA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 Stewart Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
10 Degrading Bi-linear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 Clough Yes Yes* Yes* Yes* Yes Yes
12 Q-HYST Yes Yes* Yes* Yes* Yes No
13 Muto Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 Fukada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
15 Bi-linear Elastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 Non-Linear Elastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 Degrading Elastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 Ring-Spring Yes No No No No No
19 Hertzian Contact No No No No No No
20 Keshavarzian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
21 Widodo Foundation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
22 Li-Xinrong Column No Yes No No No No
23 Bouc Yes No No No Yes Yes
24 Remennikov Yes No Yes No No No
25 Takeda with slip Yes No No No Yes No
26 Al-Bermani Bound-Surface Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
27 Peak Oriented Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
28 Matsushima Degrading Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 Kato Degrading Shear Yes Yes No No Yes No
30 Elastomeric Spring No No No No No No
31 Composite Section Yes No No No Yes Yes
32 Different +/- Stiffness Yes No No No Yes Yes
33 Masonry Strut No No No No No No
34 Hyperbolic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 Degrading Bi-linear Yes No No No Yes No
36 Bi-linear Differing +/- Stiffness Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 Non-linear Elastic Power Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
38 Revised Origin Centred Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
40 Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 Pyke Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
42 HERA-SHJ Yes No No No Yes No
43 Resetting Origin No No No No No No
7
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Frame members in RUAUMOKO-2Dand RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST
Hysteresis
Rule
1cpt
beam
R-C
col.
Steel
col.
Gen
col.
2cpt
beam
VFlex
beam
44 Pampanin Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
45 Degrading Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
46 Dean Saunders Conc. Column Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
47 Multi-linear Elastic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
48 Isotropic Strain Hard. Bi-linear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
49 Isotropic Strain Hard. Ramberg Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 Flag-shaped Bi-linear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
51 Two-Four Hystertic damper No No No No No No
52 Schoettler-Restrepo Yes No No No Yes No
53 Rajesh Dhakal Steel No No No No No No
54 Brian Peng Concrete No No No No No No
55 Semi-active Air-damper No No No No No No
56 Modified SINA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 Revised TAKEDA hysteresis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
58 Shape Memory Alloy Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 IBARRA Pinching Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
61 IBARRA Peak-oriented Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
62 IBARRA Bi-linear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
8
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Spring members in RUAUMOKO-2D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1,3,4,5,6,7
0 Elastic Yes
1 Elasto-Plastic Yes
2 Bi-linear Yes
3 Ramberg-Osgood Yes
4 Takeda Yes
5 Bi-linear - Slackness Yes
6 Kivell Yes
7 Origin-Centered Yes
8 SINA Yes
9 Stewart Yes
10 Degrading Bi-linear Yes
11 Clough Yes
12 Q-HYST Yes
13 Muto Yes
14 Fukada Yes
15 Bi-linear Elastic Yes
16 Non-Linear Elastic Yes
17 Degrading Elastic Yes
18 Ring-Spring Yes
19 Hertzian Contact Yes
20 Keshavarzian Yes
21 Widodo Foundation Yes
22 Li-Xinrong Column No
23 Bouc Yes
24 Remennikov No
25 Takeda with slip Yes
26 Al-Bermani Bound-Surface Yes
27 Peak Oriented Yes
28 Matsushima Degrading Yes
29 Kato Degrading Shear Yes
30 Elastomeric Spring Yes
31 Composite Section No
32 Different +/- Stiffness Yes
33 Masonry Strut Hysteresis Yes
34 Hyperbolic Hysteresis Yes
35 Degrading Bi-linear Hysteresis Yes
36 Bi-linear Differing +/- Stiffness Yes
37 Non-linear Elastic Power Yes
38 Revised Origin Centred Yes
39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel Yes
40 Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Yes
41 Pyke Ramberg-Osgood Yes
42 HERA-SHJ Yes
43 Resetting Origin Yes
9
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Spring members in RUAUMOKO-2D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1,3 or 4
44 Pampanin Yes
45 Degrading Ramberg-Osgood Yes
46 Dean Saunders Concrete Column Yes
47 Multi-linear Elastic Yes
48 Isotropic Strain Hard Bi-linear Yes
49 Isotropic Strain Hard Ramberg Yes
50 Flag-shaped Bi-linear Yes
51 Two-Four Hysteretic Damper Yes
52 Schoettler-Restrepo Yes
53 Rajesh Dhakal Steel Yes
54 Brian Peng Concrete Yes
55 Semi-active Air-damper Yes
56 Modified SINA Yes
57 Revised TAKEDA Hysteresis Yes
58 Shape Memory Alloy Yes
59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Yes
60 IBARRA Pinching Yes
61 IBARRA Peak-oriented Yes
62 IBARRA Bi-linear Yes
63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap Yes
10
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Spring members in RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1,2 or 4
0 Elastic Yes
1 Elasto-Plastic Yes
2 Bi-linear Yes
3 Ramberg-Osgood Yes
4 Takeda Yes
5 Bi-linear - Slackness Yes
6 Kivell Yes
7 Origin-Centered Yes
8 SINA Yes
9 Stewart Yes
10 Degrading Bi-linear Yes
11 Clough Yes
12 Q-HYST Yes
13 Muto Yes
14 Fukada Yes
15 Bi-linear Elastic Yes
16 Non-Linear Elastic Yes
17 Degrading Elastic Yes
18 Ring-Spring Yes
19 Hertzian Contact Yes
20 Keshavarzian Yes
21 Widodo Foundation Yes
22 Li-Xinrong Column No
23 Bouc Yes
24 Remennikov No
25 Takeda with slip Yes
26 Al-Bermani Bound-Surface Yes
27 Peak Oriented Yes
28 Matsushima Degrading Yes
29 Kato Degrading Shear Yes
30 Elastomeric Spring Yes
31 Composite Section No
32 Different +/- Stiffness Yes
33 Masonry Strut Hysteresis Yes
34 Hyperbolic Hysteresis Yes
35 Degrading Bi-linear Hysteresis Yes
36 Bi-linear Differing +/- Stiffness Yes
37 Non-linear Elastic Power Yes
38 Revised Origin Centred Yes
39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel Yes
40 Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Yes
41 Pyke Ramberg-Osgood Yes
42 HERA-SHJ No
43 Resetting Origin Yes
11
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Spring members in RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1,2 or 4
44 Pampanin Yes
45 Degrading Ramberg-Osgood Yes
46 Dean Saunders Concrete Column Yes
47 Multi-linear Elastic Yes
48 Isotropic Strain Hard. Bi-lineaqr Yes
49 Isotropic Strain Hard. Ramberg Yes
50 Flag-shaped Bi-linear Yes
51 Two-Four Hysteretic Damper Yes
52 Schoettler-Restrepo Yes
53 Rajesh Dhakal Steel Yes
54 Brian Peng Concrete Yes
55 Semi-active Air-damper Yes
56 Modified SINA Yes
57 Revised TAKEDA Hysteresis Yes
58 Shape Memory Alloy Yes
59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Yes
60 IBARRA Pinching Yes
61 IBARRA Peak-oriented Yes
62 IBARRA Bi-linear Yes
63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap Yes
12
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Foundation members in RUAUMOKO-2D and RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5
0 Elastic Yes
1 Elasto-Plastic Yes
2 Bi-linear Yes
3 Ramberg-Osgood Yes
4 Takeda Yes
5 Bi-linear - Slackness No
6 Kivell No
7 Origin-Centered No
8 SINA Yes
9 Stewart No
10 Degrading Bi-linear Yes
11 Clough Yes
12 Q-HYST Yes
13 Muto Yes
14 Fukada Yes
15 Bi-linear Elastic Yes
16 Non-Linear Elastic No
17 Degrading Elastic No
18 Ring-Spring No
19 Hertzian Contact No
20 Keshavarzian Yes
21 Widodo Foundation Yes
22 Li-Xinrong Column No
23 Bouc Yes
24 Remennikov No
25 Takeda with slip No
26 Al-Bermani Bound-Surface Yes
27 Peak Oriented No
28 Matsushima Degrading Yes
29 Kato Degrading Shear No
30 Elastomeric Spring No
31 Composite Section No
32 Different +/- Stiffness Yes
33 Masonry Strut Hysteresis No
34 Hyperbolic Hysteresis Yes
35 Degrading Bi-linear Hysteresis Yes
36 Bi-linear Differing +/- Stiffness Yes
37 Non-linear Elastic Power Yes
38 Revised Origin Centred Yes
39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel No
40 Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Yes
41 Pyke Ramberg-Osgood Yes
42 HERA-SHJ No
43 Resetting Origin No
13
Use of Hysteresis Rules for Foundation members in RUAUMOKO-2D and RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule ITYPE = 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5
44 Pampanin Yes
45 Degrading Ramberg-Osgood Yes
46 Dean Saunders Concrete Column Yes
47 Multi-linear Elastic Yes
48 Isotropic Strain Hard. Bi-linear Yes
49 Isotropic Strain Hard. Ramberg Yes
50 Flag-shaped Bi-linear Yes
51 Two-Four Hysteretic Damper No
52 Schoettler-Restrepo No
53 Rajesh Dhakal Steel No
54 Brian Peng Concrete No
55 Semi-active Air-damper No
56 Modified SINA Yes
57 Revised TAKEDA Hysteresis Yes
58 Shape Memory Alloy No
59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Yes
60 IBARRA Pinching Yes
61 IBARRA Peak-oriented Yes
62 IBARRA Bi-linear Yes
63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap Yes
14
Use of Strength Degradation and Damage Indices in RUAUMOKO-2D and RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule Strength Degradation Damage Indices
0 Elastic No No
1 Elasto-Plastic Yes Yes
2 Bi-linear Yes Yes
3 Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes
4 Takeda Yes Yes
5 Bi-linear - Slackness Yes Yes
6 Kivell Yes Yes
7 Origin-Centered Yes Yes
8 SINA Yes Yes
9 Stewart Yes Yes
10 Degrading Bi-linear Yes Yes
11 Clough Yes Yes
12 Q-HYST Yes Yes
13 Muto Yes Yes
14 Fukada Yes Yes
15 Bi-linear Elastic No No
16 Non-Linear Elastic No No
17 Degrading Elastic No No
18 Ring-Spring No No
19 Hertzian Contact No No
20 Keshavarzian Yes Yes
21 Widodo Foundation No Yes
22 Li-Xinrong Column No Yes
23 Bouc No* Yes
24 Remennikov No Yes
25 Takeda with slip Yes Yes
26 Al-Bermani Bound-Surface Yes Yes
27 Peak Oriented Yes Yes
28 Matsushima Degrading No* Yes
29 Kato Degrading Shear No Yes
30 Elastomeric Spring No No
31 Composite Section Yes Yes
32 Different +/- Stiffness Yes Yes
33 Masonry Strut Hysteresis No Yes
34 Hyperbolic Hysteresis Yes Yes
35 Degrading Bi-linear Hysteresis No No
36 Bi-linear Differing +/- Stiffness Yes Yes
37 Non-linear Elastic Power No No
38 Revised Origin Centred Yes Yes
39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel No Yes
40 Bounded ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes
41 Pyke Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes
42 HERA-SHJ Yes No
43 Resetting Origin No No
15
Use of Strength Degradation and Damage Indices in RUAUMOKO-2D and RUAUMOKO-3D
IHYST Hysteresis Rule Strength Degradation Damage Indices
44 Pampanin No No
45 Degrading Ramberg-Osgood Yes Yes
46 Dean Saunders Concrete Column Yes Yes
47 Multi-linear Elastic Yes No
48 Isotropic Strain Hard. Bi-linear No Yes
49 Isotropic Strain Hard. Ramberg No Yes
50 Flag-shaped Bi-linear Yes Yes
51 Two-Four Hysteretic Damper No No
52 Schoettler-Restrepo No No
53 Rajesh Dhakal Steel No No
54 Brian Peng Concrete No No
55 Semi-active Air-damper No No
56 Modified SINA Yes Yes
57 Revised TAKEDA Hysteresis Yes Yes
58 Shape Memory Alloy Yes No
59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Yes Yes
60 IBARRA Pinching No Yes
61 IBARRA Peak-oriented No Yes
62 IBARRA Bi-linear No Yes
63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap No Yes
16
Notes on notation for hysteresis rules:

In all of the diagrams associated with the hysteresis rules the following notation is used.
F is the force or moment in the member.
d is the deformation or curvature in the member.
0
K is the initial elastic stiffness, i.e. the EI of a flexural beam or beam column, the AE/L for the axial
stiffness of a beam or beam column, or the stiffness K of a spring member.
y
F is the yield force or moment.
r is the bi-linear factor or Ramberg-Osgood factor.
y y y 0
: is the ductility where : = d / d where, in general, the yield displacement d = F / K
Some of these rules require further data which is described in the following pages.
Notes on the preceding tables:
If a hysteresis rule is selected and the rule is not allowed for that member then an error message is
printed in the output for the section properties and the analysis will be terminated.
Yes* implies that the hysteresis rule is now allowed for column members. However, the effects on the
small-cycle hysteresis loops of the yield moments varying with the changes in the axial force in the
member have not been studied.
If both Strength Degradation and Damage Indices are selected then the effects of Strength Degradation
on the computed Damage Indices is uncertain and a warning is printed after reading the member
properties.
If Strength Reduction or Damage Indices are not allowed for the specified Hysteresis Rule and they are
specified in the input data, the data is read and then the control parameters ILOS and/or IDAMG are
reset to zero. Warnings of these re-settings are printed in the output.
No*. The Bouc and Matsushima Hysteresis rules have their own strength degradation capability.
Damage indices for the masonry strut hysteresis only outputs the hysteretic work done.
For the Ruaumoko (2D) version Spring member ITYPE=2 is tri-linear hysteresis only. If ITYPE=3 then
the SINA hysteresis is used for the transverse (local y) direction.
For the Ruaumoko (2D) version the Frame member ITYPE=7, the four hinge beam has the allowable
hysteresis table that follow the same rules as that for the variable flexibility beam.
17
Linear Elastic Hysteresis
DEGRADING STIFFNESS parameters
IHYST = 0 Linear Elastic. - No further data required.
18
Elasto-Plastic Hysteresis
IHYST = 1 Elasto-Plastic Hysteresis. - No further data required.
Note: This rule is not available for Variable Flexibility Beam Members.
19
Bi-Linear Hysteresis
IHYST = 2 Bi-Linear Inelastic. - No further data required.
20
Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
IHYST = 3 RAMBERG-OSGOOD Hysteresis [Kaldjian 1967] - No further data required.
Note: The bi-linear factor in the section data is used as the Ramberg-Osgood factor r and must be
greater than or equal to 1.0
21
It must be noted that the Ramberg-Osgood loop works well when large cycle loops are exercised but an off-
set of the forces can occur in some small cycles as is shown in the diagram above. In 1984 the Ramberg-
Osgood hysteresis loop in Ruaumoko was modified to bound the forces within an envelope obtained by the
loops from the maximum and minimum displacements. In the year 2000 the Ramberg-Osgood loop reverted
to its original definition and the bounded version was moved to IHYST = 40.
22
Modified Takeda Hysteresis
IHYST = 4 Modified TAKEDA Hysteresis [Otani 1974].
Modified Takeda rule.
ALFA BETA NF KKK
ALFA Unloading stiffness (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) F
BETA Reloading stiffness (0.0 # BETA # 0.6) F
NF Reloading stiffness power factor (NF $ 1) I
KKK =1; Unloading as in DRAIN-2D I
=2; Unloading as by Emori and Schnobrich
Note: Increasing ALFA decreases the unloading stiffness and increasing BETA increases the reloading
stiffness. The power factor NF is usually taken as 1.0
23
Bi-Linear with Slackness Hysteresis
IHYST = 5 Bi-linear with Slackness Hysteresis.
The bi-linear with slackness model can be used to represent diagonal braced systems where yield in in one
direction may stretch the members leading to slackness in the bracing system. The model allows for either
yield in compression, in say a cross-braced system, or for a simple elastic buckling in compression which
would be more appropriate in a single brace member.
Bi-linear with Slackness rule.
GAP+ GAP- IMODE RCOMP C EPS0 ILOG
GAP+ Initial slackness, positive direction. ( > 0.0) F
GAP- Initial slackness, negative direction ( < 0.0) F
IMODE = 0; Default case, normal rule holds I
= 1; Bi-linear elastic buckling in compression.
= 2; Bi-linear Elastic in Tension and Compression
RCOMP Bi-linear Factor r in Compression F
C Strain-Rate Constant (if # 0.0 Strain-rate effects are ignored) F
EPS0 Quasi-static Strain-rate (if # 0.0 then C = 0.0) F
ILOG = 0; Natural Logarithms are used for Strain-rate effects I
= 1; Base 10 Logarithms are used for Strain-rate effects
Notes:
1 Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require GAP+ = - GAP-.
2 If no value is prescribed for RCOMP, i.e. there are less than four items on the line or RCOMP is the
word DEFAULT or D then the bi-linear factor in compression is the same as that for tension.
3 For the SPRING members the hysteresis data is the same for all actions. If different properties are
desired in the different actions then separate members should be used for the different actions. The
default bi-linear factor is that for the force components.
4 If the strain rate constant C is non zero then the positive and negative yield forces are multiplied by the
factor
where is the current strain rate and is the quasi-static strain rate EPS0.
24
Kivell Degrading Hysteresis
HYST = 6 KIVELL Degrading Stiffness [Kivell 1981].
The pinching model of Kivell was designed to represent the behaviour of the nails in steel nail-plates
connecting timber members together at the joints. The assumed cubic unloading-reloading curve is
represented by three straight lines.
Kivell Degrading rule.
ALFA
ALFA Unloading stiffness (0.0 # ALFA # 0.4) F
25
Origin-Centred Hysteresis
IHYST = 7 Origin-Centered Bi-linear Hysteresis - No further data is required,
On unloading and on subsequent reloading the path is on a line passing through the origin.
26
SINA Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis
IHYST = 8 SINA Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis. [Saiidi 1979].
SINA Degrading Tri-linear rule.
ALFA BETA FCR(i)+ FCR(i)- FCC(i)
ALFA Bi-linear factor (positive cracking to yield) F
BETA Bi-linear factor (negative cracking to yield) F
FCR(i)+ Cracking moment or force at i ( > 0.0) F
FCR(i)- Cracking moment or force at i ( < 0.0) F
FCC(i) Crack closing moment or force at i ( > 0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number of
actions and which action they refer to.
2. Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FCR(i)- = - FCR(i)+ etc. and that ALFA = BETA
27
Wayne Stewart Degrading Hysteresis
IHYST = 9 Wayne Stewart Degrading Stiffness Hysteresis. [Stewart 1984].
This very general rule was initially developed by Wayne Stewart for the representation of timber framed
structural walls sheathed in plywood nailed to the framework. The model allows for initial slackness as well as
subsequent degradation of the stiffness as the nails enlarged the holes and withdrew themselves from the
framework.
Stewart Degrading with slackness rule.
FU FI PTRI PUNL GAP+ GAP- BETA ALPHA LOOP
FU Ultimate force or moment ( > 0.0) F
FI Intercept force or moment ( > 0.0) F
PTRI Tri-linear factor beyond ultimate force or moment F
PUNL Unloading stiffness factor ( > 1.0) F
GAP+ Initial slackness, positive axis ( > 0.0) F
GAP- Initial slackness, negative axis ( < 0.0) F
BETA Beta or Softening factor ( $ 1.0) F
ALPHA Reloading or Pinch power factor ( # 1.0) F
LOOP =0 Loop as defined I
=1 Modified loop
Notes: Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require GAP+ = - GAP- and that all other
components maintain symmetry about the zero force or moment axis
This rule is not available for the Variable Flexibility or 4-Hinge Beam members.
Modified loop;
Member section yield values are taken as Fu+ and Fu- and the Fu on this line is taken as Fy+ and Fy-.
This modification allows the use of strength degradation. In the original model strength degradation
affects only the cracking moments Fy and not Fu. Also the PTRI (read as part of this data line) and r
(read as part of the member section data) are interchanged.
28
Operation of Wayne Stewart Hysteresis rule
Note: Vos = Fi etc.
29
Wayne Stewart used the following hysteresis values in his plywood wall examples [Stewart 1984].
FU = 1.5 times yield force or moment
FI = 0.25 times yield force or moment
PTRI = 0.0
PUNL = 1.45
BETA = 1.09
ALPHA = 0.38
Example: The diagram below shows the use of the modified Wayne-Stewart hysteresis loop to model a pre-
1970 reinforced concrete column hinge where plain round longitudinal reinforcement bars are
used [Liu,2001]. The two loops compare the observed experimental loop with that computed using
the program HYSTERES using the following parameters
Section Stiffness properties
K0 = 51.1 kN/mm
R = 0.001
FY+ = +58.4 kN
FY- = -58.4 kN
IHYST=9 Stiffness Degradation parameters (see preceding pages)
FRC (i.e. FU) = 27.6 kN
FI = 6.0 kN
PTRI = 0.14
PUNL = 1.1
GAP+ = 0.0
GAP- = 0.0
BETA = 1.2
ALPHA = 0.8
LOOP = 1
There is no strength degradation applied in this example.
30
Degrading Bi-linear Rule
IHYST = 10 Degrading Bi-linear Hysteresis. [Otani 1981].
This is similar to the Bi-linear rule except that the stiffness degrades with increasing inelastic deformation.
Degrading Bi-linear rule.
ALFA
ALFA Unloading stiffness (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) F
31
Clough Degrading Stiffness Hysteresis
IHYST = 11 CLOUGH Degrading Hysteresis. [Otani 1981] - No further data is required.
This rule was the first degrading stiffness rules to represent reinforced concrete members. The rule is the
same as the modified TAKEDA rule with the parameters ALFA and BETA both equal to 0.0.
32
Q-HYST Degrading Stiffness Hysteresis
IHYST = 12 Q-HYST Degrading Stiffness Hysteresis. [Saiidi 1979].
This rule is the same as the Modified Takeda rule with the parameter BETA set to 0.0 and unloading as per
Emori and Schnobrich.
Q-HYST Degrading rule.
ALFA
ALFA Unloading stiffness (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) F
Note: This rule is not available for the Variable Flexibility and 4-Hinge Beam Members.
33
Muto Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis
IHYST = 13 MUTO Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis. [Muto 1973].
After cracking the model is an Origin-Centered rule. After yield is reached the model become a Bi-linear
hysteresis with the equivalent elastic stiffness equal to the secant stiffness to the yield point.
Muto Degrading Tri-linear rule.
ALFA FCR(i)+ FCR(i)-
ALFA Bi-linear factor (cracking to yield) F
FCR(i)+ Cracking moment or force at i ( > 0.0) F
FCR(i)- Cracking moment or force at i ( < 0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number of
actions and which action they refer to.
2. Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and therefore
FCR(i)- = - FCR(i)+ etc.
34
Fukada Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis
IHYST = 14 FUKADA Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis. [Fukada 1969].
Fukada Degrading Tri-linear rule.

ALFA BETA FCR(i)+ FCR(i)-
ALFA Bi-linear factor (cracking to yield) F
BETA Unloading Stiffness factor (see Takeda ALFA) F
FCR(i)+ Cracking moment or force at i ( > 0.0) F
FCR(i)- Cracking moment or force at i ( < 0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number of
actions and which action they refer to.
2. Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FCR(i)- = - FCR(i)+ etc.
35
Bi-linear Elastic Rule
IHYST = 15 Bi-linear Elastic Hysteresis. - No further data is required.
This rule is similar to the Bi-linear hysteresis except that the rule unloads elastically down the same path which
means that no hysteretic energy is dissipated..
36
Non-linear Elastic Rule (URM)
IHYST = 16 Non-linear Elastic Hysteresis - No further data is required.
This non-linear elastic model represents the non-linear behaviour of face-loaded masonry wall units.
No hysteretic energy is dissipated.
37
Degrading Elastic Rule
IHYST = 17 Degrading Elastic Rule. - No further data is required.
The degradation of the elastic stiffness is proportional to the amount of equivalent ductility. This equivalent
ductility is equal to the displacement divided by the nominal yield deformation.
38
Ring-Spring Hysteresis
IHYST = 18 Ring-Spring Hysteresis. [Hill 1994]
This device can be used as a seismic energy dissipation device. The default model operates in the compressive
force - compressive displacement quadrant of the force-displacement plot.
Ring-Spring
RSTEEP RLOWER DXINIT KTYPE KLOOP
RSTEEP Unloading Steep Stiffness factor (usually greater than 1.0) F
RLOWER Unloading Lower Stiffness factor (usually less than the Bi-linear factor) F
DXINIT Initial Displacement F
KTYPE = 0 ; Uni-directional, = 1 ; Bi-directional I
KLOOP = 0 ; New Definition, = 1 ; Original Definition. I
Note:
1. This rule is normally only available for the Spring Members. In this case do not supply yield data as the
yield point is defined by DXINIT, see below.
2. The rule may be used for the flexural components of the Giberson one-component beam option of the
FRAME members when it would normally be expected to be used in the bi-directional mode. It may also
be used for the axial component of the Giberson beam members provided the beam has no flexural
stiffness i.e. EI is zero, representing a truss-like action. In both of these cases the appropriate yield
moments or yield forces must be provided with dummy non-zero values (the actual yield values are
computed internally by the hysteresis rule but non-zero yield forces or moments are required in order that
the member is treated as non-linear).
3. When initial pre-stress (FRAME members) or pre-load (SPRING members) forces are applied to the Uni-
directional Ring-spring (KTYPE = 0) they must be compressive (i.e. negative) forces.
39
Hertzian Contact Spring
IHYST = 19 Hertzian Contact Spring Hysteresis Rule. [Davis 1992]
The Hertzian contact spring is useful for modelling the contact between impacting structures. It really models
contact between spheres but this seems to be used in wider applications. It is only available for the SPRING
members and the CONTACT members.
Hertzian Contact Spring
MPP MPN PFP PFN GAP+ GAP-
MPP Stiffness Multiplier for Positive Displacement F
MPN Stiffness Multiplier for Negative Displacement F
PFP Power factor for Positive Displacement F
PFN Power factor for Negative Displacement F
GAP+ Initial slackness in Positive direction ($ 0.0) F
GAP- Initial slackness in Negative direction (# 0.0) F
40
Mehran Keshavarian Hysteresis
IHYST = 20 MEHRAN KESHAVARZIAN Degrading and Pinching Hysteresis. [Keshavarzian 1984]
Mehran Keshavarian Degrading and Pinching rule.
ALFA
ALFA Unloading stiffness (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) (see Takeda) F
Note: This rule is not available for the Variable Flexibility and 4-Hinge Beam Members.
41
Widodo Foundation Compliance
IHYST = 21 WIDODO Foundation Compliance Model.[Widodo 1995]
These non-linear elastic rules are designed to model foundation compliance springs including the modelling of
a wall footing that can suffer partial or tip uplift. This is only appropriate to SPRING members, see section 12..
Widodo Foundation Compliance.
A(i) P(i) Q(i)
A(i) Multiplier for i th Component F
P(i) Power Factor for First part of i th Component F
Q(i) Power Factor for Second Part of i th Component F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number
of actions and which action they refer to.
2. This rule is not available for the Variable Flexibility Beam members.
42
Li Xinrong Reinforced Concrete Column Hysteresis
IHYST = 22 Li XINRONG Reinforced Concrete Column Hysteresis. [Li Xinrong 1994]
This rule is only available for the Reinforced Concrete column option for the FRAME members, see section 11.
The degrading rule modifies the stiffness of the member to allow for the effects due to variation of the axial force
acting in the column.
Li Xinrong Degrading Reinforced Concrete Column.
FPC RHO PB U ALFA BETA PINCH
FPC Concrete Compressive Strength f'c ( < 0.0) F
RHO Percentage Longitudinal Steel content F
PB Yield Moment - Axial Force Diagram Balance Axial Force F
U Unloading Coefficient (0.7 to 1.0) (Li Xinrong used 0.9) F
ALFA Factor for unloading (0.5 to 1.0) (Li Xinrong used 0.9) F
BETA Factor used in relocation of unloading point (0.8) F
PINCH Pinching Factor (0.7 to 0.9) F
43
IHYST = 23 BOUC Hysteresis Rule. [Wen 1976]
This very general parametric hysteresis rule gives a smooth transition of the change of stiffness as the
deformation of the member changes. It has been used to represent lead-rubber bridge bearings or energy
dissipators [Bessasson 1992] and has been used for the analysis of inelastic buildings subjected to random
vibration [Baber 1981].
Bouc Degrading Stiffness.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 N D3 D4 D5 MODE INIT
A1 Loop Fatness parameter ( 0.1 to 0.9) F
A2 Loop Pinching parameter (-0.9 to 0.9) F
A3 Stiffness parameter (usually 1.0) F
A4 Degradation parameter (usually 1.0) F
A5 Strength parameter (usually 1.0) F
N Power Factor, Controls Abruptness (1 to 3, usually 1) I
D3 Strength Degradation parameter (0.0 to 0.1) (0.0 no degradation) F
D4 Loop Size Degradation (0.0 to 0.2) (0.0 no degradation) F
D5 Stiffness Degradation (0.0 to 0.2) (0.0 no degradation) F
MODE = 0 Constantinou Version
= 1 Baber and Wen Version
INIT = 0 Normal
= 1 Bi-linear until first unloading after yielding
Note: This rule is not available for the Beam-Column Members
Bouc Hysteresis Versions
Baber and Wen
Constantinou
where and are the displacement velocity, is the elastic stiffness, is the bi-linear factor and is the yield
displacement. is the yield force and is the change in displacement. Q is the force in the spring and F is
the current stiffness factor. The tangent stiffness is . and are the Bouc hysteresis control
parameters, is the power factor.
44
Bouc Hysteresis Rule
The Bouc rule is controller by the parameter , which in RUAUMOKO is initially 0.0 and is integrated step-by-step
as in the above equations. The rule is such that at the static analysis which means that the initial
stiffness is the bi-linear stiffness and the force in the member is proportional to the bi-linear stiffness and the
displacement. To over come some of these effects an option is to force the rule to be bi-linear until reversal after
the first yield. A result is that there is a marked reduction in member force at the change of rule. further work is
being done to fully understand the implications of the use of this hysteresis.
45
Steel Brace Member Hysteresis
IHYST = 24 REMENNIKOV Steel Brace Member Hysteresis.
Represents the out-of-plane buckling of a steel brace member.
REMENNIKOV Steel Brace rule.
Iminor Sminor k ALFA BETA THETA0 E1 E2 E3 E4 N SHAPE
Iminor Second Moment of Area about Minor axis F
Sminor Plastic Section Modulus about Minor axis F
eff
k Effective Length Parameter (L = kL) F
ALFA Strain Hardening Alpha (1.0 # " # 1.5) F
BETA Beta factor ($ > 1.0) recommended range 1.2 to 1.4 F
THETA0 Initial out-of-straightness (length units) F
E1 Effective modulus e1 (>0.0) F
E2 Effective modulus e2 (>0.0) F
E3 Effective modulus e3 (>0.0) F
E4 Effective modulus e4 F
N = 0; ALFA above used for strain hardening effects. I
= 1; Built-in strain hardening rule and ALFA is reset to 1.0
SHAPE = 1; Flanged section such as an I section. I
= 2; Circular hollow section
= 3; RHS or SHS section
Notes:
1. This hysteresis is available only for the Giberson One-component beam and the Steel beam-column
options of the FRAME member type. (see Section 11a)
2. The member only permits this hysteresis in the axial component. The member is assumed to be bi-linear
in flexure (provided the yield moments are non-zero in sections 11e or 11g).
3. The beam or beam-column cross-section area and the axial yield forces in section 11e or the yield
interaction forces and moments in section 11g must be supplied.
4. It is recommended that Iteration on Residuals, say MAXIT = 3 and FTEST = 0.001, be used with this rule
(see section 5).
5. It is recommended that a small time step be used so that the transitions within the rule may be followed.
46
Definition of Different Zones
47
Idealization Curves for Tangent Modulus History
Tangent Modulus – Axial Force Relationship
Analytical Axial Force – Plastic Hinge Rotation Curve
48
Takeda with Slip Hysteresis
IHYST = 25 TAKEDA with SLIP Hysteresis. [Kabeyasawa 1983]
This rule allows slip when the deformation reloads in the member strong direction.
TAKEDA with SLIP rule.
ALFA BETA1 BETA2 FC(i) RC(i)
ALFA Unloading Degradation parameter (see Takeda ALFA) (0.0 # ALFA # 1.0) F
BETA1 Slipping stiffness parameter F
BETA2 Re-loading stiffness parameter F
FC(i) Cracking Force for Component i ( > 0.0) F
RC(i) Cracking Displacement for Component i ( > 0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number
of actions and which action they refer to.
2. The initial elastic stiffness supplied with the section properties is the secant stiffness passing through the
origin and the yield points on the member hysteresis curve.
3. The yield points in the negative direction for component i is at ( -FC(i), -RC(i) )
4. Slip only occurs when re-loading towards the stronger direction.
49
The following example show the use of the Takeda with Slip hysteresis loop to model the behaviour of a pre-1970
reinforced concrete beam which is reinforced with plain round bar reinforcement [Liu, 2001]. The loops show the
observed experimental loop and the matching loop from the program HYSTERES using the loop parameters
provided below.
Section Property parameters
K0 = 10.4 kN/mm
R = 0.05
YP+ = +93.4 kN
YP- = -61.4 kN
IHYST=25 Stiffness Degradation parameters (see previous page)
ALFA = 0.2
BETA1 = 1.2
BETA2 = 1.5
FC = 26.9 kN
RC = -0.65 mm
Strength Degradation parameters
ILOS = 1
DUCT1 = 3
DUCT2 = 8
RDUCT= 0.3
DUCT3 = 10
50
Bounding-Surface Hysteresis
IHYST = 26 AL-BERMANI Bounding-surface Hysteresis. [Zhu, 1995]
This rule allows for the Bauschinger effects in steel members by using a bounding surface rather than the more
often used but more complicated Ramberg-Osgood functions.
Bounding Surface rule.
ALFA BETA
ALFA Positive ALFA (0.0<ALFA<0.9) F
BETA Negative BETA (0.0<BETA<0.9) F
Notes:
1. The bi-linear factor p must be greater then 0.001. (see section 11c or section 12a)
This limitation on p should prevent mathematical difficulties with the logarithmic and exponential
functions.
2 The use of this rule in Concrete and Steel Beam column members will require symmetry in the actions
at each end, i.e. ALFA = BETA etc.
51
Peak Oriented Hysteresis
IHYST = 27 PEAK Oriented Hysteresis. - No further data is required.
This rule is similar to the Origin Centered rule except that on unloading the force-displacement relationship moves
along a line to the maximum force-displacement point in the opposite direction. If yield has not occurred in that
direction the opposite yield point is used as the target.
52
Matsushima Degrading Hysteresis
IHYST = 28 MATSUSHIMA Strength Reduction Hysteresis. [Matsushima 1969]
This rule represents the behaviour of short reinforced concrete columns failing in shear. The rule uses basically
a bi-linear hysteresis but that the elastic stiffness and strength degrade every time unloading takes place from
the post-yield part of the bi-linear force displacement curve.
Matsushima rule.
A B
A Stiffness Multiplier A (0.0 < A < 1.0) F
B Strength Multiplier B (0.0 < B < 1.0) F
Notes:
1. A and B are raised to then power N where N is the number of times the system unloads from the bi-linear
force-displacement hysteresis back-bone.
53
KATO Shear Hysteresis
IHYST = 29 KATO Degrading Shear Model. [Kato 1983]
Represents the behaviour of a reinforced concrete member failing in shear. A tri-linear skeleton curve with a
falling bi-linear part is used.
Kato Shear rule.
PTRI ALFA BETA GAMMA FU(i)+ FU(i)-
PTRI Tri-linear Factor (must be less than or equal to zero) F
ALFA Unloading Degrading Factor (0 < ALFA < 1) (see Takeda) F
BETA Slip Stiffness Factor (0 # BETA < 1) F
GAMMA Slip Length Factor (0 # GAMMA < 1) F
FU(i)+ Positive FU at component i (>0.0) F
FU(i)- Negative FU at component i (<0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number
of actions and which action they refer to.
2. The bi-linear factor p must be less than 0.0 and less than the tri-linear factor PTRI. (see section 11c or
section 12a)
3. The actions FU should less than the appropriate yield actions FY.
4. The use of this rule in Concrete members will require symmetry in the actions at each end, i.e. FU(i)+
= -FU(i)- etc.
5. For reinforced concrete members failing in shear the recommended values are ALFA = 0.4, BETA = 0.6
and GAMMA = 0.95.
6. For reinforced concrete members flexure dominated members the recommended values are ALFA =
0.2, BETA = 0.0 and GAMMA = 0.0.
54
Elastomeric Spring Damper
IHYST = 30 Elastomeric Spring Damper Hysteresis. [Pekcan 1995]
Represents a double-acting elastomeric spring which has resistance due to both displacement and velocity. The
stiffness properties are basically bi-linear elastic.
Elastomeric Spring Damper rule.
C DMAX ALFA
C Damper Constant ($0.0) F
DMAX Maximum Damper Stroke ($0.0) F
ALFA Velocity Exponent (>0.0) F
Notes:
D
1. The force F in the elastomeric damper is given by
0
where the d is the displacement of the spring and where K is the initial stiffness of the device and is the
0 y
longitudinal spring stiffness of the member. The stiffness rK is the stiffness after the prestress F is
y
overcome where r is the bi-linear factor for the spring member. The prestress force F is taken as the
positive longitudinal yield force of the member and if the prestress is zero the spring stiffness is taken
0
as constant equal to rK .
max
2. If DMAX is zero then the ratio of d to d is taken as 1.0. This has the effect of taking the exponent $
in the reference paper as zero.
3. The exponent ALFA was taken as 0.2 in the reference.
55
Composite Section Hysteresis
IHYST = 31 Composite Section. - Modified SINA Hysteresis.
This rule allows for the modelling of composite concrete-steel beams or concrete T beams where the behaviour
is different in the positive and negative flexural actions.
Composite Section rule.
BETA FCR(i) FCC(i)
BETA Stiffness Factor Cracking to Yield in Negative direction (ALFA < 1.0) F
FCR(i) Cracking Force in Negative direction at component i (FRC(i) < 0.0) F
FCC(i) Cracking Closing Force at component i (FCC(i) < 0.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number
of actions and which action they refer to.
2. The post cracking stiffness factor BETA must be greater than the bi-linear factor r (see member
properties sections)
56
Different Positive-Negative Stiffness Hysteresis
IHYST = 32 Different Positive and Negative Stiffness. Modified Bi-linear Hysteresis.
This rule allows for different stiffnesses in the positive and negative directions. The basic hysteresis rule is a
modification of the degrading Bi-linear rule.
Different Positive and Negative Stiffness rule.
ALFA BETA
ALFA Negative stiffness factor of the positive stiffness (ALFA > 0.1) F
BETA Unloading Degrading Factor, see TAKEDA ALFA (0.0 < BETA < 0.9) F
57
IHYST = 33 Masonry Strut Hysteresis (Crisafulli 1997).
This rule allows for the modelling of masonry panels in framed structures. If the strut model is used with the
spring members then only the longitudinal stiffness is specified for the strut member and two struts are required
to model each panel, one strut across each diagonal of the panel. The masonry strut hysteresis is also used for
the Masonry Panel Element where four struts represent the panel together with a shear spring..
Masonry Strut Hysteresis rule.
Stress-strain relationship
FC FT UC UUL UCL EMO GUN ARE
FC Compressive strength (stress units) (FC < 0.0) F
FT Tensile strength (stress units) (FT > 0.0) F
UC Strain at FC (UC < 0.0) F
UUL Ultimate strain (UUL < 0.0) (UUL # 1.5 UC) F
UCL Closing strain F
EMO Initial masonry modulus (EMO $ 2 FC/UC) F
GUN Stiffness unloading factor (GUN $ 1.0) F
ARE Strain reloading factor (ARE > 0.0) F
Strut data
AREA1 AREA2 R1 R2 IENV
AREA1 Initial strut cross-sectional area (AREA1 > 0.0) F
AREA2 Final strut cross-sectional area (AREA2 # AREA1) F
R1 Displacement at 1 (R1 < 0.0) F
R2 Displacement at 2 (R2 # R1) F
IENV = 0 ; Sargin stress-strain envelope descending branch I
= 1 ; Parabolic stress-strain envelope descending branch
58
Masonry Strut Strength Envelope
Masonry Strut Hysteresis
59
Notes:
m2
FC The compressive strength f is the main parameter controlling the resistance of the strut. It must be
'
noted that FC does not represent the standard compressive stress of masonry but should be adopted
taking into account the inclination of the compressive principal stresses and the mode of failure expected
in the masonry panel. See Crisafulli 1997.
t
FT Tensile strength f' represents the tensile strength of the masonry or the bond strength of the panel-frame
interface, whichever is smallest. The consideration of the tensile strength has been introduced in the
model in order to gain generality. However, results obtained from different examples indicate that the
tensile strength, which is generally much smaller than the compressive strength, has no significant
influence on the overall response. Therefore, in the absence of more detailed information, the tensile
strength can be assumed to be zero.
m
UC The strain at maximum stress g' usually varies between -0.002 and -0.005 and its main effect on the
overall response of the infilled frame is the modification of the secant stiffness of the ascending branch
of the stress-strain curve.
u
UUL The ultimate strain g is used to control the descending branch of the stress-strain relationship. When
u m
a large value is adopted for, example g = 20 g' , a smooth decrease of the compressive stress is
obtained.
cl
UCL The closing strain g defines the limit strain at which the cracks partially close and compressive stresses
can be developed. Values of the closing strain ranging between 0 and 0.003 lead to results which agree
cl u
adequately with experimental data. If a large negative value is adopted, for example g = g , this effect
is not considered in the analysis.
mo
EMO The elastic modulus E represents the initial slope of the stress-strain curve and its value can exhibit
a large variation. Various expressions have been proposed for the evaluation of the elastic modulus of
masonry. It is worth noting, however, that these expressions usually define the secant modulus at a
stress level between 1/3 and 2/3 of the maximum compressive stress. In order to obtain an adequate
mo m2 m
ascending branch of the strength envelope it is assumed that E $ 2 f' / g' .
un
GUN The unloading stiffness factor ( controls the slope of the unloading branch. It is assumed to be greater
than or equal to 1.0 and usually ranges from 1.5 to 2.5.
re
ARE The reloading strain factor " defines the point where the reloading curves reach the strength envelope.
The calibration of the hysteretic model for the axial behaviour of masonry showed that good results are
obtained using values ranging between 0.2 and 0.4. However, higher values, for example 1.5, are
required to model adequately the cyclic response of the infilled frames. This is because other sources
of nonlinear behaviour, such as sliding shear, need to be indirectly considered in the response of the
masonry struts.
Four parameters are required to represent the cross-sectional area of the masonry strut. These are the initial area
ms1 ms2
A = AREA1 and final area A = AREA2 and the axial displacements at which the cross-sectional area
R1 R2
changes, ) = R1 and ) = R2. In a simplified model, it can be assumed that AREA1 and AREA2 are the
same using a low value of the strut area to avoid an excessive increase in the axial strength. In a more refined
analysis, a higher value of the initial area can be adopted, whereas the final area can be reduced by about 10%
m m m m m
to 30%. The displacement R1 and R2 can be estimated as g' d /5 and g' d (where d is the length of the
masonry strut) respectively, at least until more precise information becomes available. Several empirical
expressions, which are described in section 6.2.1.3 of the reference, have been proposed for the evaluation of
the equivalent width of the masonry strut, whose value normally ranges from 0.1 to 0.25 of the diagonal length
of the infill panel.
IENV The descending branch of the stress-strain curve is usually modelled with a parabola instead of the curve
associated with Sargin's equation in order to obtain a better control of the response of the strut after the
maximum stress has been reached.
60
Hyperbolic Hysteresis
IHYST = 34 Hyperbolic Hysteresis (no further data required)
(Konduor and Zelansko (1963))
(also Duncan and Chang (1970))
This rule has been popular in representing the shear stress–shear strain relationships in soils subjected to
earthquake excitation.
.
61
Degrading Bi-linear With Gap Hysteresis
IHYST = 35 Degrading Bilinear with Gap Hysteresis
This hysteresis was initially developed to model a strain-hardening behaviour which changed with increasing cycle
number. The members were used in parallel with a member having a more conventional hysteretic behaviour
such as Bi-linear or Ramberg-Osgood. The total member force was taken as the sum of the two number forces.
Degrading Bi-linear with Gap
GAP+ GAP– PUN
GAP+ Initial gap in positive direction ($ 0.0) F
GAP– Initial gap in negative direction (# 0.0) F
PUN Unloading stiffness factor ($ 1.0) F
62
Bi-linear with Differing Positive and Negative Stiffness Hysteresis
IHYST = 36 Bi-linear with Different +/– stiffness hysteresis
The rule is to represent actions which exhibit different stiffnesses under positive or negative forces or moments.
This may be typical of reinforced concrete T sections for example.
Bi-linear with +/– stiffness
ALFA BETA GAMMA IOP
ALFA Positive stiffness is ALFA * nominal stiffness ALFA $ 0.1 F
BETA Negative stiffness is BETA * nominal stiffness BETA $ 0.1 F
GAMMA Unloading degradation factor F
see Takeda (IHYST=4) ALFA 0.5 $ GAMMA $ 0.0
IOP = 0 ; Bi-linear factor is the same in both directions I
= 1 ; Positive bi-linear factor = ALFA * bi-linear factor
Negative bi-linear factor = BETA * bi-linear factor
63
Non-linear Elastic Power Rule
IHYST = 37 Non-linear Elastic Power Rule
This rule is similar to the Bi-linear Elastic Hysteresis, IHYST = 15 except that it avoids the problems with the
sudden change of stiffness on unloading encountered due to the lack of energy dissipation in these non-linear
elastic hysteresis rules.
Non-linear Elastic Power Rule
PFP(i) PFN(i)
PFP(I) Power factor in positive direction for component i (0.01 # PFP # 3.0) F
PFN(i) Power factor in negative direction for component i (0.01 # PFN # 3.0) F
Notes:
1. The i refers to the different actions on the member, see the member data descriptions for the number
of actions and which action they refer to.
1. Normally PFP and PFN are less than 1.0
64
Revised Origin-Centred Bi-linear Hysteresis
IHYST = 38 Revised Origin Centred Bi-linear Hysteresis (No further data is required)
On unloading the path is back to the origin. In reloading the path follows the previous unloading path on that side
of the origin.
65
Dodd-Restrepo Steel Hysteresis Rule
IHYST = 39 Dodd-Restrepo Steel Hysteresis Rule
This hysteresis rule is designed to allow for the Bauschinger effects in the steel hysteresis.
Dodd-Restrepo Steel Rule
ESH Esu Fsu OmegaF
ESH Deformation (curvature) at initiation of strain hardening F
Esu Deformation (curvature) at peak load F
Fsu Force (moment) at peak load F
OmegaF Bauschinger Effect Factor (0.6 < OmegaF < 1.3) F
(Default value = 1.0)
Reference:
Dodd, L.L. and Restrepo-Posada, J.I. Model for Predicting Cyclic Behaviour of Reinforcing Steel. J. Structural
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 3, Mar. 1995, pp 433–445.
66
Plot of Displacement History
Plot of Computed and Experimental Force Histories
67
IHYST = 40. Bounded Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis. No extra data required.
This loop is similar to that for IHYST = 3 except that bounds have been applied to the forces so that off-sets to
the forces do not occur during small cycles of displacement.
68
IHYST = 41. Pyke modification to the Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis. No extra data required.
This loop is similar to that for IHYST = 3 except that the small cycle behaviour has been modified to prevent off-
sets on the force in these small cycles. These loops were initially used to model the behaviour of soils.The small
loops indicate a greater rate of change of force with increasing displacement i.e. a greater curvature in the plots.
69
IHYST = 42. HERA - SHJ (Sliding Hinge Joint) Hysteresis.
This loop developed by the Heavy Engineering Research Association (New Zealand) is to represent the
behaviour of a sliding moment connection between steel beams with a concrete slab above them and connected
to at the joints to steel columns.
HERA-SHJ Hysteresis Rule
Cspp Cspn Ru Tdp Tdn Ispr
Cspp Positive Moment Intercept ( > 0.0 ) F
Cspn Negative Moment Intercept ( < 0.0 ) F
Ru Unloading stiffness factor ( > 0.0 ) F
Tdp Positive Design Theta ( > 0.0 ) F
Tdn Negative Design Theta ( < 0.0 ) F
Ispr = 0; Without Belleville Springs I
= 1; With Belleville Springs
70
71
IHYST = 43 Resettable Actuator Hysteresis. No extra data required.
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of a semi-active damper member [Hunt, 2003]. The force is
proportional to the displacement until a saturation force is attained, Fy+ or Fy- (the yield forces for the
member) when the system appears to show a perfectly plastic response. On any reversal of displacement the
force is automatically reset to zero and the origin is moved to the existing displacement and the system will
then behave as an elastic member until either saturation is achieved or the displacement again changes sign.
72
IHYST = 44 Pampanin Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Hysteresis.
Pampanin Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint rule.
IOP AlfaS1 AlfaS2 AlfaU1 AlfaU2 DeltaF Beta
IOP =1; Option 1 - Reloading Power Factor I
=2; Option 2 - Reloading Slip Factor
AlfaS1 Slip Stiffness Power Factor As1 ( 1.5 # As1 # 3.0) F
AlfaS2 Option 1- Reloading Power Factor As2 ( 0.5 # As2 # 1.0) F
Option 2- Reloading Slip Factor Xi ( 1.0 # Xi # 1.5)
AlfaU1 Initial Unloading Power Factor Au1 (-1.0 # Au1 # 0.0) F
AlfaU2 Final Unloading Power Factor Au2 ( 0.3 # Au2 # 1.0) F
DeltaF Unloading Force Factor (%) Df ( 20 # DeltaF # 50) F
Beta Reloading Factor Beta (-1.0 # Beta # 0.0) F
Pampanin Hysteresis IOP=0
73
Pampanin Hysteresis IOP=1
74
Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
IHYST = 45 Degrading Stiffness RAMBERG-OSGOOD Hysteresis.
Degrading Stiffness Ramberg-Osgood rule.
IOP ALFA BETA GAMMA RESID
IOP =1; Original Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST= 3) I
=2; Limited Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST=40)
=3; “Pyke” Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST=41)
ALFA % stiffness degradation per cycle (0.0 # ALFA # 10) F
BETA Ductility where stiffness starts to degrade with ductility (BETA $ 1.0 or = 0.0) F
If BETA=0.0 then there is NO degradation with ductility.
GAMMA Ductility where stiffness stops degrading with ductility (GAMMA > BETA) F
RESID Residual Stiffness when degrading with Ductility (RESID $ 0.50) F
Note: The bi-linear factor in the section data is used as the Ramberg-Osgood factor r and must be greater
than or equal to 1.0
75
IHYST = 46 DEAN SAUNDERS Reinforced Concrete Column Hysteresis.
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of Older Reinforced Concrete Columns where plain round
reinforcement is used.
DEAN SAUNDERS Reinforced Concrete Column rule.
DY+ DY- Funl+ Funl- ALFA BETA IOP
DY+ Positive Yield Deformation. Must be greater than (Yield Action)/Stiffness. F
DY- Negative Yield Deformation. Must be less than (Yield Action)/Stiffness. F
Funl+ Positive Threshold Action. Must be less than Positive Yield Action. F
Funl- Negative Threshold Action. Must be greater than Negative Yield Action. F
ALFA Unloading stiffness degradation factor (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) F
BETA Reloading Factor (BETA $ 1.0) F
IOP =0; Threshold actions reduce with strength degradation. I
=1; Threshold actions remain constant when yield actions degrade.
Notes: 1. There is a 4 point Bezier curve fitted between the point (Funl+,(Funl+)/STIFF) and (YP,DY+)
with the initial slope STIFF and the final slope r*STIFF.
2. On unloading the rule is origin centered when the action is less than Funl+. When the action
is greater than Funl+ the unloading stiffness Ku degrades with the factor ALFA as observed
in the Degrading Bi-Linear Hysteresis (IHYST = 10).
3. The behaviour in the negative Action-Deformation quadrant is identical to that in the positive
Action-Deformation quadrant.
4. The parameter BETA only comes into action if the deformation in the other quadrant has
exceeded the yield deformation.
Dean Saunders Hysteresis Rule
76
Example of Dean Saunders Hysteresis
This example show the behaviour when strength degradation is also applied. It compares experimental results
with computational results.
In this example
Fy+ =289 kNm Fy- =-250kNm Funl =65kNm,
Ko =46.3 kNm/mm )y+ =11.35mm )y- =-11.35mm
" =0.01 $ =1.25 r =0.01
Iop =1
With the exception of strength degradation, which is progressive in the model, the results agree quite well for the
overall response of the observed hysteresis. The current limitation for the proposed hysteresis rule is that strength
degradation as calculated in Ruaumoko is computed outside the hysteresis rule. This results in the reloading line
converging to the previously stored force and maximum displacement coordinate before degrading down the
ductility degradation slope. To eliminate this limitation the rule will need to include a local strength degradation
feature that degrades the reloading line based on cycle number and starts from the threshold capacity.
Reference: Saunders, D.B. Seismic Performance of Pre 1970's Non-Ductile Reinforced Concrete Waffle
Slab Frame Structures Constructed with Plain Round Reinforcing Steel. Ph.D Thesis,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. 2004,
p184+appendices.
77
IHYST = 47 Multi-Linear Elastic Hysteresis.
Multi-Linear Elastic rule.
N F1 D1 F2 D2 F3 D3
N Number of segments beyond Bi-linear (1 # N # 3) I
F1 Fraction of stiffness in first segment beyond Bi-linear F
D1 Multiplier on Yield Displacement where F1 applies (D1 $ 1.05) F
F2 Fraction of stiffness in second segment beyond Bi-linear F
D2 Multiplier on Yield Displacement where F2 applies (D2 $ 1.05*D1) F
F3 Fraction of stiffness in third segment beyond Bi-linear F
D3 Multiplier on Yield Displacement where F3 applies (D3 $ 1.05*D2) F
Note: The F1, F2 and F3 factors should not be less than 0.0 for single degree of freedom systems.
Multi-linear Elastic Hysteresis
78
IHYST = 48 Kinematic/Isotropic Strain Hardening Bi-Linear Hysteresis.
Kinematic/Isotropic Strain Hardening Bi-Linear rule.
ALFA BETA
ALFA Stiffness Degrading Factor (See IHYST=10) (0.0 # ALFA # 0.5) F
BETA Isotropic Hardening Factor (0.0 # BETA # 1.0) F
If BETA=0.0 then there is NO Isotropic Strain Hardening.
If BETA=1.0 then there is Full Isotropic Strain Hardening.
Note: The bi-linear factor ‘r’ in the section data must be greater than 0.0 if Kinematic or Isotropic strain
hardening is to occur
79
Ramberg-Osgood Hysteresis
IHYST = 49 Kinematic/Isotropic Strain Hardening RAMBERG-OSGOOD Hysteresis.
Kinematic/Isotropic Strain Hardening Ramberg-Osgood rule.
ALFA BETA IOP
ALFA Ramberg-Osgood multiplier (0.0 # ALFA) F
If ALFA=0.0 then ALFA is taken as 1.0 (Default value)
BETA Isotropic Hardening Factor (0.0 # BETA # 1.0) F
If BETA=0.0 then there is NO Isotropic Strain Hardening.
If BETA=1.0 then there is Full Isotropic Strain Hardening.
IOP =1; Original Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST= 3) I
=2; Limited Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST=40)
=3; “Pyke” Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis (see IHYST=41)
Note: The bi-linear factor in the properties section data is used as the Ramberg-Osgood factor r and must
be greater than or equal to 1.0
80
IHYST = 50 Flag-Shaped Bi-Linear Hysteresis.
Flag-shaped Bi-Linear rule.
BETA1 BETA2 ... BETAi (i = 1 to N)
BETA1 Flag Height Action 1 (0.0 # BETA1 # 1.0) F
BETA2 Flag Height Action 2 (0.0 # BETA2 # 1.0) F
BETAi Flag Height Action i (0.0 # BETAi # 1.0) F
Note: If BETA=0.0 then the loop is Bi-linear elastic.
If BETA=1.0 then the loop on unloading returns to the origin
N is the number of actions requiring data for the member. See Spring or Frame member data.
Flag-Shaped Bi-linear Hysteresis
81
IHYST = 51 Two-Four Hysteretic Damper
Two-Four Hysteretic Damper rule.
BETAi DELTAi (i = 1 to N)
BETA Initial Sticking Force1 (0.0 # BETA) F
DELTA Change Time from linear to sticking force, Seconds F
DELTA=0 implies instantaneous change
Two-Four Hysteresis
IHYST = 52 SCHOETTLER-RESTREPO Reinforced Concrete Column Hysteresis. (2 lines of data)
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams
SCHOETTLER-RESTREPO Reinforced Concrete Beam rule. Line 1
Kneg Rneg Fcr+ Fcr- Rho+ Rho- Dult+ Dult- IOP
Kneg Ratio of negative (compressive) stiffness to positive stiffness. (Kneg > 0.0) F
Rneg Bi-linear Factor in negative direction. (Rneg > 0.0) F
Fcr+ Ratio of positive Cracking Strength to Yield strength. (Fcr+ < 1.0) F
Fcr- Ratio of negative Cracking Strength to Yield strength. (Fcr- < 1.0) F
Rho+ Secant Stiffness Factor to Positive Yield. (Rho+ < 1.0) F
Rho- Secant Stiffness Factor to Negative Yield. (Rho- < 1.0) F
Dult+ Ultimate deformation factor. Positive direction. (Dult+ > 1.0) F
Dult- Ultimate deformation factor. Negative direction. (Dult- > 1.0) F
IOP =0; For use as reinforce concrete member I
=1; For use as a concrete strut
Notes: 1. The positive stiffness is that provided in the section properties.
2. The positive bi-linear factor is that provided in the section properties.
3. The cracking strengths are taken as fractions of the positive and negative yield strengths
provided under yield forces and moments in the section properties.
4. The Rho*Stiffness is the secant stiffness to the yield point.
5. The ultimate deformations are input as a multiplier of the respective yield displacement
and must be greater than 1.0..
6. Pinch must be greater than 0.0, if 0.0 is supplied then Pinch is reset to 1.0
SCHOETTLER-RESTREPO Reinforced Concrete Beam rule. Line 2
Alpha Beta Pinch Kappa+ Kappa- Fresid Dfactor
Alpha Unloading stiffness factor (0.0 < Alpha < 0.9) F
Beta Reloading stiffness factor . (0.0 < Beta < 5.0) F
Pinch Pinching factor (0.0 < Pinch < 1.0) F
Kappa+ Kappa factor. Positive direction . (0.0 < Kappa < 10.0) F
Kappa- Kappa factor. Negative direction . (0.0 < Kappa < 10.0) F
(Only supplied if IOP on line 1 above is 1, otherwise takes same value as Kappa+)
Fresid Residual Force factor (ratio of Cracking strength) (0.0 < Fresid < 1.0) F
Dfactor Bauschinger Effect Flag. (Dfactor = 0) I
Notes: 1. See IHYST = 4 Modified Takeda Hysteresis with the Emori and Schnobrich unloading
option for use of factor Alpha.
2. The Kappa Factor controls the rate of strength degradation.
3. The Fresid is the fraction of the Cracking strength at residual strength after degradation
has finished
4. The Bauschinger effect Dfactor parameter is reserved for future use.
5. Note Kappa- only supplied if IOP = 1
83
Figure 1: Backbone Curve
Figure 2: Uncracked – Yielded States
84
Figure 3: Cracked – Yielded States
Figure 4: Yielded – Yielded States
85
Figure 5: Yielded – Yielded States with pinching
86
IHYST = 53 DHAKAL Steel Hysteresis.
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of Reinforcing Steel
DHAKAL Reinforcing Steel rule. Line 1
IHARD IBCKL FYAV eHARD1 FU eU FHARD2 eHARD2 RATIO EBLKT
IHARD =1; Parabolic from initial hardening stiffness (Mander et.al. 1984) I
=2: Parabolic from intermediate point (Rodriguez et al 1999)
=3; Bilinear from intermediate point (Dhakal 2002)
IBCKL =1; Buckling included (Dhakal and Maekawa 2001) I
=0; Buckling is neglected (Tension envelope is used for compression)
FYAV Average Tensile Yield Strength, Multiplier on Yield Strength (Default= 1.0) F
eHARD1 Strain at the start of strain hardening, Multiplier of Yield Strain (Default= 10.0) F
FU Ultimate tensile strength Multiplier of Yield Strength (Default= 1.5) F
eU Strain at the ultimate point, Multiplier of Yield Strain F
(Default = 1 0.0*eHARD1)
FHARD2 Stress at intermediate point in hardening zone, Multiplier of Yield action F
(Default= FY+0.75(FU-FY))
or if (IHARD = 1) the 2nd Strain Hardening Stiffness Factor ESH2
eHARD2 Strain at intermediate point in hardening zone, Ratio of Yield Strain F
(Default = eHARD1+0.5(eU-eHARD1))
RATIO Buckling length to bar diameter ratio (Used if IBCKL=1) F
EBLKT Buckling length (if 0.0 taken as element length) (Used if IBCKL=1) F
Dhakal Reinforcing Steel Hysteresis Loop
87
IBCKL = 0
Dhakal Reinforcing Steel Hysteresis Loop
88
IHYST = 54 BRIAN PENG Concrete Hysteresis.
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of Concrete
BRIAN PENG Concrete rule. Line 1
TLIMIT CLIMIT BETA Fbo L TFACTOR CFACTOR eTT
TLIMIT Limit to calculate eTL (Strain at start of contact stress effect) (Default = 0.0025) F
CLIMIT Limit to calculate eCL (Strain at end of stress contact effect) (Default = 0.005)F
BETA Strain Rate factor (Static = 1.5 to 2.0; Dynamic = 1.0) (Default = 2.0) F
Fbo Residual Compressive Bond Strength (Default = 0.2) F
(Default = -0.2*FT where FT is tensile strength)
L Length factor ( = 1.0 for stress-strain) (Default =1.0) F
TFACTOR Factor for eTL (multiplying factor to magnify eTL) (Default =1.0) F
CFACTOR Factor for eCL (multiplying factor to magnify eCL) (Default =1.0) F
eTT Tensile Concrete Strain for Contact Stress Effect (Default = Ft/KC) F
Brian Peng Concrete Hysteresis Loop
89
Effect of varying Tlimit and Climit
Effect of varying Beta
90
Effect of Varying Fbo
Effect of varying Tfactor and Cfactor
91
IHYST = 55 Resettable Air-Cylinder Semi-Active Damper.
This hysteresis is to represent the behaviour of a semi-active resettable control device.
Resettable Air-cylinder Semi-Active Damper. data
IOPT AREA COEFF GAMMA FreeD+ FreeD- Fstiff Friction+ Friction-
IOPT = 1: 1-2-3-4 quadrant action (see figures below) I
= 2; 2-4 quadrant action (see figures below)
= 3; 1-3 quadrant action (see figures below)
= 4; 1-2-3-4 quadrant action (see figures below, also see IHYST = 43)
= 5; 2-4 quadrant action (see figures below, also see IHYST = 51)
= 6; 1-3 quadrant action (see figures below)
AREA Area of piston F
COEFF Gas Coefficient (i.e. Atmospheric constant for air = 100000 N/m ) F
2
GAMMA Power Factor (i.e. Air = 1.4) (Default =1.4) F
FreeD+ Free Length Positive direction F
FreeD- Free Length Negative direction F
Fstiff Friction Stiffness factor (times nominal member stiffness) (Default =20.0) F
Friction+ Friction limit force Positive direction F
Friction- Friction limit force Negative direction F
Notes: For IOPT = 1, 2 or 3 the behaviour of the resettable device follows an isentropic compressible gas law
where
Pressure*Volume = Constant
gamma
i.e.
For IOPT = 4, 5 or 6
Where Ko is the members nominal stiffness (see section properties data).
For IOPT = 2 or 5 Force = 0.0 if the displacement and the velocity have the same signs.
reset
For IOPT = 3 or 6 Force = 0.0 if the displacement and the velocity have opposing signs. d is set to
zero
In all cases, on reversal of direction of displacement the force is set to zero and the displacement resets.
If both friction force limits are equal to zero then Fstiff is set to zero and there is no friction.
If Fstiff is less than or equal to zero then there is no friction The friction follows the standard Elasto-
plastic hystersis rule (see IHYST=1).
The yield actions (forces or moments) specified for the loop are taken as limiting actions for the loop.
This means that the force (moment) cannot be greater than YP or less than YN. These must be supplied
as non-zero values if the loop is to operate.
For IOPT = 1, 2 or 3 the displacement cannot be greater or equal to FreeD+ or be less than or equal
FreeD-. If these values are reached or exceeded the analysis will terminate with an error message.
For IOPT = 4, 5, or 6 there are no displacement limits.
92
93
94
95
Resettable Air-cylinder Semi-active (1-4) Device Loop
Behaviour with air only, no friction
96
IHYST = 56 Modified SINA Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis. [Saiidi 1979].
Modified SINA Degrading Tri-linear rule. One line for each action requiring data.
ALFA BETA GAMMA DELTA PHI FCRP FCRN FCCP FCCN IOP PMAX PMIN
ALFA Bi-linear factor (positive cracking to yield) (0.2 # ALFA # 0.9) F
BETA Bi-linear factor (negative cracking to yield) (0.2 # BETA # 0.9) F
GAMMA Unloading power factor (0.0 # GAMMA # 0.5) F
DELTA Pinching Factor (0.0 # DELTA # 0.8) F
PHI Ratio of Compression to Tensile Stiffness (0.1 # PHI #10.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then PHI reset to 1.0
FCRP Cracking action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.3 # FCRP # 0.9) F
FCRN Cracking action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.3 # FCRN # 0.9) F
FCCP Crack closing action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.1 # FCCP # 0.7) F
FCCN Crack closing action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.1 # FCCN # 0.7) F
IOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
=2; Cracking and yield deformations set at first yield or when axial force falls
outside range of PMIN to PMAX
PMAX Maximum (Most tensile) axial force to set deformation limits. F
PMIN Minimum (Most compressive) axial force to set deformation limits. F
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members in Ruaumoko2d
and 4 lines for Frame members in Ruaumoko3D
2. Symmetric Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FCRP = FCRN etc. and that ALFA = BETA
3. The tri-linear factor is the bi-linear factor supplied as part of the basic member section data and is the
same in both positive and negative directions.
4. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking and
yield deformations.
5. IOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from and interaction diagram
and hence may vary from call to call.
97
Modified SINA Hysteresis
98
IHYST = 57 Revised TAKEDA Degrading Tri-linear Hysteresis. [Saiidi 1979].
Revised TAKEDA Degrading Tri-linear rule. One line for each action requiring data.
ALFA BETA GAMMA DELTA PHI FCRP FCRN IOP PMAX PMIN
ALFA Bi-linear factor (positive cracking to yield) (0.2 # ALFA # 0.9) F
BETA Bi-linear factor (negative cracking to yield) (0.2 # BETA # 0.9) F
GAMMA Unloading power factor (0.0 # GAMMA # 0.5) F
DELTA Reloading Intersection Factor (-0.1# DELTA # 0.5) F
PHI Ratio of Compression to Tensile Stiffness (0.1 # PHI #10.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then PHI reset to 1.0
FCRP Cracking action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.3 # FCRP # 0.9) F
FCRN Cracking action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.3 # FCRN # 0.9) F
IOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
=2; Cracking and yield deformations set at first yield or when axial force falls
outside range of PMIN to PMAX
PMAX Maximum (Most tensile) axial force to set deformation limits. F
PMIN Minimum (Most compressive) axial force to set deformation limits. F
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2d and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
2. Symmetric Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FCRP = FCRN etc. and that ALFA = BETA
3. The tri-linear factor is the bi-linear factor supplied as part of the basic member section data and is the
same in both positive and negative directions.
4. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking
and yield deformations.
5. IOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from and interaction
diagram and hence may vary from call to call.
99
Revised TAKEDA Hysteresis
100
IHYST = 58 Shape-Memory-Alloy Flag Hysteresis.
Shape-Memory-Alloy Flag-shaped rule. One line for each action requiring data.
ALFA BETA DELTA PSI PHI IOP JOP KOP
ALFA Fraction of Yield at Unloading Path intersection (0.1 # ALFA # 0.9) F
BETA Stiffness Factor at Stiffening Path (Default BETA = 1.0) F
(must be larger than Bi-linear factor (see Section input data)
DELTA Multiplier of Yield Deformation where Stiffening starts (2.0 # DELTA) F
PSI Ratio of Yield Deformation to Rupture Deformation (PSI = 0.0 or PSI > 2.0) F
If PSI = 0.0 then no deformation limit
PHI Ratio of Yield Action to Rupture Action (PHI = 0.0 or PHI > 2.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then no Action limit
IOP =0; Flag-Shaped Loop in both Positive and Negative Directions I
=1; Flag-Shaped Loop in Positive Direction and Elastic in Negative Direction
=2; Flag-Shaped Loop in Negative Direction and Elastic in Positive Direction
JOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
KOP =0; If the deformation or action limits are reached the analysis will be terminated I
=1; If the deformation or action limits are reached the analysis will continue but the
action and stiffness will be set to zero.
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2d and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
2. In the direction where the Hysteresis Action is Elastic only (see IOP above) the yield action in that
direction has no effect.
3. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking
and yield deformations. This will only happen once the yield deformations have been set, see JOP
above
4. If both PSI and PHI are zero then there is no limit on forces or deformations in the model. Normally
only one of PSI or PHI is set to provide the limitation. If both are prescribed then the first to occur will
terminate the action of the member.
5. If the limits set by PHI or PSI are reached then the stiffness and actions are set to zero. If KOP is zero
the analysis will be terminated.
6. JOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from an interaction diagram
and hence may vary from call to call.
101
SMA Flag-shape. IOP=0
SMA Flag-shape IOP=1. IOP=2 similar
102
IHYST = 59 Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha. - No further data required
Notes:
1. The Bi-linear factor in the section data is used as the Ramberg-Osgood factor r and must be greater
than or equal to 1.0.
2. The factor " is a function of the Ramberg-Osgood factor r where
3. The hysteresis bounds are set up on the same form as for the Pyke version of the Ramberg-Osgood
hysteresis model. See IHYST = 41.
Ramberg-Osgood with Alpha Hysteresis
103
IHYST = 60 IBARRA with Pinching Hysteresis. [Ibarra 2005].
IBARRA with Pinching rule. One line for each action requiring data.
ALFA GAMMA DELTA THETA PHI FC+ FC- FCC+ FCC- FRES+ FRES- DMAX+ DMAX-
DRES+ DRES- IOP
ALFA Bi-linear factor cracking to yield (0.2 # ALFA # 0.9) F
GAMMA Unloading power factor (0.0 # GAMMA # 0.5) F
(See Takeda ALFA power factor)
DELTA Fraction of extreme axis crossing to give end of pinching
(0.1 # DELTA # 0.8) F
THETA Strength Degrading Factor (0.0 # THETA # 0.3) F
PHI Ratio of Compression to Tensile Stiffness (0.1 # PHI #10.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then PHI reset to 1.0
FC+ Cracking action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.3 # FC+ # 0.9) F
FC- Cracking action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.3 # FC- # 0.9) F
FCC+ Cracking Closing action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.1 # FCC+ # 0.7) F
FCC- Cracking Closing action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.1 # FCC- # 0.7) F
FRES+ Residual action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.01# FRES+ # 0.5) F
FRES- Residual action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.01# FRES- # 0.5) F
DMAX+ Ductility at Maximum Strength-Positive (1.1 # DMAX+ #30.0) F
DMAX- Ductility at Maximum Strength-Negative (1.1 # DMAX- #30.0) F
DRES+ Ductility at Residual Strength-Positive (2.0 # DRES+ #30.0) F
DRES- Ductility at Residual Strength-Positive (2.0 # DRES- #30.0) F
IOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2D and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
2. Symmetric Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FC+ = FC- etc.
3. The tri-linear factor is the bi-linear factor r supplied as part of the basic member section data and is
the same in both positive and negative directions. The value of r must be less than Alpha supplied
above.
4. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking
and yield deformations.
5. IOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from an interaction diagram
and hence may vary from call to call.
6. This rule is still under development
104
IBARRA hysteresis back-bone
IBARRA with Pinching Hysteresis
105
IBARRA with Pinching Hysteresis
Modification when reloading deformation is to right of break point
106
IHYST = 61 IBARRA Peak-Oriented Hysteresis. [Ibarra 2005].
IBARRA Peak-Oriented rule. One line for each action requiring data
ALFA GAMMA DELTA THETA PHI FC+ FC- FRES+ FRES- DMAX+ DMAX- DRES+ DRES-
IOP
ALFA Bi-linear factor cracking to yield (0.2 # ALFA # 0.9) F
GAMMA Unloading power factor (0.0 # GAMMA # 0.5) F
(See Takeda ALFA power factor)
DELTA Reloading intersection on plastic path (-0.2 # DELTA # 0.5) F
THETA Strength Degrading Factor (0.0 # THETA # 0.3) F
PHI Ratio of Compression to Tensile Stiffness (0.1 # PHI #10.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then PHI reset to 1.0
FC+ Cracking action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.3 # FC+ # 0.9) F
FC- Cracking action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.3 # FC- # 0.9) F
FRES+ Residual action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.01# FRES+ # 0.5) F
FRES- Residual action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.01# FRES- # 0.5) F
DMAX+ Ductility at Maximum Strength-Positive (1.1 # DMAX+ #30.0) F
DMAX- Ductility at Maximum Strength-Negative (1.1 # DMAX- #30.0) F
DRES+ Ductility at Residual Strength-Positive (2.0 # DRES+ #30.0) F
DRES- Ductility at Residual Strength-Positive (2.0 # DRES- #30.0) F
IOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2D and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
2. Symmetric Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FC+ = FC- etc.
3. The tri-linear factor is the bi-linear factor r supplied as part of the basic member section data and is
the same in both positive and negative directions. The value of r must be less than Alpha supplied
above..
4. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking
and yield deformations.
5. IOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from an interaction diagram
and hence may vary from call to call.
6. This rule is still under development
107
IBARRA hysteresis back-bone
IBARRA Peak-Oriented Hysteresis
108
IHYST = 62 IBARRA Bi-linear Hysteresis. [Ibarra 2005].
IBARRA Bi-linear rule. One line for each action requiring data.
ALFA GAMMA THETA PHI FC+ FC- FRES+ FRES- DMAX+ DMAX- DRES+ DRES- IOP
ALFA Bi-linear factor cracking to yield (0.2 # ALFA # 0.9) F
GAMMA Unloading power factor (0.0 # GAMMA # 0.5) F
(See Takeda ALFA power factor)
THETA Strength Degrading Factor (0.0 # THETA # 0.3) F
PHI Ratio of Compression to Tensile Stiffness (0.1 # PHI #10.0) F
If PHI = 0.0 then PHI reset to 1.0
FC+ Cracking action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.3 # FC+ # 0.9) F
FC- Cracking action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.3 # FC- # 0.9) F
FRES+ Residual action as ratio of Positive Yield (0.01# FRES+ # 0.5) F
FRES- Residual action as ratio of Negative Yield (0.01# FRES- # 0.5) F
DMAX+ Ductility at Maximum Strength-Positive (1.1 # DMAX+ #30.0) F
DMAX- Ductility at Maximum Strength-Negative (1.1 # DMAX- #30.0) F
DRES+ Ductility at Residual Strength-Positive (2.0 # DRES+ #30.0) F
DRES- Ductility at Residual Strength-Negative (2.0 # DRES- #30.0) F
IOP =0; Cracking and yield deformations set at static analysis I
=1; Cracking and yield deformations set at first cracking
Notes:
1. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2D and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
2. Symmetric Concrete and Steel Beam-column sections require symmetry in moments and thus
FC+ = FC- etc.
3. The tri-linear factor is the bi-linear factor r supplied as part of the basic member section data and is
the same in both positive and negative directions. The value of r must be less than Alpha supplied
above.
4. If the yield forces vary as a result of axial force-moment interaction or because of strength degradation
the stiffness in each of the positive and negative directions are adjusted to retain the same cracking
and yield deformations.
5. IOP is only relevant to columns or where the yield actions are determined from an interaction diagram
and hence may vary from call to call.
6. This rule is still under development
109
IBARRA hysteresis back-bone
IBARRA Bi-linear Hysteresis
110
IHYST = 63 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap.
Bi-linear Elastic with Gap rule. One line for each action requiring data.
GAP+ GAP-
GAP+ Gap in positive direction. (0.0 # GAP+) F
GAP+ Gap in positive direction. (0.0 $ GAP-) F
Note:. One complete line is required for each non-linear action, i.e. 2 lines for Frame members and 3 lines for
Spring members in Ruaumoko2D and 4 lines for Frame members and 6 lines for Spring members in
Ruaumoko3D
Bi-Linear Elastic with Gap Hysteresis
111
MEMORANDA
112
MEMORANDA