Text 1 The Wright Brothers Many great inventions are greeted with ridicule and disbelief.

The invention of the airplane was no exception. Although many people who heard about the first powered flight on December 17,1903, were excited and impressed, others reacted with peals of laughter. The idea of flying an aircraft was repulsive to some people. Such people called Wilbur and Orville Wright, the inventors of the first flying machine, impulsive fools. Negative reactions, however, did not stop the Wrights. Impelled by their desire to succeed, they continued their experiments in aviation. Orville and Wilbur Wright had always had a compelling interest in aeronautics and mechanics. As young boys they earned money by making and selling kites and mechanical toys. Later, they designed a newspaper-folding machine, built a printing press, and operated a bicycle-repair shop. In 1896, when they read about the death of Otto Lilienthal, the brother's interest in flight grew into a compulsion. Lilienthal, a pioneer in hang-gliding, had controlled his gliders by shifting his body in the desired direction. This idea was repellent to the Wright brothers, however, and they searched for more efficient methods to control the balance of airborne vehicles. In 1900 and 1901, the Wrights tested numerous gliders and developed control techniques. The brothers' inability to obtain enough lift power for the gliders almost led them to abandon their efforts. After further study, the Wright brothers concluded that the published tables of air pressure on curved surfaces must be wrong. They set up a wind tunnel and began a series of experiments with model wings. Because of their efforts, the old tables were repealed in time and replaced by the first reliable figures for air pressure on curved surfaces. This work, in turn, made it possible for them to design a machine that would fly. In 1903 the Wrights built their first airplane, which cost less than one thousand dollars. They even designed and built their own source of propulsiona lightweight gasoline engine. When they started the engine on December 17, the airplane pulsated wildly before taking off. The plane managed to stay aloft for twelve seconds, however, and it flew one hundred twenty feet. By 1905 the Wrights had perfected the first airplane that could turn, circle, and remain airborne for half an hour at a time. Others had flown in balloons or in hang gliders, but the Wright brothers were the first to build a full-size machine that could fly under its own power. As the contributors of one of the most outstanding engineering achievements in history, the Wright brothers are accurately called the fathers of aviation.

At the moment when it seemed that the Spanish ships would be driven onto the English shore. faster. he marshaled one hundred and thirty sailing vessels of all types and recruited more than nineteen thousand robust soldiers and eight thousand sailors. Whereas Spain was Roman Catholic. and the Armada drifted out into the North Sea. Although the Spaniards made a valiant effort to fight back. the English attacked again on August 8. Blocked on one side. Elizabeth I. The Spaniards recognized the superiority of the English fleet and returned home. The Spanish fleet met the smaller. adding gold and silver to England's treasury and diminishing Spain's omnipotence. King Philip began to build his fleet of warships. Philip intended his fleet to be indestructible. their crews in panic and disorder. to raid Spanish ships and towns. on May 9. During the eight hours of battle. in January 1586. Although some of his ships lacked guns and others lacked ammunition. Sir Francis Drake. In addition to building new warships. Philip was convinced that his Armada could withstand any battle with England. England sent eight burning ships into the midst of the Spanish fleet to set it on fire. the Armada drifted perilously close to the rocky coastline. On August 7. Portugal. the fleet suffered extensive damage. most of England had become Protestant.1588. defeated. England wanted a share of the wealth that Spain had been taking from the lands it had claimed in the Americas. while the Armada lay at anchor on the French side of the Strait of Dover. the Spanish ships could only drift away. the Armada. Drake achieved dramatic success. having lost several ships and with its ammunition depleted. the wind shifted. England. but bad weather forced it back to port. and more maneuverable English ships in battle off the coast of Plymouth. Though these raids were on a small scale. To satisfy his ambition and also to retaliate against England's theft of his gold and silver. Queen of England. The two battles left Spain vulnerable.Text 2 Spain vs England Conflict had existed between Spain and England since the 1570s. King Philip II of Spain wanted to claim the throne and make England a Catholic country again. The voyage resumed on July 22 after the weather became more stable. encouraged her staunch admiral of the navy. The martial Armada set sail from Lisbon. first on July 31 and again on August 2. . Religious differences also caused conflict between the two countries. Before the Armada could regroup.

food. clothes should also protect you from the sun. That way. but I just love getting away from it all. It has to be balanced or you could fall over! Don’t make your pack too heavy at the top or bottom. First. It’s best to keep the heaviest items close to your back. So you should dress in light layers of clothing. you can take off clothes. Clothes need to keep you warm in the cold. OM: And how should they pack for a trip? MO: Access and balance are the keys to packing well. access: You should not keep things you need – such as extra clothes. or water – at the bottom of your backpack. OM: Any final words? MO: Yes. Second. you can add clothes. block the wind.Text 3 Beginners guide for Backpacking Mike O’Brien (MO) has been backpacking for over 20 years. he offered some expert tips for new backpackers. It can get difficult at times. OM: What do all beginners need to know? MO: The two most important things to know are how to dress comfortably and how to pack your equipment well. OM: How should people dress for backpacking? MO: They need to understand the purpose of outdoor clothing. You don’t have control over the weather or the temperature. and keep you dry in the rain. In a recent interview with Outdoor Magazine (OM). In hot environments. Have fun! That’s the only reason to do it! . He often spends up to 30 days at a time outdoors. if you are hot. And if you are cold. balance: Remember you’re going to wear your backpack. OM: Why do you spend so much time in the wilderness? MO: Backpacking and camping are my favorite things to do.