L. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems, Kem. Ind.

62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013)

159

Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene
L. Morávková and Z. Sedláková*
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., CZ165 02 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic

KUI – 11/2013 Received August 14, 2012 Accepted February 21, 2013

This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15) K. Key words: Mesitylene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, comparison, density, excess molar volume

Introduction
The investigation of the physico-chemical behaviour of liquid systems, which includes also measurement of density and related excess properties, provides important and useful information focused on intermolecular interactions in liquids and their mixtures. Such volumetric data are significant both for formulating models and theories of solutions and testing the reliability of the existing methods for prediction of the system behaviour. It is obvious that compiling experimental data is valuable for industrial objectives as well as for theoretical and applied thermodynamics. The aromatic compounds are used e.g. for extractions from refinery products in the petrochemical industry. For this reason, the systematic investigation of physical properties of pure liquids and liquid mixtures containing aromatic compounds and their dependence on composition and temperature as basic data is essential. Mesitylene is an important aromatic compound, because it plays a significant role in formation of urban ozone.1 Moreover, mesitylene can be used in the soot model development for practical application to complex blended liquid fuels.2 On the other hand, mesitylene is not only studied as an air pollutant but mesitylene can also be used as a solvent for nitration of biological samples3 and other syntheses4,5 or this compound has been used during the liquid–liquid equilibrium studying.6 This review represents a comparative study of excess molar volumes (VmE) at atmospheric pressure of binary systems containing aromatic compounds, namely mesitylene.
*

Significant concern about density measurements of binary mixtures containing mesitylene started in the seventies7,8 and has continued to the present day.9–11

Experimental methods
The published VmE data of binary systems containing mesitylene7–43 have been determined using four experimental techniques (see Table 1) either for density measurements or directly for excess molar volume determination. The first and the oldest experimental methods use a pycnometer; this method is described in ten papers. The most precise measurement using this method is reported by Subach et al.7 The pycnometer used had a volume 53 cm3 and reproducibility of density measurements agreed within ±0.5·10–4 g cm–3 and from an analysis of experimental uncertainties it can be concluded that the excess volume of mixing is determined with accuracy ±0.009 cm3 mol–1. However, the high precision is in contrast with the statement of other authors as will be discussed later. The worst experimental data are reported by Absood et al.,8 where a little pycnometer with volume of only 16 cm3 was used. The calculated excess molar volumes are in most cases lower than 0.20 cm3 mol–1. However, it is obvious that VmE – x curve is not smooth. Moreover, two experimental points are remote from the other data and the values of excess molar volumes are significantly higher, i.e. 1.11 cm3 mol–1 and 0.60 cm3 mol–1. Dilatometry is the second experimental method, used in two papers.12,13 Data published by Nath et al.12 are slightly smoother than data published by Willis et al.13 However, Nath et al. reported the second best accuracy of VmE measurement as ±0.002 cm3 mol–1.

Corresponding author: Ing. Zuzana Sedláková, Ph.D. e-mail: sedlakova@icpf.cas.cz

62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) The third experimental method for studying binary systems containing mesitylene uses vibrating flow densimeter by Suri et al. This method is nowadays used in most of the published papers. Vmreal. Only density data were found in some papers and excess molar volume. metilcikloheksan. (1) ø i i i i i i =1 i =1 N ö N where xi is mole fraction. DSA–48 298. Table 1 – Investigated binary systems containing mesitylene with organic compounds.15 convex konveksni S–shape. It is calculated using experimental densities. ciklooktan methylcyclohexane metilcikloheksan Aromatics and their derivatives Aromati i derivati benzene benzen benzene benzen x. r.15. Vmideal. The number of parameters Ak (usually n = 3 or 5) is determined by the least squares method (see Table 2 with standard deviations for the fitting by Redlich–Kister equation). The precision of measurement is higher than with techniques described above.15 x. 313. ri. All excess molar volumes were correlated by the Redlich– –Kister type equation as follows15 E Vm = x1x2 Discussion The collected literature volumetric data of binary systems containing mesitylene are compared with each other and can be divided into nine basic groups of organic compounds as summarized in Table 1 and as discussed here. of individual compounds.a concave S-oblik.15 – 328. VmE 53 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 53 cm3 DMA 58 300.15.14 The accuracy of this method is reported as ±0. VmE. r is density of mixture. methylcyclohexane. Ref. r. x curve Oblik krivulje VmE – x T/K Ref. Ind. r.mix.15 17 . (2) where Ak are adjustable parameters. denotes literature reference.å ( x M / r ) . 313.15 298.mix. VmE x.15 S–shape S-oblik concave konkavni 7 18 x. VmE x.mix Vm = Vm . cyclohexane.15 298.15 – 308. cyclooctane ciklopentan. 313. 7–43 å A (x k k =0 n 1 .15 æ E real. r. and ideal mixture volume.160 L. oznaèava literaturnu referenciju. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z.15 – 328. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems. T a b l i c a 1 – IstraÞivanja binarnih sustava koji sadrÞe mezitilen s organskim spojevima. VmE x.15 – 323.Vm =ç ç è åx M ÷ ÷ / r . Mi is molar mass of components. The last experimental technique for density measurement uses commercial apparatuses such as density meter (abbreviated DMA) or density and sound velocity meter (abbreviated DSA). Compound Spoj Alkanes and their derivatives Alkani i derivati heptane heptan octane oktan tetrachloromethane tetraklormetan tetrachloromethane tetraklormetan Cycloalkanes Cikloalkani cyclopentane. r DMA 4500 298.15 298. VmE concave konkavni concave konkavni 9 x. Ref. VmE 10 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 10 cm3 DMA 58 53 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 53 cm3 DMA 4500 303. and N is number of components in a mixture. had to be calculated from literature data as the difference between real mixture volume. cikloheksan. The differences between VmE will be discussed in detail below (the largest differences between published data were found for mesitylene + alcohol systems).mix ideal.a konkavni S–shape S-oblik 11 15 7 16 Published data Objavljeni podaci Experimental technique Eksperimentalna metoda Shape of VmE vs.x2 )k . Kem.005 cm3 mol–1.15 300. VmE x.15.

3-metilbutan-1-ol butan-1-ol.15 10 dilatometry technique dilatometrijski DMA 58 15 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 15 cm3 298.15 concave konkavni 21 DMA 4500 298. r Experimental technique Eksperimentalna metoda 15 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 15 cm3 T/K Shape of VmE vs.15 298. butan-1-ol.15 298. 328. 2-metilpropan-1-ol. 3-methylbutan-1-ol x. r x.15 298. VmE x. 298.15 298.15 concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . r.15 – 308.15 298.15 – 313. VmE x. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. pentan-1-ol. 2-metilpropan-2-ol decan-1-ol dekan-1-ol Ketones Ketoni acetone aceton acetophenone acetofenon cyclohexanone cikloheksanon Carboxylic acids and their derivatives Karboksilne kiseline i derivati propionic acid propanska kiselina ethyl acetate etil-acetat propyl acetate. 308.15 – 308. izobutil-acetat vinyl acetate vinyl-acetat methyl acetoacetate metil-acetoacetat ethyl chloracetate etil-kloracetat methyl acrylate metil-akrilat g-butyrolactone g-butirolakton x.15 – 318. Ind. etanol. VmE x. butan-2-ol.15. VmE propan-2-ol metanol. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems. r x. VmE x. r etanol. x. propan-1-ol.15 298. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) 161 Compound Spoj 1-chloronaphthalene 1-klornaftalen Alcohols Alkoholi Published data Objavljeni podaci x. VmE x. 2-methylpropan-1-ol.15 19 methanol. butil-acetat isopropyl acetate. pentan-1-ol. ethanol. r DSA 5000 298. r. propan-2-ol.15 – 308. 308. isobutyl acetate izopropil-acetat.15 293. r.15 – 308. r x.15. VmE x.15 298.15 – 308.15 concave konkavni convex konveksni concave konkavni 12 23 24 Anton Paar 60/602 DMA 58 DMA 4500 DMA 4500 DMA 58 10 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 10 cm3 10 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 10 cm3 10 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 10 cm3 DMA 4500 313.L. propan-1-ol. butan-2-ol. r. x curve Oblik krivulje VmE – x convex konveksni Ref. VmE x. VmE DMA 601 298.15 concave konkavni 20 DMA 4500 298.15 – 308. 2-methylpropan-2-ol butan-1-ol. VmE x. propan-2-ol ethanol. propan-1-ol.15. r.15 – 313.15 298. r. r.15 288. Kem. propan-2-ol. VmE x. butyl acetate propil-acetat.15 concave konkavni S-shape S-oblik 22 x. butan-1-ol. propan-1-ol.

VmE flow densimeter protoèni denzimetar 16 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 16 cm3 densimeter 02D. dietil-karbonat anisole anisol 1.b 2. r. r.162 L. VmE 298.15 – 313.15 298.b 2.b konkavnic convex konveksni concave konveksni convex konveksni convex konveksni 14 8 39 x.b concavec konveksni.N-dimethylformamide. VmE x. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) Compound Spoj Other oxygen compounds Drugi spojevi s kisikom ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. etilen-glikol-dimetil-eter dimethyl carbonate.1-diethoxyethane.15 35 36 DMA 4500 10 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 10 cm3 DMA 4500 298. r. ethylene glycol dimethyl ether etilen-glikol-monometil-eter. VmE x. Ind.15 13 x. 03DCss denzimetar 02D.15 – 343.15.15 – 303.3-dimetil-2-imidazolidinon N-acetylmorpholine N-acetilmorfolin Sulphur compounds Spojevi sa sumporom dimethyl sulphoxide dimetil-sulfoksid dimethyl sulphoxide dimetil-sulfoksid a b c x. VmE DMA 4500 DMA 4500 298.15. VmE 16 cm3 pycnometer piknometar 16 cm3 DMA 4500 303. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems.b concavec conveksni.15 303. 308.15 293.1-dietoksietan. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. r x.15 293.15 38 16 x.N-dimethylformamide N. VmE 298. VmE x.2-dimetoksipropanc 1.N-dimetilformamid. VmE x.2-dimethoxypropanec 1. r.15 298. r x.b hexamethylphosphortriamidec N.4-dioksan tetrahydrofurane tetrahidrofuran Nitrogen compounds Spojevi s dušikom triethylamine trietilamin acetonitrile acetonitril benzonitrile benzonitril N. 03DCss continuous dilatometer kontinuirani dilatometar densimeter Sodev 02D denzimetar Sodev 02D capillary pycnometer kapilarni piknometar DMA 601 DMA 60/602 313. 2-nitropropan 1.4-dioxane 1.15 K Convex shape for excess molar volume curve Konveksna krivulja ekscesnog molarnog obujma Concave shape for excess molar volume curve Konkavna krivulja ekscesnog molarnog obujma .b.15 40 41 42 43 nitromethane. 313.N-dimetilformamid Published data Objavljeni podaci Experimental technique Eksperimentalna metoda T/K Shape of VmE vs.15 – 318. r x. diethyl carbonate dimetil-karbonat.15 37 288.3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone 1.15 K S-oblik krivulje ekscesnog molarnog obujma pri 298.15 concave konkavni concave konkavni concave konkavni convex.15 288.15 convex konveksni concave konkavni convex konveksni convex. x. 313. VmE x. V E m nitrometan.15 298. VmE x. x curve Oblik krivulje VmE – x Ref.15 concave konkavni concave konkavni 8 16 S-shaped excess molar volume curve at 298. 2-nitropropane x.15.b heksametil-fosfotriamidc N. konkavnic concave konkavni concave konkavni 34 x. VmE DMA 4500 298. nitroetan. Kem.15 298. nitroethane.

20 0.17 1.12 8.14 2.35 0.80 0.90 0. Ref.61 1.71 3.35 0. 288.15 300.50 0. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) 163 Table 2 – Standard deviations s of the Redlich–Kister equation. T a b l i c a 2 – Standardna devijacija. Compound in the mixture with mesitylene Spoj u smjesi s mezitilenom Alkanes and their derivatives Alkani i derivati heptane heptan octane oktan tetrachloromethane tetraklormetan tetrachloromethane tetraklormetan Cycloalkanes Cikloalkani cyclopentane ciklopentan cyclohexane cikloheksan methylcyclohexane metilcikloheksan cyclooctane ciklooktan methylcyclohexane metilcikloheksan Aromatics and their derivatives Aromati i derivati benzene benzen benzene benzen 1-chloronaphthalene 1-klornaftalen Alcohols Alkoholi methanol metanol ethanol etanol propan-1-ol propan-1-ol propan-2-ol propan-2-ol ethanol etanol propan-1-ol propan-1-ol propan-2-ol propan-2-ol 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 0.70 2.84 0.11 0.42 3.15 293.15 343.35 0.12 T/K Ref.38 0.75 1.50 1.10 6.14 6. Redlich-Kisterove jednadÞbe.70 0. oznaèava literaturnu referenciju.15 323.69 1.13 1.12 9 9 9 9 17 1.60 0. Ref. Ind.80 0.15 s / 10–2 cm3 mol–1 .40 11 15 7 16 0.50 1.44 0.50 0.00 1.17 0.54 0.15 318.55 1.15 313. denotes literature reference.35 1.75 1.15 333.30 2.90 0.15 298.15 328.42 3.89 7 18 19 0.L.90 3.15 303. Kem. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z.40 0.15 308.14 0. s. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems.

51 0.90 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives Karboksilne kiseline i derivati propionic acid propanska kiselina ethyl acetate etil-acetat propyl acetate propil-acetat butyl acetate butil-acetat isopropyl acetate izopropil-acetat isobutyl acetate izobutil-acetat vinyl acetate vinyl-acetat methyl acetoacetate metil-acetoacetat ethyl chloracetate etil-kloracetat methyl acrylate metil-akrilat g-butyrolactone g-butirolakton 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 0.87 7.33 0.15 303.50 0.16 0. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) Compound in the mixture with mesitylene Spoj u smjesi s mezitilenom butan-1-ol butan-1-ol pentan-1-ol pentan-1-ol 3-methylbutan-1-ol 3-metilbutan-1-ol butan-1-ol butan-1-ol 2-methylpropan-1-ol 2-metilpropan-1-ol butan-2-ol butan-2-ol 2-methylpropan-2-ol 2-metilpropan-2-ol decan-1-ol dekan-1-ol Ketones Ketoni acetone aceton acetophenone acetofenon cyclohexanone cikloheksanon T/K Ref.15 318.15 0. Kem.15 293.18 0.60 0.38 6.17 6.85 0.15 313.15 0. 288.13 0.30 1.67 0.27 0.12 0.164 L.15 328. Ind.14 0.15 300.30 0.15 333.41 0.20 0.10 2.15 298.06 0.11 0.11 0.40 0.22 0.39 16.15 s / 10–2 cm3 mol–1 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 10 5.16 0. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z.10 0.14 0.30 5.86 12 23 24 0.89 7.80 0.12 .40 0.17 0.46 0.10 3.08 0. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems.80 0.11 0.54 5.33 0.13 0.34 0.09 0.18 0.40 3.15 0.18 0.30 5.15 323.48 15.15 343.30 1.15 308.

00 0.19 14 8 39 13 13 40 41 41 41 42 43 6.70 0. Ind.40 0.07 0. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z.N-dimetilformamid hexamethylphosphortriamide heksametil-fosfotriamid N.30 0.40 0.60 0.10 0.1-diethoxyethane 1.44 0.40 0.28 0.15 343.15 s / 10–2 cm3 mol–1 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 16 0.15 313.05 0.18 0.02 0.17 0.15 333.50 0.15 298.16 0.2-dimethoxypropane 2.10 0.15 303.40 0.15 328.04 2.20 0.40 0.15 300.2-dimetoksipropan 1.10 0.15 308.20 0. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) 165 Compound in the mixture with mesitylene Spoj u smjesi s mezitilenom Other oxygen compounds Drugi spojevi s kisikom ethylene glycol monomethyl ether etilen-glikol-monometil-eter ethylene glycol dimethyl ether etilen-glikol-dimetil-eter dimethyl carbonate dimetil-karbonat diethyl carbonate dietil-karbonat anisole anisol 1.40 0.00 1.70 0.3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone 1.10 0.4-dioxane 1.N-dimethylformamide N.N-dimetilformamid nitromethane nitrometan nitroethane nitroetan 2-nitropropane 2-nitropropan 1.20 0. Kem. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems.N-dimethylformamide N.3-dimetil-2-imidazolidinon N-acetylmorpholine N-acetilmorfolin Sulphur compounds Spojevi sa sumporom dimethyl sulphoxide dimetil-sulfoksid dimethyl sulphoxide dimetil-sulfoksid T/K Ref.1-dietoksietan 2.30 8 16 0.14 0.02 0.10 0.00 .80 1.13 0.15 318.18 0.20 0. 288.56 0.50 0.10 0.L.15 293.13 0.17 2.08 0.15 323.4-dioksan tetrahydrofurane tetrahidrofuran Nitrogen compounds Spojevi s dušikom triethylamine trietilamin acetonitrile acetonitril benzonitrile benzonitril N.

The publication20 deals with methanol. The highest precision of newer data is also obvious from Table 2 where lower deviations after fitting by Redlich–Kister equation were obtained.¯ – oktan + mezitilen pri 318 K. It is interesting that VmE does not increase with the length of carbon chain.20 it is not surprising that the first member of a homologous series behaves atypically.18 and 1-chloronaphthalene. which show increasing VmE with the length of carbon chain. £ – oktan + mezitilen pri 308 K. propan-2-ol.15 x denotes mole fraction of either heptane or octane. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. nowadays requirements are to have density values determined more precisely. The newer data16 are published 30 years after the previous one7 and it could be concluded that the rapid progress in precise density measurement is evident from these differences. propan-1-ol or propan-2-ol systems. and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol were not published before. ™ – heptan + mezitilen pri 318 K. Despite the authors' claim that data on mesitylene with ethanol. butan-1-ol. The second studied system is mesitylene with 1-chloronaphtalene.166 L. 1). The deviations from the ideal volumetric behaviour are asymmetric and positive for the binary system containing octane while negative deviations occur for the binary system containing heptane (see Fig.18 are positive in the whole concentration region without obvious temperature effect on the volumetric properties. This great difference in volumetric data could be caused by the different method of density measurement.7 yield S-shaped VmE vs. butan-1-ol. Ind. £ – octane + mesitylene at 308 K. preferably with five decimal places. the concentration dependence for the mesitylene + 3-methylbutan-1-ol system is not smooth although authors declare that density data were determined within ±10–5 g cm–3 and that published data were sup- F i g. the other were published elsewhere earlier. ethanol. S l i k a 1 – Ekscesni molarni obujmi binarnih sustava (heptan + mezitilen)11 i (oktan + mezitilen). propan-1-ol. ™ – heptane + mesitylene at 318 K. The lowest standard deviation after the fitting by Redlich– –Kister equation was obtained for cyclooctane9 and the other standard deviations for systems containing mesitylene with a cycloalkane are comparable values.10. pentan-1-ol or 3-methylbutan-1-ol but density data provide rather scattered VmE data. The data measured by Subach et al. Kem. Another paper21 deals with ethanol. VmE decrease.15 x oznaèava molni udjel heptana odnosno oktana.10 The positions of maxima on the VmE – x curve are approximately in the same part of the concentration region except for methanol. Only a single substituent as methyl on cyclohexane causes a significant .20–22 All VmE data are positive20–22 except for the binary system mesitylene with decan-1-ol. propan-1-ol. In contrast to the data.19 However. propan-2-ol. The highest VmE is for the binary system mesitylene with cyclohexane. Authors7 report density values with four decimal places. and only slightly depends on temperature.20.9. Gonzáles et al. However. VmE for the system containing tetrachloromethane is S-shaped7 and decreases with temperature. Very small influence of temperature is observed. Cycloalkanes The volumetric data for binary system containing mesitylene with methylcyclohexane are reported by two authors.22 The maximum on VmE – x curve for the system mesitylene with propan-1-ol is higher by 1 cm3 mol–1 in comparison with the other source21 that is the least accurate data due to the highest deviation in Table 2. r – heptan + mezitilen pri 308 K. it is true only for the latter alcohol. the data for the benzene + mesitylene system are in conflict.17 the data are very close to each other within experimental errors.¯ – octane + mesitylene at 318 K.9 reported the comparison of binary systems containing mesitylene with cycloalkanes. Moreover. composition (x) curve with a small temperature influence on the curve. Alcohols Systems containing mesitylene with alcohols are reported by four authors. Aromatics and their derivatives Only two compounds from the aromatic homologous series are found in the literature.18 The higher precision is also obvious from the lowest deviations after fitting by Redlich–Kister equation (see Table 2).7 literature data16 shows concave shape of excess molar volume versus concentration. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems. The increase of VmE with temperature is found in systems containing cyclopentane or cyclohexane while the decrease is reported for binary systems containing methylcyclohexane or cyclooctane. r – heptane + mesitylene at 308 K. 1 – Excess molar volumes of binary systems (heptane + mesitylene)11 and (octane + mesitylene). 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) Alkanes and their derivatives Excess molar volumes of binary systems containing mesitylene with either heptane11 or octane15 slightly depend on temperature. while the data published by Morávková et al. A very significant increase is reported for the propan-2-ol system. namely benzene7. which was excellent precision in the past.19 The VmE calculated from published density data is negative but scattered.

The lowest deviation after fitting by Redlich–Kister equation is for the literature data23 while the other literature data12. x oznaèava molni udjel acetona.15 K which is difficult to believe because excess molar volumes rarely exceed 1 cm3 mol–1. The binary systems containing mesitylene with aliphatic ketone12 and a ketone group on the cyclic alkane24 show positive deviation on VmE – x curve.32. — – vinil-acetat + mezitilen. x denotes mole fraction of either acetone. 2 – Excess molar volumes of binary systems (acetone + mesitylene). r – cyclohexanone + mesitylene.23 and (cyclohexanone + mesitylene)24 at 298 K. butan-2-ol or 2-methylpropan-2-ol.28 (isobutyl acetate + mesitylene).24 (see Figure 2).12 (acetofenon + mezitilen)23 i (cikloheksanon + mezitilen)24. £ – etil-acetat + mezitilen. r – butyl acetate + mesitylene. 3).27 (butyl acetate + mesitylene). Other oxygen compounds Volumetric data are reported in the literature in five papers.26 (propyl acetate + mesitylene). x oznaèava molni udjel acetatnog estera. 2-methylpropan-1-ol. + – izopropil-acetat + mezitilen. r – butil-acetat + mezitilen. VmE increases with temperature for all systems except for these two similar systems containing isopropyl or isobutyl acetate. pri 298 K. £ – acetophenone + mesitylene.25–33 It is possible to compare systems with acetates26–29 using compiled literature data (see Fig. r – cikloheksanon + mezitilen. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems. It is interesting that data for systems containing isopropyl acetate or isobutyl acetate are very close and similar to the system containing butyl acetate.34–38 The greatest VmE was found for binary system containing dimethyl carbonate35 (approximately twice as high as for diethyl carbonate35).27 (isopropyl acetate + mesitylene).26 (propil-acetat/mezitilen). The smallest VmE is for the system containing tetrahydrofurane. S l i k a 2 – Ekscesni molarni obujmi binarnih sustava (aceton + mezitilen). MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. acetophenone or cyclohexanone. it is impossible to compare ketone systems mutually because they are not from the same homologous series. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) 167 posedly correlated by Redlich–Kister equation achieving good agreement with experimental data. 3 – Excess molar volumes of binary systems (ethyl acetate + mesitylene). + – isopropyl acetate + mesitylene. acetofenona odnosno cikloheksanona. Ind. Ketones Three systems with ketones are reported in the literature12. which results in negative excess molar volume. the worst VmE value was as low as – 6.23.7–43 The paper22 reports data on systems containing butan-1-ol. × – isobutyl acetate + mesitylene. £ – acetofenon + mezitilen.27 (butil-acetat/mezitilen).28 (izobutil-acetat/mezitilen)28 i (vinil-acetat/mezitilen).27 (izopropil-acetat/mezitilen). F i g. × – izobutil-acetat + mezitilent. In this group. However.29 pri 298 K. ™ – acetone + mesitylene. ™ – propil-acetat + mezitilen. ™ – aceton + mezitilen. F i g.12 (acetophenone + mesitylene). S l i k a 3 – Ekscesni molarni obujmi binarnih sustava (etil-acetat/mezitilen).24 are comparable. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives All the found literature data on binary systems containing mesitylene with either fatty acids or their derivatives show positive deviations from the ideal volumetric behavior. — – vinyl acetate + mesitylene. The highest deviation after fitting by Redlich–Kister equation is for the literature data31 while the other literature data25–30.L.5 cm3 mol–1 for the mesitylene + butan-1-ol system at 308.28 (vinyl acetate + mesitylene)29 at 298 K.16 .16. A magnitude of scatter of experimental VmE from correlated values is an indicator of poor quality of data. ™ – propyl acetate + mesitylene. x denotes mole fraction of acetate ester. The system with vinyl acetate exhibits the highest values. It is obvious that the VmE is decreasing in the homologous series from ethyl acetate to butyl acetate. The VmE are almost twice as high as for butan-1-ol or 2-methylpropan-1-ol in comparison with butan-2-ol or 2-methylpropan-2-ol.33 are comparable. Temperature does not play a significant role in all systems containing ketones. £ – ethyl acetate + mesitylene. Kem. Acetophenone23 interacts with mesitylene.

cm3 mol–1 – molarni stvarni obujam smjese. This is due to difficulties during measurements with highly hygroscopic alcohols.39 nitromethane.35 and 1. K – temperatura. The highest deviation after fitting by Redlich–Kister equation is for the literature data8 and data43 at 293.7–43 Literature data are frequently in qualitative agreement. the excess molar DMA DSA . Ind. 1 – molni udjel. Moreover. i. for financing this research within the frames of the long-term institutional research policy under number RVO 67985858. g cm–3 – standard deviation of excess molar volume. g cm–3 – gustoæa sastojka smjese.15 K while the others literature data13.N-dimethylformamide was published by two authors13. Then. The increasing amount of water in an alcohol changes the density considerably and thus the excess molar volume.168 L. 62 (5-6) 159–170 (2013) Excess molar volumes increase with temperature for mesitylene systems with dimethyl carbonate.14. v.13.13 Nitrogen derivatives are the only one family where VmE are often negative due to associations in the liquid mixture. The largest differences between published volumetric data are found for the mesitylene + alcohol systems. g mol–1 – molarna masa.40 and data are in good mutual agreement. Pronounced deviations from ideal behaviour were found for systems with triethylamine. cm3 mol–1 Vmreal. VmE calculated from density data occasionally differ in comparison with the data from publications where only densities are reported.mix – ideal mixture molar volume.1-diethoxyethane.8 Excess molar volumes are positive in the whole concentration region.43 Other volumetric data are published for one temperature only. cm3 mol–1 – standardna devijacija ekscesnog molarnog volumena. The system with N.34–38 Nitrogen compounds Nitrogen derivatives with mesitylene are studied in a number of publications. K – mixture density.14 benzonitrile. Convex curves are typical only for nitrogen-containing compounds with mesitylene which is a consequence of associate formation in liquid mixtures. The excess molar volume is approximately twice higher for the system containing ethylene glycol monomethyl ether34 in comparison to the system containing ethylene glycol dimethyl ether.mix – real mixture molar volume. v. Accuracies of density values are usually published with five decimals.8.3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone. g cm–3 – mixture component density. SEDLÁKOVÁ: Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals ASCR. MORÁVKOVÁ and Z. Kem.37 However.2-dimethoxypropane.1-diethoxyethane (convex curve) and 2. cm3 mol–1 x T r ri s – mole fraction. The fitting by Redlich–Kister equation of data16 is significantly better than for data.4-dioxane38 while decrease for systems with anisole. It is not possible to compare all collected data because measurements are rarely at the same temperature or there are no available data for at least three members of a homologous series.2-dimethoxypropane (concave curve).35 diethyl carbonate.41 nitroethane.39–43 Nevertheless.41 1. Sulphur compounds All published data are measured at one temperature only.16 Dimethyl sulphoxide is reported by two authors8. g mol–1 – number of components – broj sastojaka smjese – number of parameters A – broj parametara A – excess molar volume.42 and hexamethylphosphortriamide. g cm–3 – gustoæa smjese. It is worth mentioning that the data are completely different for 1.36 1. cm3 mol–1 Vmideal. Concave shape (positive values) of VmE – x curve occurs more frequently than convex shape (negative values).16 and the data published later16 give smoother curve than older ones.34 All found data were successfully correlated by Redlich– Kister equation.41 2-nitropropane. cm3 mol–1 – density meter – mjeraè gustoæe – density and sound velocity meter – mjeraè gustoæe i brzine zvuka Conclusions The excess molar volumes of binary systems containing mesitylene are available in the literature in many publications.34 The excess molar volume increase with temperature for the system with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether34 while the excess molar volume are almost independent of temperature for the system containing ethylene glycol dimethyl ether. but they differ quantitatively.14. cm3 mol–1 – ekscesni molarni obujam.8 volumes calculated from density data are reported with three decimals only.39–42 are comparable.37 and 2. cm3 mol–1 – molarni obujam idealne smjese. 1 – temperature.8 Triethylamine system has the lowest VmE of all the nitrogen derivatives systems.16. VmE data are very scattered around correlated curve for acetonitrile. concave shape of the curve indicates that the liquid system does not exhibit more organised structure in comparison to the pure compounds before mixing.14 Excess molar volumes are increasing with temperature for benzonitrile39 while they decrease for system with N-acetylmorpholine. List of symbols and abbreviations Popis simbola i kratica Ak M N n VmE – parameter – parametar – molar mass.8. temperature does not have a great influence on VmE in these systems.

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