Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal-Arroyo

14th President of the Philippines, 4th President of the 5th Republic In office: January 20, 2001 - June 30, 2010 PERSONAL PROFILE: Date of Birth: April 5, 1947; San Juan Parents: Father: Diosdado Pangan Macapagal Mother: Dr. Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal Husband: Atty. Jose Miguel Tuason Arroyo Married on August 2, 1968 Children: Juan Miguel , Evangelina Lourdes, Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: Primary Assumption Convent High School; 1954-1960 Secondary Assumption Convent HS; 1960-1964; Valedictorian Tertiary Georgetown University, 1964-66, AB Economics; Dean’s Lister Assumption College, 1968, AB Economics Magna cum Laude Post Graduate Ateneo de Manila University, 1978, MA Economics UP School of Economics, 1985, Ph.D. in Economics POLITICAL LIFE: Assistant Professor, Ateneo de Manila University; 1977-87 Chair, Economics Dept, Assumption College; 1984-87 Professor, UP School of Economics; 1977-87 Professor, Mary Knoll College Professor, St. Scholastica’s College Assistant Secretary, Department of Trade and Industry; 1987-89 Executive Director, Garments and Textile Export Board; 1988-90 Undersecretary, Department of Trade and Industry; 1989-92 Senator, 1992-1998 Secretary, Department of Social Welfare and Development, July 1998-October 2000 Vice President, July 1998-January 20, 2001 President, January 20, 2001-2010

 Charter Change In her 2005 State of the Nation Address (SONA). averaging 5. an OFW in Iraq.   . Arroyo has made the economy of the Philippines the focus of her presidency. Economy An economist by training. the country's gross domestic product (GDP) has averaged 4. strengthening ties with allied countries.6%. Inflation during her presidency has been the lowest since 1986. Under her first term. a decision hailed by Filipinos but critcized by the US. George W. Arroyo's stance against terrorism was magnified after the September 11. She reiterated that there was a need to shift from a presidential-unitary form of government to a parliamentaryfederal form of government. Australia. reiterated that the modest gains of the economy could also be attributed to the remittances of overseas Filipino workers (OFW). Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). to preserve heritage sites and to contribute historical importance. the call for charter change was largely ignored by the Senate. and pushing for a stronger trade relations with trading partners through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). However. The group threatened to kill de la Cruz if the Philippines will not pull out from Iraq.CONTRIBUTIONS:  Arroyo encouraged the tourism sector to boost the national economy. the foreign policy of Arroyo have been closely related to efforts against terrorism. Arroyo gave in to the demand. To address the violence that resulted in protest rallies against the government. Arroyo sent a small military contingent to Iraq to perform humanitarian work in the country. offers tourist visits in the country to show their natural wonders. members of the PNP were given orders to implement the calibrated preemptive response (CPR). and other similar international groups. Arroyo mentioned the need "to start the great debate on charter change" and implement changes in the system of government. Members of civil society and the Church also reiterated their stance against any move that would amend or change the 1987 Constitution. and other allied countries against terrorism. From 2001 to 2005. In 2003. however. However. Bush. Although the initiative of Arroyo was widely supported by the House of Representatives and its members agreed to implement it through a constituent assembly. the Department of Tourism launched a program called Wow Philippines in 2002. This directive emphasized that rallies without permits would be forcibly dispersed.3%. to protect their indigenous peoples. 2001 attacks on the United States (US) and the subsequent war on terror launched by US Pres. Critics of the Arroyo administration. was abducted by the group of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. the contingent was pulled out in 2004 when Angelo de la Cruz. Foreign policy Since 2001.  EO 464 and CPR Criticisms against Arroyo escalated following the Hello Garci controversy.

2006. this declaration was done to quell the military rebellion. However. Among those arrested were:     Col. Presidential Management Staff chief Michael Defensor said that the guidelines were necessary in order to cope with the emergency situation. a plot to take over the government was uncovered by authorities. and Joel Virador. Satur Ocampo. Ariel Querubin . On February 25.party-list representative of Anakpawis charged with inciting to sedition and rebellion Batasan Five . the police raided the office of the Daily Tribune. especially those along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). and public disturbance throughout the Philippines. The high court ruled that some sections of EO 464 were unconstitutional but the executive order as a whole was not. a newspaper known as a critic of the Arroyo administration. 464 (EO 464) preventing executive department officials from appearing in congressional inquiries without her prior consent. the high court declared the proclamation constitutional.leader of a group of Philippine Marines who engaged the government in a political stand-off at Fort Bonifacio on February 25. The police and the military dispersed demonstrators and protesters. On May 4. PP 1017 also empowered the government to enforce warrantless arrests and take over strategic private utilities companies. Gabriela's Liza Maza. and promote peace and stability. . it also said that it was illegal for the government to implement warrantless arrests and seize private institutions and companies. Danny Lim and other rightist military adventurists. allegedly headed by Gen. 2006. stop lawless violence. 2006 but members of the opposition. The state of emergency existed for about one week with the purpose of curbing further violence. To face the threat posed by enemies of the state. Aside from General Lim.party-list representatives charged with rebellion and were placed under the custody of the House of Representatives. illegal rallies. and Anakpawis' Rafael Mariano PP 1017 was lifted on March 3.led a protest rally without securing the necessary permit Crispin Beltran . According to Arroyo. Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as basis in declaring a state of emergency throughout the Philippines. EO 464 and the CPR were challenged before the Supreme Court. The government then issued journalism guidelines to address the threat posed by critics in the media. and concerned citizens challenged its constitutionality before the Supreme Court.Arroyo also issued Executive Order No. private lawyers. Bayan Muna's Teodoro Casiño. 2005 Randy David . prominent personalities were also arrested in connection with their alleged participation in the attempt to overthrow the government.  State of Emergency On February 24. General Lim and some of his men were arrested.

Key members of her cabinet resigned from their respective posts and urged Arroyo to do the same. Arroyo did not resign despite the pressures coming from various sectors of society. Senator Panfilo Lacson accused First Gentleman Mike Arroyo of siphoning campaign funds into a bank account under the fictitious name. The recordings of Ong became known as the Hello Garci controversy and triggered massive protests against Arroyo.  Election rigging allegations: "Hello Garci" controversy. Paguia's complaint was based on the revelation of Pampanga Gov. claiming it was a "lapse in judgment". On June 27. lawyer Alan Paguia filed an impeachment complaint against Arroyo in connection with the issue of bribery. bribery Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004 elections. 2005. Senator Panfilo Lacson accused Arroyo of buying votes with the Php 729 million which she approved for the purchase of fertilizers by local government officials.  Fertilizer Fund Scam In the fertilizer fund scam. 2005. On August 25. Although the accusation was never legally substantiated. as of the middle of October 2007. 2004. was used to fund President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s election campaign. failed to appe ar at the hearings conducted by the Senate. a former COMELEC commissioner. however. Samuel Ong. 2005.CONTROVERSIES  Jose Pidal controversy On August 18. former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). as reported by the Philippine Daily Inquirer. In October 2007. The Hello Garci controversy became the basis of the impeachment case filed against Arroyo in 2005. claiming that there had been . Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a COMELEC official. the effects weighed more on Arroyo's presidency as she was accused of tolerating her husband's interference in government. Virgilio Garcillano. would later be identified as the offical talking to Arroyo. Ed Panlilio that various governors received half a million pesos from Malacañang. Another impeachment case was filed against Arroyo in 2006 but was also defeated at the House of Representatives. According to Ong. On March 6. Jocelyn “Joc Joc” Bolante. The Philippine Senate began investigating this matter on October 6. it was alleged that funding from the Department of Agriculture (DA) that was allocated for the purchase of fertilizer for farmers. Jose Pidal. The impeachment case. the recordings allegedly proved that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by around one million votes against Poe. Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. 2005 an episode of The Probe Team featured farmers who claimed that they had not received the fertilizer from the DA. In a press conference held on June 10. She. On December 11. has already been referred to the House of Representatives Committee on Justice. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) reported on September 28-29 that billions of pesos of farm funds were used by Arroyo to fund her presidential campaign. Bolante fled to the United States instead of going to a Senate hearing. who was appointed as Department of Agriculture undersecretary for finance at the beginning of Arroyo’s term. 2003. denied influencing the outcome of the elections and declared that she won the elections fairly.

However. The Senate cit ed him for contempt 2 days later and ordered that he be arrested. As of 2007. He reiterated their call for the resignation of high ranking military officials. Senator Rodolfo Biazon was also requested to talk to the rebel soldiers. Gerardo Gambala. Capt. which the NPA later denied. Sabrina Cedie Reoteres. Milo Maestrecampo. and among their leaders were Navy Lt. 2003. they decided to act since they saw signs that Arroyo was going to declare Martial Law. Sonia Tolentino.  Oakwood Mutiny On July 26.  current representative of the second district of Pampanga Arcaina. and Capt. the group's spokesperson. Antonio Trillanes IV. Armeliz Keith Galvez. The group called themselves. It was obviously an attempt to bring down the Arroyo government. and Arroyo herself. the connection to Estrada was never proven. Arroyo addressed the nation on television and warned of hostile action if the Magdalo soldiers will not surrender.and some of the Magdalo soldiers are still on trial for rebellion. Rowin Emie Olnanigon. The commission later found that the action of the Magdalo soldiers was planned and not spontaneous. Trillanes who won as senator in the May 2007 elections . According to Trillanes. Magdalo.attempts on his life by the New People’s Army. the secretary of the Department of National Defense. Jia Mizel . The so-called Oakwood Mutiny was rumored to have been connected to Estrada and his supporters. They surrendered soon after it became apparent that they would be attacked by government forces. Arroyo formed the Feliciano Commission to investigate the mutiny. the Arroyo presidency faced another challenge when a group of junior military officers and their men occupied the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center in Makati City.