Emily Dickinson

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Emily Dickinson
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 € May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life. After she studied at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she spent a short time at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Thought of as an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence. While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly eighteen hundred poems were published during her lifetime.[2] The work that was published during her lifetime was usually altered significantly by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Dickinson's poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation.[3] Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends.

From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847. The only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood, the original is held by the Archives and Special Collections at Amherst [1] College.

Although most of her acquaintances were probably aware of Dickinson's writing, it was not until after her death in 1886•when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems•that the breadth of Dickinson's work became apparent. Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, both of whom heavily edited the content. A complete and mostly unaltered collection of her poetry became available for the first time in 1955 when The Poems of Emily Dickinson was published by scholar Thomas H. Johnson. Despite some unfavorable reviews and some skepticism during the late 19th and early 20th century as to Dickinson's literary prowess, she is now almost universally considered to be one of the most important American poets.[4]

Emily Dickinson

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Life
Family and early childhood
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the family's homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December 10, 1830, into a prominent, but not wealthy, family.[5] Two hundred years earlier, her patrilineal ancestors had arrived in the New World•in the Puritan Great Migration•where they prospered.[6] Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, had almost single-handedly founded Amherst College.[7] In 1813, he built the homestead, a large mansion on the town's Main Street, that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century.[8] Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, Edward, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, and represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson. They had three children: € William Austin (1829€1895), known as Austin, Aust or Awe € Emily Elizabeth € Lavinia Norcross (1833€1899), known as Lavinia or Vinnie[9]
The Dickinson children (Emily on the left), ca. 1840. From the Dickinson Room at Houghton Library, Harvard University.

By all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented•She is a very good child & but little trouble."[10] Emily's aunt also noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic".[11] Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street. Her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".[12] Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress even while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home, reminding his children to "keep school, and learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned".[13] While Emily consistently described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was regularly cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe [Austin] when a child, if anything befell me. He was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."[14] On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier.[] At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street.[15] Emily's brother Austin later described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent.[16] The house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".

Teenage years

Although she liked the girls at Holyoke. or she was simply homesick. she rebelled against the evangelical fervor present at the school. Dickinson occupied her time with household activities.Emily Dickinson 3 They shut me up in Prose € As when a little Girl They put me in the Closet € Because they liked me "still" € Still! Could themself have peeped € And seen my Brain € go round € They might as wise have lodged a Bird For Treason € in the Pound € Emily Dickinson. Recalling the incident two years later.[28] After her church-going ended."[21] She became so melancholic that her parents sent her to stay with family in Boston to recover.[32] Whatever the specific reason for leaving Holyoke. Dickinson made no lasting friendships there. to "bring [her] home at all events". about 1852.[18] Daniel Taggart Fiske. the school's principal at the time. Emily was traumatized. especially the deaths of those who were close to her. she wrote a poem opening: "Some keep the Sabbath going to Church € / I keep it." The experience did not last: Dickinson never made a formal declaration of faith and attended services regularly for only a few years. and Susan Huntington Gilbert [25] (who later married Emily's brother Austin). she soon returned to Amherst Academy to continue her studies. such as Abiah Root [23]. After finishing her final term at the Academy on August 10. her second cousin and a close friend.[31] The explanations for her brief stay at Holyoke differ considerably: either she was in poor health. would later recall that Dickinson was "very bright" and "an excellent scholar. of exemplary deportment. Jane Humphrey. c. her father wanted to have her at home.[19] Although she had a few terms off due to illness•the longest of which was in 1845€1846.[29] During the last year of her stay at the Academy.[22] During this period.[30] She was at the seminary for only ten months. a religious revival took place in Amherst.[33] Back in Amherst. staying at Home". when she was enrolled for only eleven weeks[20]•she enjoyed her strenuous studies. her brother Austin appeared on March 25. Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or even look at her face.[35] . When Sophia Holland."[27] She went on to say that it was her "greatest pleasure to commune alone with the great God & to feel that he would listen to my prayers. she first met people who were to become lifelong friends and correspondents. "mental philosophy. writing to a friend that the Academy was "a very fine school". taking classes in English and classical literature. 1848. resulting in 46 confessions of faith among Dickinson's peers. Abby Wood [24]. its popular new young principal.[26] Dickinson wrote to a friend the following year: "I never enjoyed such perfect peace and happiness as the short time in which I felt I had found my savior. geology.[] With her health and spirits restored. Dickinson began attending Mary Lyon's Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (which later became Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley. about ten miles (16•km) from Amherst. she disliked the discipline-minded teachers. In 1845. 1847. grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844. Emily became friendly with Leonard Humphrey. faithful in all school duties". 1862 [17] Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy." and arithmetic. history. botany. Latin.[34] She took up baking for the family and enjoyed attending local events and activities in the budding college town. Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death.

died suddenly of "brain congestion" at age 25. he had been "with my Father two years... and I cannot brush them away. she wrote to one friend "Why clasp any hand but this?" and to another. another gift from Newton (after reading it. Oh.[42] Jane Eyre's influence cannot be measured. and the scholar at school alone. The Amherst Academy principal. According to a letter written by Dickinson after Newton's death. She wrote later that he. believing in and recognizing her as a poet. "Why is any other book needed?"[43] Adulthood and seclusion In early 1850 Dickinson wrote that "Amherst is alive with fun this winter . for they are the only tribute I can pay the departed Humphrey".. Her brother smuggled a copy of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Kavanagh into the house for her (because her father might disapprove)[41] and a friend lent her Charlotte Bront‚'s Jane Eyre in late 1849.[45] ."[36] Although their relationship was probably not romantic. saying that he would like to live until she achieved the greatness he foresaw. "whose name my Father's Law Student taught me. she gushed "This then is a book! And there are more of them!"[]). Dickinson's family befriended a young attorney by the name of Benjamin Franklin Newton. he wrote to her. himself € he never returned"•refers to Newton. and his gift to her of Ralph Waldo Emerson's first book of collected poems had a liberating effect. and was much in our family. a very great town this is!" Her high spirits soon turned to melancholy after another death. and the open leaf of the book. William Shakespeare was also a potent influence in her life. Referring to his plays. and some of my friends are sleeping € sleeping the churchyard sleep € the hour of evening is sad € it was once my study hour € my master has gone to rest. make the tears come. before going to Worcester € in pursuing his studies. John Rivers' dog..[44] Two years after his death. she revealed to her friend Abiah Root the extent of her depression: ". preceptor or master.•some of my friends are gone.Emily Dickinson 4 Early influences and writing When she was eighteen. Leonard Humphrey.[40] She was probably influenced by Lydia Maria Child's Letters from New York.[37] Newton likely introduced her to the writings of William Wordsworth. I had a friend. but when Dickinson acquired her first and only dog. variously. I would not if I could. has touched the secret Spring".[39] Dickinson was familiar not only with the Bible but also with contemporary popular literature. she named him "Carlo" after the character St. When he was dying of tuberculosis. who taught me Immortality € but venturing too near. Biographers believe that Dickinson's statement of 1862•"When a little Girl. a Newfoundland. Newton was a formative influence and would become the second in a series of older men (after Humphrey) that Dickinson referred to.[38] Newton held her in high regard. as her tutor.

and adviser" whose editorial suggestions Dickinson sometimes followed. Lavinia stated that because their mother was chronically ill. In Philadelphia. assembling carefully pieced-together manuscript books. she began making clean copies of her work. Reviewing poems she had written previously. according to a point of view first promoted by Mabel Loomis Todd.[54] Writing to a friend in summer 1858. lest father will come and miss me. was Emily was continually hurt by what was mostly a tempestuous the home of Austin and Susan's family friendship. Withdrawing more and more from the outside world.[47] There is controversy over how to view Emily's friendship with Sue. continued to live it". That spring. playing the role of "most beloved friend. she met Charles Wadsworth."[46] Sue married Austin in 1856 after a four-year courtship. she variously referred to him as "my Philadelphia". Susan played a primary role in Emily's creative processes. "my Clergyman".[52] From the mid-1850s. Emily's strongest and most affectionate relationship was with Susan Gilbert. and "finding the life with her books and nature so congenial.[56] The forty fascicles she created from 1858 through 1865 eventually held nearly eight hundred poems. No one was aware of the existence of these books until after her death. Austin's longtime mistress. where her father was representing Massachusetts in Congress. they spent three weeks in Washington. The Evergreens. "my dearest earthly friend" and "my Shepherd from 'Little Girl'hood". . over the course of their friendship. Emily eventually sent her over three hundred letters.[48] However. influence. should I run away € Mother is much as usual.[51] Despite seeing him only twice after 1855 (he moved to San Francisco in 1862). more than to any other correspondent. It has not [53] been authenticated yet. Emily took this role as her own. she took one of her longest and farthest trips away from home. a famous minister of the Arch Street Presbyterian Church. Dickinson had not strayed far from Amherst. one of the daughters had to remain always with her. built by Edward Dickinson. Emily began in the summer of 1858 what would be her lasting legacy. with whom Emily was close. the notion of a "cruel" Sue•as promoted by her romantic rival•has been questioned. proposing it to be Dickinson and her friend Kate Scott Turner (ca. I do not go out at all. muse. with whom she forged a strong friendship which lasted until his death in 1882. which stood on the west side of the Homestead. Then they went to Philadelphia for two weeks to visit family. Emily's mother became effectively bedridden with various chronic illnesses until her death in 1882. the Amherst College Archives and Special Collections unveiled this daguerreotype. Todd believed that because Sue was often aloof and disagreeable. most especially by Sue and Austin's surviving children. Sue was supportive of the poet. or mother. which I might forget. 1859).[50] First. though their marriage was not a happy one. I Know not what to hope of her". Edward Dickinson built a house for himself and Sue called the Evergreens. Emily said that she would visit if she could leave "home. In September 2012.[55] As her mother continued to decline. Forty years later.[49] Until 1855. Emily's missives typically dealt with demands for Sue's affection and the fear of unrequited admiration.Emily Dickinson 5 During the 1850s. Dickinson's domestic responsibilities weighed more heavily upon her and she confined herself within the Homestead. accompanied by her mother and sister. or miss some little act.

During this time Emily sent him over three dozen letters and nearly fifty poems.[62] Modern scholars and researchers are divided as to the cause for Dickinson's withdrawal and extreme seclusion. I should feel quick gratitude € If I make the mistake € that you dared to tell me € would give me sincerer honor € toward you € I enclose my name € asking you.[75] They corresponded until her death. continue to be the subject of speculation and contention amongst scholars. along Thomas Wentworth Higginson in uniform. Higginson" to "Dear friend" as well as signing her letters... stating that her only real companions were the hills.[63] some today believe she may have suffered from illnesses as various as agoraphobia[64] and epilepsy. going from calling him "Mr. Thomas Wentworth Higginson. I could not escape her". Higginson's essay. She assured him that publishing was as foreign to her "as Firmament to Fin".[73] Dickinson valued his advice. the owner and editor-in-chief of the Springfield Republican. the Dickinsons befriended Samuel Bowles. her father bought her books. he was colonel of the First South Carolina with four of her poems."[72] She stressed her solitary nature. "I am small. drafted to an unknown man simply referred to as "Master". Dickinson told Higginson that he had saved her life in 1862.[58] Their friendship brought out some of her most intense writing and Bowles published a few of her poems in his journal.[69] He praised her work but suggested that she Volunteers from 1862 to 1864. after she had largely withdrawn from social life. but she had included her name on a card and enclosed it in an envelope. radical abolitionist. and ex-minister. "Your Gnome" and "Your Scholar".[65] 6 Is "my Verse . but begged her "not to read them € because he fears they joggle the Mind". many years later. She also mentioned that whereas her mother did not "care for Thought". While she was diagnosed as having "nervous prostration" by a physician during her lifetime.[61] proved to be Dickinson's most productive writing period. being unaware that she had already appeared in print.[57] They visited the Dickinsons regularly for years to come.[71] She said of herself. These three letters. and her dog. and my hair is bold. Carlo. like the wren. wrote a lead piece for The Atlantic Monthly entitled. Dickinson sent him a letter which read in full:[68] Mr Higginson. Are you too deeply occupied to say if my Verse is alive? The Mind is so near itself € it cannot see. distinctly € and I have none to ask € Should you think it breathed € and had you the leisure to tell me.[60] The first half of the 1860s. if you please € Sir € to tell me what is true? That you will not betray me € it is needless to ask € since Honor is it's [sic] own pawn € This highly nuanced and largely theatrical letter was unsigned. in which he urged aspiring writers to "charge your style with life". and his wife. and my eyes like the sherry in the glass that the guest leaves.[59] It was from 1858 to 1861 that Dickinson is believed to have written a trio of letters that have been called "The Master Letters".[70] Dickinson delighted in dramatic self-characterization and mystery in her letters to Higginson. alive?" In April 1862.Emily Dickinson In the late 1850s.[67] Seeking literary guidance that no one close to her could provide. like the chestnut bur. but also proposed that "If fame belonged to me.[74] His interest in her work certainly provided great moral support. a literary critic. the sundown. delay publishing until she had written longer. Mary. "Letter to a Young Contributor".[66] Dickinson's decision to contact Higginson suggests that by 1862 she was contemplating publication and that it may have become increasingly difficult to write poetry without an audience. contained practical advice for those wishing to break into print. but her .

had married and left the Homestead that same year. in his review of Civil War literature. A solemn thing € it was € I said € A Woman € White € to be € And wear € if God should count me fit € Her blameless mystery € Emily Dickinson. it was not until 1869 that her family brought in a permanent household servant. Later he referred to her."[91] . in a very plain & exquisitely clean white pique & a blue net worsted shawl. When visitors came to either the Homestead or the Evergreens. she was rarely seen. Without touching her. Mattie Dickinson.[85] Austin and his family began to protect Emily's privacy. she drew from me. she began to talk to visitors from the other side of a door rather than speaking to them face to face. however. c. but I do not cross my Father's ground to any House or town".[83] She acquired local notoriety. as "a little plain woman with two smooth bands of reddish hair . Dickinson may have been too overcome to keep up her previous level of writing."[90] He also felt that he never was "with any one who drained my nerve power so much. the son of family friends who later wrote a short article in 1891 called "A Child's Recollection of Emily Dickinson". at which she excelled. Dickinson was socially active and expressive through what makes up two-thirds of her surviving notes and letters. she would certainly have published". Dickinson wrote fewer poems in 1866.Emily Dickinson difficulty in expressing her literary needs and a reluctance to enter into a cooperative exchange left Higginson nonplussed. I am glad not to live near her. Dickinson's one surviving article of clothing is a white cotton dress. writing: "Could it please your convenience to come so far as Amherst I should be very glad. possibly sewn circa 1878€1882.. she declined.[81] Emily once again was responsible for chores. the second child of Austin and Sue. She did not leave the Homestead unless it was absolutely necessary and as early as 1867."[88] MacGregor (Mac) Jenkins. surmised that "with encouragement. deciding that she was not to be a subject of discussion with outsiders.[87] Dickinson also had a good rapport with the children in her life. Dickinson's behavior began to change. including the baking. to replace the old one.[84] Few of the locals who exchanged messages with Dickinson during her last fifteen years ever saw her in person.[80] Carlo died during this time after providing sixteen years of companionship. Margaret O Brien.[79] Beset with personal loss as well as loss of domestic help. later said that "Aunt Emily stood for indulgence. and when she was. thought of her as always offering support to the neighborhood children.[78] 7 The woman in white In direct opposition to the immense productivity that she displayed in the early 1860s. Margaret Maher. When Higginson urged her to come to Boston in 1868 so that they could formally meet for the first time. in the most detailed and vivid physical account of her on record.[89] It was not until he came to Amherst in 1870 that they met.. he did not press her to publish in subsequent correspondence.[76] Dickinson's own ambivalence on the matter militated against the likelihood of publication. 1861 [82] Around this time. she would often leave or send over small gifts of poems or flowers.[86] Despite her physical seclusion. she was usually clothed in white. Although the household servant of nine years. Dickinson never owned another dog.[77] Literary critic Edmund Wilson.

a surviving fragment of a letter written by her states that "Tuesday is a deeply depressed Day". writing that she "could inhabit the Spice Isles merely by crossing the dining room to the conservatory. his friendship with Dickinson probably became a late-life romance. on April 1. Judge Lord died in March 1884. she assembled a collection of pressed plants in a sixty-six page leather-bound herbarium.[103] Two years before this. Dickinson would often send her friends bunches of flowers with verses attached. "was known more widely as a gardener. Dickinson studied botany from the age of nine and. where the plants hang in baskets". Emily stayed in her room with the door cracked open. classified. remembered "carpets of lily-of-the-valley and pansies. but a clear impression can be formed from the letters and recollections of friends and family. Emily's mother also suffered a stroke. 1875. Neither did she attend the memorial service on June 28. marigolds to distraction•-a butterfly utopia"."[95] A year later. Her niece. during her lifetime. also had died after a long illness. In 1880 he gave her Cowden Clarke's Complete Concordance to Shakespeare (1877). Dickinson cultivated scented exotic flowers. and have we not a Hymn that no one knows but us?"[100] She referred to him as "My lovely Salem"[101] and they wrote to each other religiously every Sunday.[92] The Homestead garden was well-known and admired locally in its time. Lamenting her mother's increasing physical as well as mental demands. 1884 [97] Otis Phillips Lord.[94] She wrote to Higginson that her father's "Heart was pure and terrible and I think no other like it exists. Emily wrote that "Home is so far from Home". the few letters which survived contain multiple quotations of Shakespeare's work. 1882. Dickinson's "Shepherd from 'Little Girl'hood". which produced a partial lateral paralysis and impaired memory. It contained 424 pressed flower specimens that she collected. tended the garden at Homestead.[93] In particular. When the simple funeral was held in the Homestead's entrance hall. We cannot doubt € No vacillating God Ignited this Abode To put it out € Emily Dickinson. Martha Dickinson Bianchi. enough in May to give all the bees of summer dyspepsia. Later life On June 16. Hamlet and King Lear. It has not survived. c. Edward Dickinson suffered a stroke and died. hyacinths. That they are still the Deep. During her lifetime. platoons of sweetpeas. There were ribbons of peony hedges and drifts of daffodils in season. but "they valued the posy more than the poetry". . in 1872 or 1873 became an acquaintance of Dickinson's. though as their letters were destroyed. After the death of Lord's wife in 1877. Dickinson looked forward to this day greatly. this is surmised. I go to mine. along with her sister.[99] Dickinson wrote that "While others go to Church. perhaps. an elderly judge on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court from Salem.[102] After being critically ill for several years. and labeled using the Linnaean system.Emily Dickinson 8 Posies and poesies Scholar Judith Farr notes that Dickinson. than as a poet". Antony and Cleopatra. while in Boston. including the plays Othello. Charles Wadsworth. especially in terms of shared literary interests. Dickinson referred to him as "our latest Lost". 1874.[98] Dickinson found a kindred soul in Lord.[96] Though the great Waters sleep. on June 15. and Dickinson kept no garden notebooks or plant lists. for are you not my Church.

she ceased to breathe that terrible breathing just before the [afternoon] whistle sounded for six. remained at the Homestead until her own death in 1899.[108] As death succeeded death. laid in a white coffin with vanilla-scented heliotrope. Austin fell in love in 1882 with Mabel Loomis Todd. Emily"..[111] On May 15. 1885. Austin and Sue's third and youngest child. Called Back. Since 1890 Dickinson has remained continuously in print. Louise and Frances Norcross. Dickinson wrote "We were never intimate .[106] Dickinson's mother died on November 14. referring to her as "a lady whom the people call the Myth". another has come. she wrote that "The Dyings have been too deep for me.[] Publication Despite Dickinson's prolific writing. On November 30. Dickinson found her world upended.. while she was our Mother € but Mines in the same Ground meet by tunneling and when she became our Child. 1882. Dickinson stopped editing and organizing her poems."[112] Dickinson's chief physician gave the cause of death as Bright's disease and its duration as two and a half years. Dickinson's first volume was published four years after her death. who also never married. Five weeks later. and a "knot of blue field violets" placed about it. held in the Homestead's library."[109] Emily Dickinson's tombstone in the family plot That summer she had seen "a great darkness coming" and fainted while baking in the kitchen. a poem by Emily Bront‚ that had been a favorite of Dickinson's.[104] Lavinia. ."[107] The next year. 1886. who had met her only twice. and before I could raise my Heart from one. Higginson. Gilbert•Emily's favorite•died of typhoid fever. The 1880s were a difficult time for the remaining Dickinsons. but managed to send a final burst of letters in the spring. after several days of worsening symptoms. Irreconcilably alienated from his wife. and simply read: "Little Cousins. Until the 1955 publication of Dickinson's Complete Poems by Thomas H. She remained unconscious late into the night and weeks of ill health followed. a Lady's Slipper orchid. the Affection came. Todd never met Dickinson but was intrigued by her. her poems were considerably edited and altered from their manuscript versions. At Dickinson's request. She also exacted a promise from her sister Lavinia to burn her papers..Emily Dickinson 9 Decline and death Although she continued to write in her last years. her feebleness and other symptoms were so worrying that Austin canceled a trip to Boston.[110] She was confined to her bed for a few months. read "No Coward Soul Is Mine".. was simple and short.[105] Austin distanced himself from his family as his affair continued and his wife became sick with grief. Austin wrote in his diary that "the day was awful . an Amherst College faculty wife who had recently moved to the area. What is thought to be her last letter was sent to her cousins.[114] The funeral service. Emily Dickinson died at the age of 55. fewer than a dozen of her poems were published during her lifetime. After her younger sister Lavinia discovered the collection of nearly eighteen hundred poems. In the fall of 1884.[113] Dickinson was buried. her "coffin [was] not driven but carried through fields of buttercups" for burial in the family plot at West Cemetery on Triangle Street. Johnson.

It was the last poem published during Dickinson's lifetime.[117] The poem "I taste a liquor never brewed €" is an example of the edited versions. may have been published without Dickinson's permission.Emily Dickinson 10 Contemporary A few of Dickinson's poems appeared in Samuel Bowles' Springfield Republican between 1858 and 1868. however. and "Blazing in the Gold and quenching in Purple" as "Sunset". with conventionalized punctuation and formal titles.[115] The first poem. "Safe in their Alabaster Chambers €" as "The Sleeping".[119] In the 1870s. to raise funds for medical care for Union soldiers in the war. They were published anonymously and heavily edited. was altered to agree with contemporary taste. Higginson showed Dickinson's poems to Helen Hunt Jackson. Original wording I taste a liquor never brewed € From Tankards scooped in Pearl € Not all the Frankfort Berries Yield such an Alcohol! Republican version I taste a liquor never brewed € From Tankards scooped in Pearl € Not Frankfort Berries yield the sense Such a delirious whirl! In 1864. The poem. the last two lines in the first stanza were completely rewritten for the sake of conventional rhyme.[116] The Republican also published "A narrow Fellow in the Grass" as "The Snake". "Safe in their Alabaster Chambers €. several poems were altered and published in Drum Beat. who had coincidentally been at the Academy with Dickinson when they were girls.[118] Another appeared in April 1864 in the Brooklyn Daily Union. ." entitled "The Sleeping." as it was published in the Springfield Republican in 1862. and managed to convince Dickinson to publish her poem "Success is counted sweetest" anonymously in a volume called A Masque of Poets. "Nobody knows this little rose".[120] Jackson was deeply involved in the publishing world.

Using the physical evidence of the original papers. Forming the basis of later Dickinson scholarship. were published between 1914 and 1945. wrote: "The world will not rest satisfied till every scrap of her writings. often differing in order and structure. the daughter of Susan and Edward Dickinson.[125] The first 115-poem volume was a critical and financial success.Emily Dickinson 11 Posthumous After Dickinson's death.[132] .[128] Cover of the first edition of Poems. needle punctures and other clues to reassemble the poet's packets. believing the ordering of the poems to be more than chronological or convenient. ensured that the poet's work was in the public's eye. strewn with dashes and irregularly capitalized. also presented in three volumes.[124] Although Todd claimed that only essential changes were made. Since then. going through eleven printings in two years. preventing complete publication of Dickinson's poetry for more than half a century. Johnson's variorum brought all of Dickinson's known poems together for the first time. Dickinson had left no instructions about the forty notebooks and loose sheets gathered in a locked chest. Lavinia Dickinson kept her promise and burned most of the poet's correspondence. Johnson. many critics have argued for thematic unity in these small collections.[129] Johnson's goal was to present the poems very nearly as Dickinson had left them in her manuscripts. running to five editions by 1893. The Manuscript Books of Emily Dickinson was published. a third series appeared in 1896. published collections of her aunt's poetry based on the manuscripts held by her family. with the manuscripts divided between the Todd and Dickinson houses. edited jointly by Mabel Loomis Todd and T. her brother's mistress.[123] The first volume of Dickinson's Poems. published collections based on the manuscripts held by her mother. Poems: Second Series followed in 1891. Johnson edited and published. Editor Ralph W. whether containing previously unpublished or newly edited poems. the poems were extensively edited to match punctuation and capitalization to late 19th-century standards.[131] Three years later. has been published".[130] They were untitled. and often extremely elliptical in their language. the poems were intended to be published in their original order for the first time.[122] She turned first to her brother's wife and then to Mabel Loomis Todd. letters as well as literature. appeared in November 1890. One reviewer. along with Theodora Ward. Franklin relied on smudge marks. Significantly though. A feud ensued. only numbered in an approximate chronological sequence. These competing editions of Dickinson's poetry. published in 1890 The first scholarly publication came in 1955 with a complete new three-volume set edited by Thomas H. with occasional rewordings to reduce Dickinson's obliquity. for assistance. in 1892.[126] Nearly a dozen new editions of Dickinson's poetry. a complete collection of Dickinson's letters. whereas Mabel Loomis Todd's daughter.[121] Lavinia recognized the poems' worth and became obsessed with seeing them published. W. Higginson.[127] Martha Dickinson Bianchi. In 1981. Millicent Todd Bingham. Dickinson biographer Alfred Habegger wrote in his 2001 work My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson that "The consequences of the poet's failure to disseminate her work in a faithful and orderly manner are still very much with us".

141 in 1863. These are often conventional and sentimental in nature. some of these poems can be sung to fit Dickinson's handwritten manuscript of her poem "Wild Nights € Wild Nights!" the melodies of popular folk songs and hymns that also use the common meter. Though Dickinson often uses perfect rhymes for lines two and four.[133] Thomas H. using tetrameter for the first and third lines and trimeter for the second and fourth. she varies the meter from the traditional ballad stanza by using trimeter for lines one.[136] Dickinson avoids pentameter. This was her most creative period•these poems are more vigorous and emotional.[138] Familiar examples of such songs are "O Little Town of Bethlehem" and "Amazing Grace'". who later published The Poems of Emily Dickinson. employing alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter. € 1861€1865.•/ Who is the West?•/ The Purple Man•/ Who may be Yellow if He can•/ That lets Him out again. published as "The Snake" in the Republican € Dickinson complained that the edited punctuation (an added comma and a full stop substitution for the original dash) altered the meaning of the entire poem. two and four.[135] € Post-1866. opting more generally for trimeter. Since many of her poems were written in traditional ballad stanzas with ABCB rhyme schemes. conveys her grief over the feared loss of friendship and was sent to her friend Sue Gilbert. The fifth poem. Johnson estimated that she composed 86 poems in 1861. . combine to create a body of work that is "far more various in its styles and forms than is commonly supposed". the works in each period having certain general characters in common. while rhyming the second and fourth lines (ABCB). citing the following example: "Who is the East?•/ The Yellow Man•/ Who may be Purple if he can•/ That carries the Sun." Late 20th-century scholars are "deeply interested" by Dickinson's highly individual use of punctuation and lineation (line lengths and line breaks). she also makes frequent use of slant rhyme. Sometimes her use of these meters is regular. a traditional form that is divided into quatrains. which begins "I have a Bird in spring". while only using tetrameter for line three. less often. Structure and syntax The extensive use of dashes and unconventional capitalization in Dickinson's manuscripts. € Pre-1861. Dickinson scholar and poet Anthony Hecht finds resonances in Dickinson's poetry not only with hymns and song-forms but also with psalms and riddles. and the idiosyncratic vocabulary and imagery. He also believed that this is when she fully developed her themes of life and death. It is estimated that two-thirds of the entire body of her poetry was written before this year.[134] Two of these are mock valentines done in an ornate and humorous style. was able to date only five of Dickinson's poems before 1858. but oftentimes it is irregular.[137] In some of her poems. Following the publication of one of the few poems that appeared in her lifetime € "A narrow Fellow in the Grass". one of which is about missing her brother Austin. and 174 in 1864. The regular form that she most often employs is the ballad stanza. and two others are conventional lyrics. dimeter. Johnson. 366 in 1862.Emily Dickinson 12 Poetry See: Emily Dickinson at Wikisource for complete poetic works Dickinson's poems generally fall into three distinct periods. tetrameter and.

[139] Several volumes have attempted to render Dickinson's handwritten dashes using many typographic symbols of varying length and angle. Dickinson scholar Vivian Pollak considers these references an autobiographical . saying that Dickinson's "relentlessly measuring mind . her poems allude to death by many methods: "crucifixion. His notice sudden is. with youth and humility. She reserved her sharpest insights into the "death blow aimed by God" and the "funeral in the brain". but godlike" and speculates that Master may be a "kind of Christian muse". written about 1859. Although Johnson's landmark 1955 edition of poems was relatively unaltered from the original. her work does not fit conveniently into any one genre. deflates the airy elevation of the Transcendental".[141] Apart from the major themes discussed below. in a more limited editorial intervention. "human. W. often reinforced by images of thirst and starvation.Emily Dickinson [] Republican version A narrow Fellow in the Grass Occasionally rides € You may have met Him € did you not. Franklin also used typeset dashes of varying length to approximate the manuscripts' dashes more closely. "snakes instantly notice you". She has been regarded. Farr notes that one of Dickinson's earlier poems. irony and satire. Dickinson's poetry frequently uses humor. like gentians and anemones. puns.. later scholars critiqued it for deviating from the style and layout of Dickinson's manuscripts.[143] She associates some flowers. dying and death.. Morbidity Dickinson's poems reflect her "early and lifelong fascination" with illness. these scholars assert. if they sh'd whisper•/ Of morning and the moor €•/ They bear no other errand. The Dickinson family themselves believed these poems were addressed to actual individuals but this view is frequently rejected by scholars. stabbing and guillotinage". Meaningful distinctions.[145] Perhaps surprisingly for a New England spinster. contends that the Master is an unattainable composite figure. freezing. and The Republican's punctuation renders "her lines more commonplace".•/ Patient till Paradise €•/ To such. no other prayer". Major themes Dickinson left no formal statement of her aesthetic intentions and. who is characterized as Dickinson's "lover for all eternity". with specific characteristics. Dickinson's version captures the "breathless immediacy" of the encounter. and differing arrangements of text on the page.[144] These confessional poems are often "searing in their self-inquiry" and "harrowing to the reader" and typically take their metaphors from texts and paintings of Dickinson's day. Franklin's 1998 variorum edition of the poems provided alternate wordings to those chosen by Johnson. for example. Farr disagrees with this analysis. premature burial. 13 Original wording A narrow Fellow in the Grass Occasionally rides € You may have met Him € did you not His notice sudden is € As Farr points out.•/ And I. alongside Emerson (whose poems Dickinson admired). drowning. because of the variety of her themes.. wherein flowers [are] often emblems for actions and emotions". With the increasingly close focus on Dickinson's structures and syntax has come a growing appreciation that they are "aesthetically based". can be drawn from varying lengths and angles of dash. R. The Master poems Dickinson left a large number of poems addressed to "Signor". "Sir" and "Master". suffocation. hanging. shooting. appears to "conflate her poetry itself with the posies": "My nosegays are for Captives €•/ Dim € long expectant eyes €•/ Fingers denied the plucking. others with prudence and insight. as a Transcendentalist.[140] However. Her poems were often sent to friends with accompanying letters and nosegays. Farr..[142] Flowers and gardens Farr notes that Dickinson's "poems and letters almost wholly concern flowers" and that allusions to gardens often refer to an "imaginative realm .

[149] His judgment that her opus was "incomplete and unsatisfactory" would be echoed in the essays of the New Critics in the 1930s. stating that "if poetry is to exist at all. Dickinson wrote poems reflecting a preoccupation with the teachings of Jesus Christ and. The wisdom of the ages and Dickinson wrote and sent this poem ("A Route to the nature of man insist on so much".. who was literary editor of The Independent for twelve years. thin and frail. the poetry received mixed reviews after it was first published in 1890.[147] Often. it really must have form and grammar.•/ And since We're mutual Monarch•/ How this be•/ Except by Abdication €•/ Me € of Me?". this intensely private place is referred to as the "undiscovered continent" and the "landscape of the spirit" and embellished with nature imagery. many are addressed to him.[146] She stresses the Gospels' contemporary pertinence and recreates them. the imagery is darker and forbidding•castles or prisons. Eliot and Auden. complete with corridors and rooms•to create a dwelling place of "oneself" where one resides with one's other selves.[148] albeit "without the proper control and chastening" that the experience of publishing during her lifetime might have conferred. is their reverential attention to the life of Jesus Christ" and contends that Dickinson's deep structures place her in the "poetic tradition of Christian devotion" alongside Hopkins. a British writer. The Undiscovered Continent Academic Suzanne Juhasz considers that Dickinson saw the mind and spirit as tangible visitable places and that for much of her life she lived within them. Gospel poems Throughout her life. but for that twould be•/ A rugged billion Miles €". An example that brings together many of these ideas is: "Me from Myself € to banish €•/ Had I Art €•/ Impregnable my Fortress•/ Unto All Heart €•/ But since myself•assault Me €•/ How have I peace•/ Except by subjugating•/ Consciousness. In a Nativity poem. and must rhyme when it professes to rhyme. Dickinson's most psychologically complex poems explore the theme that the loss of hunger for life causes the death of self and place this at "the interface of murder and suicide". a Evanescence") to Thomas Higginson in 1880. but disapproved of her unusual non-traditional style.[150] Some critics hailed Dickinson's effort. an editor of Harper's Magazine. Backed by Higginson and with a favorable notice from William Dean Howells. an outward expression of her needy self-image as small.[151] Thomas Bailey Aldrich. Maurice Thompson. indeed. dismissed Dickinson's work. often with "wit and American colloquial language". Andrew Lang. At other times. Higginson himself stated in his preface to the first edition of Dickinson's published work that the poetry's quality "is that of extraordinary grasp and insight".Emily Dickinson reflection of Dickinson's "thirsting-starving persona". equally dismissed Dickinson's poetic technique in The Atlantic Monthly in January 1892: "It is plain that Miss Dickinson possessed an extremely unconventional and . poet and novelist.. Dickinson combines lightness and wit to revisit an ancient theme: "The Savior must have been•/ A docile Gentleman €•/ To come so far so cold a Day•/ For little Fellowmen•/ The Road to Bethlehem•/ Since He and I were Boys•/ Was leveled. noted in 1891 that her poetry had "a strange mixture of rare individuality and originality". Scholar Dorothy Oberhaus finds that the "salient feature uniting Christian poets . 14 Reception The surge of posthumous publication gave Dickinson's poetry its first public exposure.

and pieces of correspondence. eccentric vision. to use her powers. But the incoherence and formlessness of her • versicles are fatal .. William Dean Howells wrote that "If nothing else had come out of our life but this strange poetry.She carefully selected her society and controlled the disposal of her time.. she was a private poet who wrote as indefatigably as some women cook or knit. declares that there is a necessary and powerful conjunction between Dickinson being a woman and a poet.[156] In the 1930s.[155] With the growing popularity of modernist poetry in the 1920s. modern critics believed the irregularities were consciously artistic..Emily Dickinson grotesque fancy. Her books perpetrated the myths surrounding her aunt. As critic Roland Hagenbƒchle pointed out.[164] Emily Dickinson is now considered a powerful and persistent figure in American culture.[152] Critical attention to Dickinson's poetry was meager from 1897 to the early 1920s.[163] 15 Legacy In the early 20th century. she is heralded as the greatest woman poet in the English language."[167] . "Perhaps as a poet [Dickinson] could find the fulfillment she had missed as a woman. in an attempt to focus and clarify the major claims for and against the poet's greatness. Cleanth Brooks and Yvor Winters € appraised the significance of Dickinson's poetry.[154] In a 1915 essay.. Millicent Todd Bingham's works provided a more distant and realistic perspective of the poet. Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant called the poet's inspiration "daring" and named her "one of the rarest flowers the sterner New England land ever bore".[159] Biographers and theorists of the past tended to separate Dickinson's roles as a woman and a poet. their "affirmative and prohibitive tenets turned out to be of special relevance to Dickinson scholarship". published works such as Emily Dickinson Face to Face and Letters of Emily Dickinson."[158] The second wave of feminism created greater cultural sympathy for her as a female poet. interest in her poetry became broader in scope and some critics began to consider Dickinson as essentially modern.. who had inherited The Evergreens as well as the copyright for her aunt's poetry from her parents. She was deeply tinged by the mysticism of Blake. half-educated recluse in an out-of-the-way New England village (or anywhere else) cannot with impunity set at defiance the laws of gravitation and grammar". and speculating about how this may have influenced her poetry.neither eccentric nor quaint..[153] By the start of the 20th century.. knowing she was exceptional and knowing what she needed. America. and a cult following began to form. Lillian Faderman.[166] As early as 1891. dreamy. she has become widely acknowledged as an innovative. Pollak.[157] Blackmur. Vivian R. George Whicher wrote in his 1952 book This Was a Poet: A Critical Biography of Emily Dickinson. Dickinson's failure to conform to 19th-century poetic form was no longer surprising nor distasteful to new generations of readers." Feminist criticism. at the right time for one kind of poetry: the poetry of sophisticated.[165] Although much of the early reception concentrated on Dickinson's eccentric and secluded nature.[160] Adrienne Rich theorized in Vesuvius at Home: The Power of Emily Dickinson (1976) that Dickinson's identity as a woman poet brought her power: "[she] chose her seclusion. a number of the New Critics € among them R. Dickinson's legacy was promoted in particular by Martha Dickinson Bianchi and Millicent Todd Bingham. Rather than seeing Dickinson's poetic styling as a result of lack of knowledge or skill. Blackmur.[162] Critics such as John Cody. and strongly influenced by the mannerism of Emerson . wrote in a landmark 1937 critical essay: ". to practice necessary economics. P. Bianchi. on the other hand. and Martha Nell Smith have argued that Susan was the central erotic relationship in Dickinson's life. personal recollections."[161] Some scholars question the poet's sexuality.. and could not be left out of any record of it. while combining family tradition. Paula Bennett. She came. In the first collection of critical essays on Dickinson from a feminist perspective.. had made a distinctive addition to the literature of the world. In comparison. Judith Farr.. we should feel that in the work of Emily Dickinson. an eccentric. Allen Tate. pre-modernist poet. Ellen Louise Hart. or New England rather.. For example. Dickinson was suddenly referred to by various critics as a great woman poet.. Her gift for words and the cultural predicament of her time drove her to poetry instead of antimacassars . which stoked public curiosity about her aunt. theorizing that the numerous letters and poems that were dedicated to Susan Gilbert Dickinson indicate a lesbian romance.. she was determined to survive..

which is now held in the Houghton Library at Harvard University. 1971 as the second stamp in the "American Poet" series. € Jane Campion's film the Piano and novel (co-authored by Kate Pullinger) were inspired by the poetry of Emily Dickinson as well as the novels by the Bronte Sisters. and consists of 424 pressed specimens of plants arranged on 66 pages of a bound album. Dickinson has also played a role of inspiration for Rasputina's front woman Melora Creager for a number of years. Montana. The soundtrack to the film. The Emily Dickinson Museum was created in 2003 when ownership of the Evergreens. family correspondence. scholarly articles and books. the official publication of the Emily Dickinson International Society•have been The Dickinson Homestead as it appears today. newspaper clippings. It opened to the public for tours. photographs and contemporary artwork and prints. and Hart Crane as a major American poet. and Redmond. T. John Adams and Michael Tilson Thomas. In founded to examine her work. A one-woman play entitled The Belle of Amherst first appeared on Broadway in 1976. S.[169] Dickinson's herbarium. Wallace Stevens. theses. The former being one of Nyman's most notable works to date and a signature piece of his repertoire.Emily Dickinson Twentieth-century critic Harold Bloom has placed her alongside Walt Whitman. The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College has substantial holdings of Dickinson's manuscripts and letters as well as a lock of Dickinson's hair and the original of the only positively identified image of the poet. in recognition of Dickinson's growing stature as a poet. the Homestead was purchased by Amherst College. Eliot. written and composed by Michael Nyman contained songs with titles directly extracted from Dickinson's poetry such as Big My Secret and most famously the Heart Asks Pleasure First. The original work was compiled by Dickinson during her years at Amherst Academy. . two Emily Dickinson Elementary Schools exist in Bozeman. 16 Modern influence and inspiration Emily Dickinson's life and works have been the source of inspiration particularly to feminist orientated artists of a variety of mediums. was transferred to the college. was published in 2006 as Emily Dickinson's Herbarium by Harvard University Press. which had been occupied by Dickinson family heirs until 1988. Washington. for example. Several schools have been established in her name. The songs Sweet Sister Temperance and My Porcelain Life are based specifically on the life of Dickinson. A few notable examples are as follows: € The cello rock band Rasputina drew inspiration from Dickinson for their 2010 album Sister Kinderhook. and among the thirty greatest Western Writers of all time. In 1965. Robert Frost. it was later adapted for television. plays. A few literary journals•including The Emily Dickinson Journal. Nick Peros. The Amherst Jones Library's Special Collections department has an Emily Dickinson Collection consisting of approximately seven thousand items. including original manuscript poems and letters. and also served as a faculty residence for many years. An 8-cent commemorative stamp in 2003 it was made into the Emily Dickinson honor of Dickinson was issued by the United States Postal Service on Museum. winning several awards. A digital facsimile of the herbarium is available online. August 28. Her poetry is frequently anthologized and has been used as texts for art songs by composers such as Aaron Copland.[168] Dickinson is taught in American literature and poetry classes in the United States from middle school to college.

[20] Habegger (2001). [39] Habegger (2001). 21. Wolff (1986). 700€701. 85. [31] Sewall (1974). 9. emilydickinsonmuseum. Ford (1966). amherst. (June 16. [49] Longenbach. 302. [9] Wolff (1986). 129. 37. [44] Sewall (1974). [52] Habegger (2001). [43] Sewall (1974). 342. 55. 1. org/ susan_dickinson [26] Ford (1966). 358. 330. 340. 46. org/ abby_bliss [25] http:/ / www. 168. The Nation. 401. 324. [30] Ford (1966). 36. 2012. 683. [48] Pickard (1967). 148. [7] Sewall (1974). [38] Habegger (2001). [18] Habegger (2001). [15] Habegger (2001). [5] Sewall (1974). [28] Ford (1966). [34] Pickard (1967). 444. 2010. 337. [17] Johnson (1960). [40] Knapp (1989). [32] Sewall (1974).) " Ardor and the Abyss (http:/ / www. [8] Wolff (1986). 2010. 172.Emily Dickinson 17 References Notes [1] D'Arienzo (2006) [2] Sources differ as to the number of poems that were published. 2. 122. 153. 211. edu/ library/ archives/ holdings/ edickinson/ new_daguerreotype)" Amherst College Archives and Special Collections Website. com/ article/ ardor-and-abyss?page=full)". [23] http:/ / www. 19€21. [33] Habegger (2001). September 6. [42] Habegger (2001). 368. 19. [16] Sewall (1974) 322. [22] Ford (1966). [3] McNeil (1986). 14. [35] Habegger (2001). 338. Retrieved June 29. . 17€18. [14] Wolff (1986). [41] Sewall (1974). 447. 53. org/ abiah_root [24] http:/ / www. 218. 59. emilydickinsonmuseum. [19] Sewall (1974). thenation. [46] Martin (2002). [27] Habegger (2001). [11] Habegger (2001). 142. [50] Sewall (1974). James. 47€48. [6] Sewall (1974). 45. [4] Bloom (1999). 226. [21] Habegger (2001). [13] Sewall (1974). [10] Sewall (1974). 341. 213. 335. 216. but most put it between seven and ten. [53] 'The World Is Not Acquainted With Us': A New Dickinson Daguerreotype? (https:/ / www. 321. [47] Habegger (2001). [37] Sewall (1974). [12] Farr (2005). [45] Sewall (1974). [36] Habegger (2001). [29] Johnson (1960). emilydickinsonmuseum. 221. [51] Sewall (1974).

502. 547. 5 [61] Ford (1966). 286€287. 607. 661. 653. 10(3). 258. 501. [102] Habegger (2001). 521. 456. 604. [86] Habegger (2001). 2010. 2010. [87] Habegger (2001). 569. [92] Habegger (2001). 498. pp. 376. [69] Habegger (2001). The Emily Dickinson Journal. v. 517. jhu. The Guardian. pp. 516. 548. edu/ journals/ differences/ v010/ 10. John F. [93] Parker. McNeil (1986). 45. [78] Wilson (1986). 554€555. 642. [66] Johnson (1960). [80] Habegger (2001). 188. jhu. [103] Habegger (2001). 287. [82] Johnson (1960). [106] Habegger (2001). 249€250. [72] Blake (1964). 473. html)". [101] Habegger (2001). [107] Habegger (2001). [94] Habegger (2001). html)". 87. [88] Habegger (2001). 1mcdermott. [74] Sewall (1974). [109] Habegger (2001). [55] Habegger (2001). [57] Sewall (1974). Retrieved August 20. 123€124. 33. [77] Wolff (1986). 566. 1998. [91] Habegger (2001). [99] Sewall (1974). [90] Habegger (2001). [89] Habegger (2001). co. 615. [81] Habegger (2001). [64] Fuss. 9(1). [76] Wolff (1986). 18 . 540. Murray (1996). Sewall (1974). 541. [105] Walsh (1971). [58] Sewall (1974). 523. 71€86. [56] Habegger (2001). [83] Habegger (2001). Diana. 597. 154. " Interior Chambers: The Emily Dickinson Homestead (http:/ / muse. [68] Sewall (1974). [63] McDermott. 254. [79] Habegger (2001). [97] Johnson (1960). 453. 562. [84] Habegger (2001). edu/ journals/ emily_dickinson_journal/ v009/ 9. G9. 342. 353. [59] Habegger (2001). [60] Franklin (1998). 652. uk/ books/ 2010/ feb/ 13/ emily-dickinson-lyndall-gordon)". 592. [73] Habegger (2001). 651. 1€46 [65] " A bomb in her bosom: Emily Dickinson's secret life (http:/ / www. [104] Habegger (2001). 524. Sewall (1974). [98] Habegger (2001:•587). [96] Habegger (2001). vii. 612. 541. [62] Habegger (2001). [95] Habegger (2001). February 13. [100] Sewall (1974). 491.Emily Dickinson [54] Walsh (1971). 26. [70] Johnson (1960). [108] Habegger (2001). [71] Habegger (2001). 591. [67] Wolff (1986). 39. A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. 2000. 623. " Emily Dickinson's 'Nervous Prostration' and Its Possible Relationship to Her Work (http:/ / muse. Murray (1996). 463. guardian. 455. 3fuss. [85] Habegger (2001). [75] Wolff (1986). 405. 188.

Juhasz (1983). 171. 122 Martin (2002). 9. 13. p. 34. Pickard (1967). Oberhaus (1996). 3. Grabher (1988). 2. 55. 389. Habegger (2001). 358€359. Wolff (1986). Bloom (1998). 12. vi. 243€259. 243 Mitchell (2009).Emily Dickinson [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] Habegger (2001). Wolff (1986). Habegger (2001). 68. Wolff (1986). 14. [167] Blake (1964). 202. Farr (2005). Habegger (2001). Pollak (1996). 130€140. 194. 17. 402€403. Habegger (2001). Wolff (1986). Grabher (1998). Farr (1996). 20. 580€583. 6 Wolff (1986). Wolff (1986). 628. 1. Wolff (1986). Sewall (1974). 625. 627. 33. 534. Hecht (1996). Farr (1996). Crumbley (1997). Blake (1964). McNeil (1986). Blake (1964). Grabher (1998). 535. McNeil (1986). 403. 226 . Buckingham (1989). Blake (1964). 31 Martin (2002). 153€155. McNeil (1986). Pickard (1967). Blake (1964). 28. 537. Ford (1966). 622. Farr (1996). viii. 105€119 Juhasz (1996). 245. Juhasz (1983). [168] Bloom (1994). 35. 62€65. 18. Wolff (1986). 63. Martin (2002). Blake (1964). 175. Wells (1929). Juhasz (1983). 58 Comment (2001). 223. Blake (1964). 186. p. Blake (1964). 37. 7€8. 42. xv. 19 [166] Martin (2002). Blake (1964). 89. 1. Blake (1964). 167. 75 Grabher (1988). 24. Habegger (2001). Ford (1966). p. Habegger (2001). p. Johnson (1960). 10. 1€7.

My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson. 1989. Winter 2006. € Buckingham. ISBN 978-0-679-44986-7. Cambridge: Belknap Press. Harold. Boston: Little. ISBN 0-8229-3604-6. € Gordon. 2010. Conn. Inflections of the Pen: Dash and Voice in Emily Dickinson. Broomall. 2005. 1986. 1989. ISBN 0-253-32170-0. New York: Random House. € D'Arienzo. A„fe. Paul. Brown & Co. 20 Editions of poetry € Franklin. € Blake. 1996. University of Alabama Press. € Farr.edu/magazine/issues/06winter/emily/). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. € Grabher. € Murray. PA: Chelsea House Publishers. New York: Harcourt Brace. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. "Dickinson's Bawdy: Shakespeare and Sexual Symbolism in Emily Dickinson's Writing to Susan Dickinson". Feminist Critics Read Emily Dickinson. Alfred. € Hecht. University of Massachusetts Press. 1970. 1999. Thomas W. Lyndall. The Poems of Emily Dickinson. Retrieved September 23. ISBN 0-8264-9715-2. € Ford. Emily Dickinson. The International Reception of Emily Dickinson. 1983. ISBN 978-0-13-033524-1. Amherst Magazine. The Master Letters of Emily Dickinson. ISBN 0-7910-5106-4. The Emily Dickinson Handbook. org/ node/ 250)". England: Harvard University Press.: Archon Books. The Gardens of Emily Dickinson. Emily Dickinson Face to Face: Unpublished Letters with Notes and Reminiscences. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-674-67624-6 € Johnson. 1996. 2010. € Farr. Judith. Emily Dickinson. (ed). The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Judith (ed). 2006. . W. Prentice Hall International Paperback Editions. Bettina L. 2001. R. Wendy (ed). (ed). Anthony. ISBN 0-394-74766-6. The Recognition of Emily Dickinson: Selected Criticism Since 1890. Helen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Viking. Suzanne (ed). 2009. Daria. 1998. € Comment. Heaven Beguiles the Tired: Death in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson. € Bloom. W. emilydickinsonmuseum. 2002. Cambridge. Emily Dickinson Museum. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-1-58465-674-6. Lives Like Loaded Guns: Emily Dickinson and Her Family's Feuds. London: Virago Press. ISBN 978-0-670-02193-2. Kristin M. 1994. Caesar R. € Mitchell. 2009. € McNeil. University Press of New England. Caesar R. 1960. € Franklin. New York: Continuum Publishing. (ed). Emily Dickinson: A Collection of Critical Essays. 2010. ISBN 978-0-674-01829-7.amherst. "The Landscape of the Spirit" in Farr (1996) 130€140. Emily Dickinson's Reception in the 1890s: A Documentary History. ISBN 0-521-00118-8. € Juhasz. ISBN 1-55849-155-4. Legacy. "The Riddles of Emily Dickinson" in Farr (1996) 149€162. Roland Hagenbƒchle and Cristanne Miller. € Knapp. 1997. Suzanne. € Martin. € Habegger.Emily Dickinson [169] " Belle of Amherst (http:/ / www. Willis J. 1998. pp. Thomas H. Blake.•167€181. 1966. (ed). Massachusetts & London. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8131-1988-X. Domhnall Mitchell and Maria Stuart. Maid as Muse: How Domestic Servants Changed Emily Dickinson's Life and Language. 18(2). € Bloom. The Cambridge Companion to Emily Dickinson. Emily Dickinson. Martha Dickinson. Retrieved June 23. Secondary sources € Bianchi. Ed. € Juhasz. Harold. 1999. 2001. 1996. Hamden. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. "Looking at Emily" (http://www3. R. 1964. € Crumbley. Gudrun.

John Evangelist.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=viaf&au=31995584&library=OLBP) Resources in your library (http://tools.org/identities/lccn-n79-54166) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) € Dickinson Electronic Archives (http://www. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1962. € Oberhaus. € Wells.wmflabs. "Kitchen Table Poetics: Maid Margaret Maher and Her Poet Emily Dickinson. co. 2007. New York: Holt. "•'Tender pioneer': Emily Dickinson's Poems on the Life of Christ" in Farr (1996) 105€119. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War. Texas: University of Texas Press. Edmund. "New Feet Within My Garden Go: Emily Dickinson's Herbarium" (http://www. A„fe. ISBN 0-393-31256-9. Martin's Press. 3. Peter.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=viaf&au=31995584) Resources in other libraries (http://tools. € Wilson.org/author/Emily+Dickinson) at Project Gutenberg € Works by or about Emily Dickinson (http://worldcat.org/) € Emily Dickinson Archive (http://www. Emily Dickinson and the Modern Consciousness: A Poet of Our Time.jhtml?xml=/gardening/2007/06/29/gemily29.emilydickinson. 1929. Vol. and Giroux. 1967. New York: Farrar. John B. 1974. June 29. "Thirst and Starvation in Emily Dickinson's Poetry" in Farr (1996) 62€75. Kenneth. € Smith.uk/gardening/main.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=viaf&su=31995584&library=0CHOOSE0) By Emily Dickinson € € € Online books (http://tools.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=viaf&su=31995584) Resources in other libraries (http://tools. 21 Further reading Archival sources € Emily Dickinson Papers. 1996. Dorothy Huff. Austin.org) . 1996. Retrieved January 18. 1986. 1971. 1844-1891 (3 microfilm reels) are housed at the Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University. Emily Dickinson. 2008. (November 1929). "Early Criticism of Emily Dickinson"." The Emily Dickinson Journal. € Wolff. American Literature.gutenberg. Emily Dickinson: An Introduction and Interpretation. 5(2). pp. The Daily Telegraph. 2007. Cynthia Griffin. € Stocks. ISBN 0-674-53080-2.edickinson. New York: St.wmflabs. ISBN 0-394-54418-8.wmflabs. No.wmflabs. Vivian R. 1996. 1988.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?st=viaf&su=31995584&library=OLBP) Resources in your library (http://tools. Richard B. 1. 1992.wmflabs. € Walsh. Anna Mary. € Sewall. € Pickard. ISBN 0-292-77666-7. Rowing in Eden: Rereading Emily Dickinson.org/ftl/cgi-bin/ftl?at=viaf&au=31995584&library=0CHOOSE0) € Works by Emily Dickinson (http://www.Emily Dickinson € Murray. Knopf. Rinehart and Winston.. Alfred A. Martha Nell.xml).•285€296. € Pollak. External links Library resources About Emily Dickinson € € € Online books (http://tools. New York. € Parker.telegraph. Strauss. The Hidden Life of Emily Dickinson.wmflabs. New York: Farrar. The Life of Emily Dickinson. Straus and Giroux.

harvard.htm) € Emily Dickinson International Society (http://www.edu/mm/278804). Harvard University € Boston Public Library.amherst. Massachusetts € Emily Dickinson at Amherst College (https://www. Amherst.org/bio/ emily-dickinson). € Emily Dickinson Lexicon (http://edl.emilydickinsoninternationalsociety.edu/libraries/houghton/collections/modern/dickinson. at the Poetry Foundation.english. including audio files (http://www.Emily Dickinson € Profile and poems of Emily Dickinson. Emily Dickinson Papers (http://www.org/) € Emily Dickinson Museum (http://www. Amherst College Archives and Special Collections € Emily Dickinson Collection (http://hcl. Galatea Collection.flickr.org/) The Homestead and the Evergreens.com/photos/ boston_public_library/sets/72157604466722178/) 22 .edu/maps/poets/a_f/dickinson/ dickinson.edu/index.cfm) at Houghton Library (http://hcl.php) € Emily Dickinson at Modern American Poetry (http://www.harvard.emilydickinsonmuseum.edu/libraries/houghton/).poetryfoundation.byu.illinois.

KudzuVine. Damicatz. JoanneB. Semper15. Ryulong. Blakwyte. Randomblue. RA0808. Eaifem. Richaraj. Heavenlylver48.jpg •Source: http://en. Katalaveno. Anaxial. Dr Default. Qxz. Kaldari. Lepidoteromy. Mato. Wesrobking. WCFrancis. Rjd0060. Londonlondonlondon. Xgrimreapahx. Rudoleska. Bbsrock. Fireheart7397. Yamamoto Ichiro. Adamahill. Jizzulh. Goodnightmush. Averaver. WobblyFuzz. SchfiftyThree. Dylancraig. Ifax108.wikipedia. Dougperryjr. Woohookitty. Fred hanson. Spellcast. Ssd. Fokker. TreasuryTag. Faygo lover. DeckerG.org/w/index. Jaxl. Kumioko (renamed). Zmftimelord. LeCour. Ktr101. Brandmeister (old). Liveste. Viriditas. Brianga. Tyrenius. Canadian-Bacon. CrazyLegsKC. Bongwarrior. Snowolf. Chris the speller. Compensations. INeverCry. Rodney Boyd.wikipedia.wikipedia. Oscarthecat. Jackollie. Mikm. Maschorr. Dimadick. Lestrade. Cantras. Arjun01. Danno uk. SFTVLGUY2. Arcadian. Tom87020. Werdan7. Sean Whitton. EnglishTea4me. Welostclyde. K. Magioladitis. NewEnglandYankee. All Hallow's Wraith. Aim Here. Fish and karate. Strangerer. Chodorkovskiy. Scientizzle. MikeLynch. Miquonranger03. Eloquence. IronCrow. Ixfd64. Apeloverage. GregAsche. Wayne Slam. Micahsergey. Howcheng. Jauerback. Alma Pater. Screw U ALL. Hmains.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Eamezaga File:Emily Dickinson€s (1830-1886) manuscript of "A route of evanescence" (1880). Man vyi. Wegesrand. Rettetast. Victoriaearle. Mig77.org/w/index. BrownHairedGirl. Gmaxwell. RossF18. Funhistory. Krashlandon. Repku. WODUP. Master of Puppets. BinaryTed. Courcelles. Bibliomaniac15. Future Perfect at Sunrise File:Emily Dickinson Homestead.. Blindguardian3210. Starsat. Pavel Vozenilek. Outriggr. RoyBoy. Snigbrook. Sceptre. Adopp. Ann Stouter. Crotalus horridus. Vigilius. Aude. Multixfer.jpg •Source: http://en.jpeg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Ehardman80. Piledhigheranddeeper. Kasyapa. Faithlessthewonderboy. Geniac. Cimon Avaro. La goutte de pluie. Nlu.o-Spectre. Newmanbe. Swollib. Wadewitz. Chocowulf. Beginning. Gilliam. IW. Nephron.php?title=File:Dickinson_children_painting. SouthernNights. Msikma. Copysan.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Emily Dickinson File:Emily Dickinson "Wild nights" manuscript.jpg •Source: http://en. Chester888. Dlohcierekim.0 •Contributors: Midnightdreary File:Emilyrepublican. Ierolli. Cunninge. Onemoreoption. Ian.php?title=File:Emilyrepublican. Shirik. Randor1980. Lanapopp. Jcx. Kribbeh. Timberframe. Justayankeefan. Angr. Wtmitchell. Michael Devore. Drmies. Future Perfect at Sunrise. Bread machine. Fajardojosh. Mzacher. One Night In Hackney. Andycjp.delanoy. Vim10. Neutrality. Horkana. Lysanzia. Captain panda. Hquon19. Kcordina. Sanjay Tiwari. Chenopodiaceous. Yllosubmarine. File:Dickinson and Turner 1859 (cleaned). Yuyudevil.org/w/index. Ariadavid. Irfali. PDH. Amazinganin. AndrewvdBK. Masterjamie. RomanLady. Persian Poet Gal. Cenarium. CIreland.Z-man. Prolog. FisherQueen. Curps. Derpymcherpus. Nakon. Nikkimaria. Jarble. Bbarney. Boboboz. P. Kelsey16. Pascal666. Wjejskenewr. Kristenandjaquie. John. Andrew Norman. PeterSymonds. Infrogmation. Da Vynci. Mnellsmith. HOT L Baltimore. Cbrown1023. Arbor to SJ. Golgofrinchian. Richsantorum. Xlemur. Husky. Philip Trueman. Discospinster. IRP.jpg •License: Creative Commons Attribution 3. Spangineer.wikipedia. Red Director. Alethiophile. Bobo192. AdamBMorgan. Gobonobo. Catgut. Izehar. Nareek. Mojo Hand. Irishguy. A Musing. Turtlens. ZX95. Jensjayne. Sweetness46. ClockworkSoul. Allstarecho. Paladin656. Arthur Holland. Raquel del norte. Mu File:Emily Dickinson Poems. Ink Falls. Charles Matthews. Magister Mathematicae. NawlinWiki. Rbbloom. MarmadukePercy. Clem cowsie. Res2216firestar. WesleyDodds. Eatsallthetime2.org/w/index. Anbellofe. Unctions Unit. Connorhalsell. CesarB. Treyt021. Lotje. Treisijs. Andrew Parodi. Cometstyles. Paul August. Mjpieters. Malo. Jaydec. Quiddity. Sango123. ChrisGriswold. PoetryForEveryone. AKeen.org/w/index. Mu. Tanthalas39. Femto.php?title=File:Emily_Dickinson_Homestead. Rockhurst singer. Weasel extraordinaire.php?title=File:Emily_Dickinson‡s_(1830-1886)_manuscript_of_"A_route_of_evanescence"_(1880). Aboutmovies. JoeBlogsDord. Gardenhistory. Japanese Searobin. Abie the Fish Peddler. Pseudomonas. Licenses and Contributors File:Emily Dickinson daguerreotype. Matth05. Arniep. Excirial. Chrislk02. Mav.jpg •Source: http://en.g. Phenz. IceKarma. Wikiuser100. Vsmith. AndrewLeeson. Sbharris. Werdna. Shanes.wikipedia. JV Smithy. AerobicFox. Sir Paul. Ehardman80. RyanCross. Magnus Manske. Tksgk262. Kerotan. No substitute for you.andrew. BryanG. Sadads.php?title=File:EmilyDickinsonGrave-color. Mareino. Epbr123.C. DroEsperanto. Mysweetoldetc. Iachimo. AdamClarke. C628. C. Useight. Bcorr. Brighterorange. Fourthwit. Scarian. Grafen. Ahoerstemeier. MarmadukePercy. Deor.thomson. Ortensia. Wmahan. Tempodivalse. Bokan. Xaosflux. Alphachimp. Rbellin. Moe94. TidyCat. Antandrus. Balthazarduju. Alex Cohn. Nancy. Mechanical digger. Tang. Joh777nny. Deew123123. Red Darwin. DVD R W. Tom harrison. Hadal. Sam Francis. Zuloon. MuZemike. JYolkowski. YellinYee. Gusgus621. Gurch. Adiamas. Noctibus. BD2412. Chicagoisforlovers. Oxymoron83. Haunted summer.jpg •Source: http://en. J.wikipedia. TheBigE ND. Daderot. Klio89. Br'er Rabbit. Art LaPella. Mygerardromance. Nickptar. Ginkgo100. Colin54. Ser Amantio di Nicolao. LibLord. Rasputina.JPG •License: GNU Free Documentation License •Contributors: Daderot.php?title=File:DickinsonHomestead_oct2004. XLiquidIceX. Hydrogen Iodide. Redmarkviolinist. Tombomp. Beetstra. Modernist. Tbhotch. Tree Biting Conspiracy. Academic Challenger.php?title=File:Emily_Dickinson_"Wild_nights"_manuscript. Jajhill. Championdante. Nhjoavi. Stephenb. Bellerophon. Johnpacklambert. Ronda1. Ruby. Sumoeagle179. Girlygurl123. Eisfbnore. Alansohn. RekishiEJ. The Earwig. Bento00. Gomada. EarthPerson. Peterklevy. Eumolpo. Zafiroblue05. Kukini. The little neutrino. OCarcasso. Leilear. Gaylemadwin. Connormah. Avicennasis. Evianboy. Pilotguy. Qp10qp. Metropolitan90. Zargulon. Davidvonwitthel. The wub. Rajah. Michellebryan. DWPittelli. Maximilianklein. Rppeabody. Hyfen.JPG •Source: http://en. RobertG. LC137. Locos epraix. AdultSwim. Lightmouse. Vaxxxo. Jnol. BorgHunter. Qwyrxian. JMCC1. clown will eat me. LeonardoRob0t. BobTheTomato. Soumyasch. Solipsist. Desultor. Ucanlookitup. Dylanpack. Kizor. Richard D. Luxdormiens. JakeVortex. JayHenry. Indopug. TedE. HalfShadow. Xcentaur. DonQuixote. LucyK1. Chun-hian. Delldot. DancingPenguin. Noharrypotter. Fvw. Veronique50. Nick Drake. Ravenscroft32.roses. Patstuart. Hellogervis. R3m0t. Caitlin000. Silverhand. Sahasrahla. Naval Scene. Sprocketboy. Milesthang. Arabhorse. INeverCry. The Thing That Should Not Be. Josthomas. 1 anonymous edits File:Dickinson children painting. Dabomb87. Steventity.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Original uploader was Robinhood at de. John K.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Eamezaga. Taranah. Dave6. Ishokunaeppy. Badgernet. Ezgeta. Midnightdreary. CutOffTies.php?title=File:Emily_Dickinson_Poems. AzaToth. WillowW. Rubyelizabethlee. ONEder Boy. Luna Santin. Monsooner. Shaka._Massachusetts_(from_left). Lilspiker. Mgreason. Redthoreau. Joe056. 2 anonymous edits File:DickinsonHomestead oct2004. Masamage. O. Dwo. LGagnon. Endlessdan. Zach1243. Rockk3r. Mifter. Man vyi. PhnomPencil. Kuru. Bobzombi22. D6.jpg •Source: http://en.php?title=File:Dickinson_and_Turner_1859_(cleaned).org/w/index. Maralia. SteveRamone. Ed8r. KF. Spondoolicks. Twas Now. Jpcohen. Adeax. Deli nk. Dante8. SteinbDJ. John Vandenberg. Corpx. JHunterJ.jpg •Source: http://en.php?title=File:Emily_Dickinson_daguerreotype. Taikohediyoshi. Martin451. The stuart. Keilana. Kalki. VegDisc41. Critic11. DanielCD. CheckeredFlag200. Wiseguy007. Coldpaws. Den fj…ttrade ankan. N1ghtcrawl3r. Radon210. Noob4sure. Ffirehorse.Fred. ARW2250. UniverSoul. JForget. Cflm001. FF2010. Jdavidb. Floss800. RexNL. Cmachardy58. Tjmayerinsf. Guanaco. RB972. Syrthiss. Joemoeboe. Massachusetts (from left). Jonathunder. Intelligentsium. Fvasconcellos. Risker. Gtg204y. Puchiko.org/w/index. Onceuponastar. Tlesher. Lugnuts. SkyWalker. Kokoloko2k7. Jorvik. Dancefev7. Guy Harris. Tangotango. Rror. Theirishpianist. Calvin 1998. Ipatrol. Notahippie76. Naturenet. Omicronpersei8. Myosotis Scorpioides. Languagehat. Yllosubmarine . KnowledgeOfSelf. Adashiel. Dino. AMK152. Danny. WillMcC. Jperrylsu.wikipedia. GeorgeStepanek. Raghith. Durin. Stedder. Eletzi. Tide rolls. Dave92patriot. DaAverageJoe. SarahStierch. Truthanado. Esurnir. Burton. Sketchmoose. Lights. Qwfp.wikipedia. Rjwilmsi. Packers1665.jpg •Source: http://en. Bruce1ee. Dane Sorensen. Jossi._Amherst. Ryan Postlethwaite. Reinarman. Pirateray.jpg •Source: http://en. Mr.wikipedia. Dysepsion. Lecen. Martial75. Bevo74. Can't sleep. Kyle1278. Meco. Spellmaster. 28421u2232nfenfcenc. Scribe711. Artimaean. PhotoBox. Cyberrex7891.HG. Hydrokitty. Yousou. OfficeBoy. Graham87. Zachary. Chingmiester. Bocaccio70s. Mac Davis. S. Lquilter. Calton. SweetNeo85. Mary Mark Ockerbloom. Animum. Simmaren. AdjustShift. Wimt. Nolelover. M2545. Alex S. Ligeti42. Nwwaew. Triwbe. ZeWrestler. Bobchicken9. SheepNotGoats. Blahedo.wikipedia. Good Olfactory. Merope.php?title=File:Thomas_Wentworth_Higginson. Ruakh.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Eamezaga. Jmrowland. Tnxman307.wikipedia. GoingBatty. The Rambling Man.jpg •License: Public Domain •Contributors: Centpacrr. Landcamera900. Diatonix.org/w/index. Calsicol. Mandarax. Computerjoe. Nsaa. PaulStatt. Valermos. Mountlovcen8. Jennica. Troels Nybo. FeanorStar7. Edward321. RapidR. Hullaballoo Wolfowitz. CappiWil. Annabells. Shreevatsa. Artibaton.org/w/index. ILovePlankton. Ondenc. JLaTondre. Lectonar. Zhunter. Pammalamma. Piano non troppo. Wiki alf. Classicrives01. Dsp13. Superjo1. Libroman. Bidwellm. Zandperl. JackDaniels1982. Closedmouth. Desmay. Lubin5792. Folantin. Thingg. Maelnuneb.wikipedia. Donreed. Soveirgn of Darkness. Tpbradbury. Glen. Schzmo.jpg •License: unknown •Contributors: User:ZX95 File:Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Onorem. AnnaKucsma. Jacklee. Pigsonthewing. Avilian. Ncosmob. Protonk. Gilo1969. KGasso. Bluemoose. 1999 anonymous edits Image Sources.org/w/index. Haham hanuka. Escape Orbit. PseudoSudo. Ehn. HoodedMan. Delirium. Ry†kotsusei. Scartol. Addshore. AgnosticPreachersKid. Gogo Dodo. ThinkBlue. Annandale. Josteinn. West. TheKMan. Nunh-huh. Centpacrr. Jredmond. Stevenmg. Froztbyte. Aashaa. Od Mishehu AWB. Yoursvivek. Sebaldusadam. Roger Davies.php?oldid=581438987 •Contributors: 21655. Willie Stark. Omnipaedista. Agreene175. MSGJ.jpg •License: GNU Free Documentation License •Contributors: HJ Mitchell. E Wing. Ehoran. Everything Inane. Liteditor. According2buster. Nk. Juliancolton. Luigi30. Classicalkid87. JNW. Download. Quietlying. Lordjazz. ERcheck. Deerstop. Walton One. Bcartolo. Goethean. Jedi of pi. Turlo Lomon. Shoessss. Kerowyn. Classicfilms. HamYoyo. Janeway216. MZMcBride. Bonadea. Iqariar. Gilabrand. Scott Mingus.wikipedia File:EmilyDickinsonGrave-color. Therunescapemaster. Ashley Pomeroy. Adolphus79. Jim. Saschameinrath.org/w/index. Shinmawa. Jester5x5. Andrew Gray. Dspradau. CapitalR. Amherst.jpeg •Source: http://en. AbsolutDan. Wtshymanski. Yllosubmarine.Article Sources and Contributors 23 Article Sources and Contributors Emily Dickinson •Source: http://en. Pharaoh of the Wizards. Thernlund. Northumbrian. AJR.org/w/index. Enviroboy. Dwarf Kirlston. Jhhymas. Dylan anglada. ToddFincannon. Tcconway. Jareha. Tony1.red. Don LePan. Sampi. Wiki Raja. Rdanjenkins. Thuresson. MrWhich. Perdita. Aitias. King Toadsworth. Inspire22. Caltas. Krich. Elnumerocinco. Dharmabum420. ESkog. Andybong. Abh9h. Krellis. CWY2190. E. Lesaellen. Endofskull.

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