Group dynamics And Lobbying

Submitted To Mrs. Preethadevi Associate Professor Vijaya College of Nursing Kottarakara

Submitted By Chithra.S II Year M.Sc Nsg Vijaya College of Nursing Kottarakara

Submitted On: 15/11/2013

face to face interaction and intimacy among members of group.GROUP DYNAMICS INTRODUCTION Dynamics is the flow of coherent activities which as envisaged will lead the group towards the establishment of its set goals. Eg: friendship group. The word ‘dynamics’ is Greek word which means the study of ‘force’. Thus the term group dynamics refers to the forces operating wide in groups for social interaction and interest. Secondary groups: characterized by large size. The interactions that influence the attitudes and behavior of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or accidental circumstances. Eg: family. 2 . Group Dynamics A branch of social psychology which studies problems involving the structure of a group. (Johnson & Johnson (2006) A group is an association of two or more people in an interdependent relationship with shared purposes. Primary groups: are characterized by small size. A field of social psychology concerned with the nature of human groups. their development. People join groups to achieve goals that cannot be achieved by them alone. DEFINITION Group A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. and larger organizations. Eg: trade unions. other groups. neighbourhood group. TYPE OF GROUPS Formal groups: refers to those which are established under the legal or formal authority with the view to achieve a particular end results. Eg: occupational association and ethnic group. and their interactions with individuals. Informal groups: refers to aggregate of personal contact and interaction and network of relationship among individual. individual identification with the values and beliefs prevailing in them rather than cultural interaction.

PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group. Reference groups: one in which they would like to belong. which can be reduced only by eliminating or allowing the change by bringing about readjustment in the related parts The group arises and functions owing to common motives. OBJECTIVES OF GROUP DYNAMICS  To identify and analyze the social processes that impact on group development and performance. Groups survive by placing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goals 3 .  To build more successful organizations by applying techniques that provide positive impact on goal achievement. Social groups: refers to integrated system of interrelated psychological group formed to accomplish defined objectives.Task groups: are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve cross-command relationship. Command groups: formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager are determined by formal organizational chart. friendship group. Membership groups: those where the individual actually belongs. Eg: for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order would require liaison between ward in charge.  To acquire the skills necessary to intervene and improve individual and group performance in an organizational context. develops potential solution and often empowered to take action. Problem solving groups: it focuses on specific issues in their areas of responsibility. Changes in one part of the group may produce stress in other person. senior sister and head nurse. Functional groups: the individuals work together daily on similar tasks. Eg: political party with its many local political clubs.

plans for change and consequences of changes must be shared by members of a group. The major element in this theory is the interaction of the individuals involved. culturally based. the theory means that when individuals share common activities. this theory suggests that individuals get a sense of identity and self-esteem based upon their membership in salient groups. The three stages are described briefly: Inclusion Inclusion is the initial stage of this model. According to this theory. and sentiments. Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory offers an alternative explanation for group development. Simply put. Social identity Theory Social identity theory offers another explanation for group formation. 2. The nature of the group may be demographically based. 1966) This model suggests that each group irrespective of its nature given enough time goes through the three interpersonal phases of inclusion. Classic Theory A classic theory developed by George Homans. when individuals begin their group life. 1. Thus. or organizationally based. The members try to know each other through discussion. they will have more interaction and will develop attitudes (positive or negative) toward each other.The intergroup relations. Basically. 4. suggests that groups develop based on activities. Schutz’s Three Stage Model (1958. 3. individuals form relationships based on the implicit expectation of mutually beneficial exchanges based on trust and felt obligation. and affection in the same sequence. group organization and member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group. interactions. GROUP DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL BASES Group dynamics is concerned with why and how groups develop. and are primarily concerned about whether the team will accept them or not. There is 4 . This phase starts with formation of groups. a perception that exchange relationships will be positive is essential if individuals are to be attracted to and affiliate with a group. Information relating to needs for change. There are several theories as to why groups develop. Individuals are motivated to belong to and contribute to identity groups because of the sense of belongingness and self-worth membership in the group imparts.

focus on belongingness issues like attention. They assume positions of authority. Tuckman’s stages model Bruce W Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the four stages of group development in 1965. identify. acknowledgement. and people focus on being busy with routines. and minor confrontations will arise that are quickly dealt with or glossed over. Each member tries to establish a comfortable interchange and degree of initiation with respect to control. These may relate to the work of the group itself. Affection In this stage. and will look for structural clarity and rules to prevent the conflict persisting. Tuckman's model states that the ideal group decision-making process should occur in four stages: Stage 1: Forming (pretending to get on or get along with others) Individual behaviour is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others. individuals may feel they are winning or losing battles. but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much actually gets done. advance ideas within the team. Some people's patience will break early. 5. Stage 2: Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up) Individuals in the group can only remain nice to each other for so long. But individuals are also gathering information and impressions . the members become emotionally close. The four-stage model is called as Tuckman's Stages for a group. 5 .about each other. To deal with the conflict. Control When the team members begin to focus on issues of leadership and structure. the conflict will be more or less suppressed. They develop positive behaviour like intimacy and personal confidence. under the surface. influence and responsibility. Serious issues and feelings are avoided. and avoid controversy or conflict. but it'll be there. and try to affect others’ opinions. This is a comfortable stage to be in. as important issues start to be addressed. this is the end of the team’s life cycle. Some will observe that it's good to be getting into the real issues. etc. and participation. recognition. Depending on the culture of the organization and individuals. such as team organization. who does what. when to meet. whilst others will wish to remain in the comfort and security of stage 1. or to roles and responsibilities within the group. In general. and about the scope of the task and how to approach it.

they now understand each other better. Roles and responsibilities change according to need in an almost seamless way. and may resist any pressure to change . and everyone is equally task-orientated and people-orientated. Group identity. defining problems and suggesting procedures for a solution Information seeking: by requesting facts. maintenance functions. loyalty and morale are all high. and self-interest functions. both from the tasks and the group members. However. To achieve the task. and asking for suggestions or ideas 6 . seeking relevant information. and can appreciate each other's skills and experience. and trusts each other enough to allow independent activity. the "rules of engagement" for the group become established. Having had their arguments. and consciously move on. effective group. and the scopes of the group‘s tasks or responsibilities are clear and agreed.  Task Functions This is the primary reason for the establishment of a group. Ten years after first describing the four stages. Stage 4: Performing (working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis) Not all groups reach this stage. they must have members that fulfill some or all of the following roles: Initiating: by proposing tasks or goals. appreciate and support each other. individuals have had to work hard to attain this stage. recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members. final. This high degree of comfort means that all the energy of the group can be directed towards the task(s) in hand. Bruce Tuckman revisited his original work and described another. Individuals will be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group. Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning". or revert to a storm. They need to recognize what they've done.Stage 3: Norming (getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity) As Stage 2 evolves. stage in 1977 Stage 5: Adjourning (mourning the adjournment of the group) This is about completion and disengagement. GROUP FUNCTIONS Three functions that influence the effectiveness and productivity of groups are task functions.especially from the outside . Everyone knows each other well enough to be able to work together. Individuals listen to each other. characterised by a state of interdependence and flexibility. and are prepared to change pre-conceived views: they feel they're part of a cohesive.for fear that the group will break up.

stating beliefs.  Maintenance Function Each group needs social-emotional support to be effective. Activities that identify self-interest behaviour are as follows: Dominating and controlling: by displaying lack of respect for others. sensing moods and relationships. searching for insignificant details that delay a solution.Information giving: by offering facts. cutting them off. members generally takes away from group performance and affects task achievement at the expense of the group. restating. or undermining another person’s point of view. or making jokes about another member’s contribution Splitting hairs: by nit-picking. providing information. Standard setting: by reminding members of group norms. Some members of the group will take the lead in providing this support which consists of the following: Encouraging: by showing regard for other members and providing positive response to their contributions Improving group by expressing group feelings. and offering solutions Consensus testing: by checking for agreements and sending up ‘trial balloons’. indicating alternatives and giving examples Bringing closure: by summarizing. and changing the topic either away from the point of view or back to his or her own interest Manipulating: by providing self-serving information. facilitating the participation of others. or a single point of view designed to achieve a decision that is consistent with their position Belittling: through put-downs. and suggesting procedures for sharing discussion. not listening. atmosphere: and sharing feelings Harmonizing: by reconciling differences and reducing group tension Compromising: by admitting errors and looking for alternatives Gate-keeping: by attempting to keep communications flowing. rules. sneering at other’s point of view. and restating other members’ suggestions with a different meaning Blocking: by stifling a line of thought. and roles. 7 . and giving suggestions or ideas Clarifying ideas: by interpreting and clarifying input.  Self-interest Function This third function displayed by some individuals.

Avoid frequent questioning. Following are the applications of group dynamics that can be used by the nurse managers. Seek equal input from all members. Restate and summarize major ideas and feelings. the group members perform task roles. Clarify statements. teams.ROLE OF GROUP LEADER IN GROUP PROCESS Use open-ended question to start discussions. Since each member of group an important role in achieving the work of the group and each member is different in his/her personality. group building and maintenance 8 . emphasize the facts and encourage further discussion.  The nurse manager can maintain congenial environment where the nurse in groups have good interpersonal relationship. APPLICATIONS OF GROUP DYNAMICS IN NURSING MANAGEMENT Because the work of organization is accomplished by groups. The nurse managers should develop an understanding of the factors that increase and reduce group cohesiveness. or committees. instead summarize opinion differences. Encourage open expression of member’s feelings and thoughts. Refrain from negative comments about member’s contribution. Give your full attention to each person’s contribution. Encourage all members to ask questions.  The nurse manager can promote healthy informal groups to inculcate morale among nurses since the accomplishment of the organizational goals and high productivity depend on how much is the morale of the employees influenced by informal groups. Don’t take sides. Too many questions at one time are annoying.  Nurse Managers need to function in group to promote problem solving and acceptance of responsibility.  The nurse manager needs to know how groups function to facilitate effectiveness. Convey the meaning of what a team member has said so that all members can understand. Confirm member’s ideas. Actively listen to all members. the nurse managers need to be well grounded and knowledgeable with the group dynamics. because with good personal interpersonal relationship. State those issues can be viewed from different perspectives. Check perceptions of the group. Focus discussion on the purpose of the group. Respond with a positive comment or summary each time a member makes a contribution. Sort out the confusious and conflicts. have different way of doing the work. Summarize points of opinion differences among team members.

Self analysis and self evaluation and development of sensitivity to others to make one productive within the group settings are the part of these theories. The concepts of group dynamics can be used in continuing education and in-service education program for the professional nurses. patients and family. Group training gives members aware of the roles they play and opportunity to manage them so that they become productive. Group training can contribute to theory of nursing practice and management. team co-ordination and teaching of students. The knowledge of group dynamics is needed by nurse managers to improve leadership competencies and to facilitate group discussions and communication. task forces. It is important for selecting nurses for organizational committees. This can be done by role plays and case studies. Groups are common feature of majority of experiences of all nurses in such roles as outcome management.    roles and individual roles. Such knowledge is important in selection of chair of committees. 9 . Nurse Managers with the working knowledge of group dynamics can use their knowledge to assemble groups. In the performance of these roles. the group members share the power of organization and its management. and other groups of clinical nurses.

or entity to lobby. 10 . calling. one must communicate a view on a "specific legislative proposal. The key to successful grassroots lobbying efforts is assembling people who share common goals and concerns. Grassroots Lobbying Is simply citizen participation in government. meeting. They may become involved in influencing one specific piece of legislation or regulation. or they can become involved more universally and systematically to influence health care legislation on the whole." Even if there is no bill. or faxing your representative.  A person who receives compensation or reimbursement from another person.LOBBYING INTRODUCTION Nurses can take an active role in the legislative and political process to affect change. DEFINITION  Lobbying is the deliberate attempt to influence political decisions through various forms of advocacy directed at policymakers on behalf of another person.  Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body by promoting a point of view that is conducive to an individual's or organization's goals.  A lobbyist is an individual who attempts to influence legislation on behalf of others. group. one would be engaged in lobbying if one asked a legislator to take an action that would require legislation. You can make a difference by simply writing. such as professional organizations or industries. then your views will not be considered by your state representative when he votes on an issue which affects you. TYPES OF LOBBYING Direct Grassroots Direct Lobbying Is communicating your views to a legislator or a staff member or any other government employee who may help develop the legislation To be lobbying. Asked one‘s members to lobby for this bill is also considered as direct lobbying. organization or group. such as funding an agency. Grassroots communications are vital in educating legislators to the concerns of the voting population in their state. If you do not share your views with your representative.

Identify and set up contacts with the key legislators involved in your issue. an engineer. revamp. Consider. PREPARING FOR LOBBYING CAMPAIGN: An effective lobbying initiative takes background work. Check with other nursing organizations to determine their positions and if they have information to help support one‘s position. lobbying on behalf of the firm. Set up effective telephone or e-mail networks that can contact key members quickly. 11 . PREPARING FOR AN EFFECTIVE LETTER-WRITING CAMPAIGN: Define the goals of this grass-roots campaign. benefits or other forms of compensation. The enterprise lobbyist This is a person who holds a job or has duties in a profit-making organization. The organization lobbyist This is a person who holds a job or has duties in a non-profit organization. Use this information to plan educational sessions with the goal of improving the political sophistication of the group. a lawyer. and include the specific bill number and name. rework. whose duties include. he or she might be a public relations expert. requiring an immediate change of plan. Be sure one is fully aware of all similar initiatives on the same topic and the position of those opposing one‘s idea. Consultant lobbyists may work for public relations firms or be self-employed. this lobbyist is affected by the Act if a significant part of his or her duties is to lobby on behalf of this organization. For example. Often legislative issues are scheduled and moved up quickly on that schedule. Like the enterprise lobbyist. Give interested participants information about the bill in question and how this bill would directly affect their practice. Develop plan of action. Follow up after the meeting with a call or correspondence outlining the points. an architect. Set numerical goals for how many letters or mailings will be generated. Clearly state what action the legislative body needs to take to meet the goal. and define the plan in advance of the trip to the legislator‘s office.TYPES OF LOBBYISTS The Lobbyists Registration Act identifies three types of lobbyists: The consultant lobbyist The consultant lobbyist is a person who is gainfully employed or not and whose occupation is to lobby on behalf of a client in exchange for money. Develop a plan Assess the knowledge level of the participants concerning the legislative process and the issues that impact the organization. for a significant part. Fine-tune one‘s presentation to several key points because time will be limited.

Do not threaten or use hostility. your patients. If you are writing for an organization. Do identify the issue by number and name if possible or refer to it by the common name. Don’ts Do not begin a letter with ―as a citizen and a taxpayer. Letters of thanks are greatly appreciated. Sign your full name and address. too late is wasted effort. if you want to influence his/her decision to sign the bill into law or veto it. Do draft the letter in your own words and convey your own thoughts. Get the timing right. Do state your position clearly and state what you would like your legislator to do.On large issues. Offer your expertise to your elected representative as an advisor or resource person to his or her staff when issues arise. sincere letters on issues that directly affect the writer receive the most attention and are those that are often quoted in hearings or debates. 12 . Too early is ineffective. Most letters should be one page long. Do write the governor promptly for a state issue. Do use persona stationary. especially of past favourable votes. Do refer to your own experience of how a bill will directly affect you. The time to begin your campaign is just before the committee hearings begin or just prior to the vote o the floor. Ask him/her to state his/her position in the reply to you. Thoughtful. After the vote is too late. and the employment setting you are found in. If he/she is not on the committee. contact him/her before the committee hearings begin. your family. the services you perform. focus groups or polls may be used to acquire information that can be analysed and send to the legislators. If your representative is a member of the committee that is hearing the issue. Do use e-mails to state your points. write just before the bill is due to come to the floor for debate and vote. Do be appreciative. Do contact the legislator in time for your legislator to act on an issue. Do ask for what you want your legislator to do on an issue. USEFUL TIPS Do’s Do write legibly or type. If you campaigned for or voted for the official. You must follow the progress of your issue closely so as to mobilize your members at the right time. Indicate that you are a registered nurse. after the bill passes both houses. and members of your organization or your profession. Do make your point quickly and discuss only one issue per letter. Many letters legislators receive feedback from constituents who are unhappy or displeased about actions taken on an issue. Handwritten are perfectly acceptable so long as they can be read. Most legislators ignore ―hate‖ mail. Do state if you are a constituent. and all of us pay taxes. use that organization‘s stationary and include information about the number of members in the organization.‖ Legislators assume that you are a citizen. say so. Do remember that you are the expert in your professional area. Most legislators know little about the practice of nursing and respect your knowledge.

regulation is essential to avoid abuse. Identify and develop contacts with state agencies that exert control on or impact your practice and ask to be added to their mailing lists. These letters tend to elicit a ―form letter response‖ from the legislator. it is important to identify key committees and subcommittees in the legislative bodies. hire a lobbyist Once you have notified your legislator about your interest in a particular issue. In large numbers these letters get attention only in the form that they are tallied. Do not write postcards. guidelines for professional conduct and standards. A limited list includes the following: Nurse practice act: rules and regulations Medical practice act: rules and regulations Pharmacy act: rules and regulations 13 . KEEP ABREAST OF LEGISLATION AND REGULATION: When issues are important to your professional. Regulation Because lobbying activities can significantly affect individuals and industry. they are glad to have it. the legislator‘s office may routinely send literature outlining his or her activities throughout the sometimes arduous process. A bill may be amended many times before it gets from one house to the other. Do not write House members while a bill is in the Senate and vice versa. Ways to keep abreast of new information include the following: Volunteer for campaign work and develop contacts with legislators. and to identify and develop communication with the members of those committees. Get the general telephone number for the state government and the mailing addresses for correspondence. Develop liaisons with other health professionals and utilize them as information sources and allies in lobbying for health care issues. Write each legislator individually.Do not send carbon copies of your letter to other legislators. Legislation: To keep in contact with the legislature. Do not apologize for writing and taking their time.the fee is generally small. Do not use form letters. If possible. If your letter is short and presents your opinion on an issue. Obtain pertinent government documents using online resources. they are tossed. Do not send letters to other legislators from other states-they will refer your letter to your congressional representative. The following will help you keep abreast o the newest regulations and standards:      Subscribe to the state register (which contains all state regulations under consideration). Register a member of your group as a lobbyist. Lobbyists have created ethics codes. contact the legislator and provide the important facts that support your position and be sure to follow up routinely so your opinions stay fresh in his/her mind.

These results support the existence of significant barriers to entry in the lobbying process. Kerr. 9th edition. Chabbra N T.T. B. (ii) lobbying status is strongly associated with firm size. and (iii) lobbying status is highly persistent over time. 7th edition. We then exploit a natural experiment in the expiration in legislation surrounding the H-1B visa cap for high-skilled immigrant workers to study how these costs affect firms' responses to policy changes. Basvanthappa. 2002.2013. For a firm already lobbying. The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behavior of groups and is useful in studies of psychology. political science. rather than firms that became involved in lobbying anew. 1st edition.2005. Nursing Administration. we find significant evidence that up-front costs associated with entering the political process help explain all three facts. Prasad M L. the response is determined by the importance of the issue to the firm's business rather than the scale of the firm's prior lobbying efforts. and other fields. Estimating a model of a firm's decision to engage in lobbying. Vati Jogindra. sociology. Jaypee publishers 2. New Delhi: Dhanpat Rai & Co 3. We find that companies primarily adjusted on the intensive margin: the firms that began to lobby for immigration were those who were sensitive to H-1B policy changes and who were already advocating for other issues. Our data exhibit three striking facts: (i) few firms lobby.       Dental practice act: rules and regulations Hospital licensing act: rules and regulations Ambulatory surgical center licensing act: rules and regulations Insurance statute: rules and regulations Trauma center statute: rules and regulations Department of Health Podiatric Act: rules and regulations RESEARCH ABSTRACT The Dynamics of Firm Lobbying William R. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Principles and practice of management. 17577 Issued in November 2011 We study the determinants of the dynamics of firm lobbying behavior using a panel data set covering 1998-2006. Principles and practice of nursing management and administration. New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons 4. William F. CONCLUSION Group dynamics is a group of behaviors and and way of thinking that occurs within a social group between social groups. Prachi Mishra NBER Working Paper No. 1st edition.2007. Jaypee publishers 14 . Principles and practice of management. Lincoln.