Combustion in Automotive Engines Gardner Compression Ignitions Engine

RME

Introduction One of the most important energy sources are fuels being used primarily in road vehicles and power plants where high efficiencies is required. Using fuel, mainly fossil fuel, comes with the drawback of emitting greenhouse gases to a large extent carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming due to the trapped gases in the atmosphere making the planet absorb infrared radiation by the Sun and not reflecting back. Reducing fuel consumption and emissions are the main target to be fulfilled by today's manufactures to help the environment. R/P ratio are defined based on the annual production either in barrels per year or cubic feet per year depending on fuel type, as the ratio to reserves of crude oil or natural gas again in barrels or cubic feet. These ratio currently give a steady interpretation so that there is enough for the next 40-50 years, but the problem as times goes on and the reserves do deplete, prices will increase sharply. To prevent the use up of fossil fuel to quickly it is been suggested to look for alternative ways of energy sources. One of the solutions are Biodiesel (RME). They have lower emissions as mentioned above, carbon dioxide has to be reduced so biodiesels have lower greenhouse gases lowering global warming. The most important fact is that biodiesel is renewable based on organic materials and in theory there is an infinite amount available. Biodiesel are made of grown organic material when grown, they will absorb carbon dioxide, hence there won't be a total net production of carbon dioxide. There are two major drawbacks in using bio fuels, one is the increased energy requirement of producing bio fuels compared with other fuels and, second the mass production of crops which requires farming for only produce bio fuel taking up the space, reducing considerably other type of farming for such as food.

PROCEDURE The engine was ignited and then it was made to run at 1500 revolutions per minute. The shaft of the engine was connected to the dynamometer, and then the brake load on the engine was 4kg, 8kg, 12kg, 16kg and 18kg but the last load could not be done because the engine cannot handle it so load 18kg has been discarded . Each time changing the load, the following readings have been taken: a) air temperature near the inlet to damping vessel, (θa) b) manometer level, (h) c) time to the engine to consume 50 ml of fuel, (t) d) engine speed, (N) e) net brake load, (L) f) exhaust temperature near the exhaust valve, (Tex)

g) mole fractions of the exhaust gas species (O2, CO, CO2, NOx)

Method to obtain the individual readings:Air temperature near the inlet to damping vessel, (θa) The temperature of air was measured from the thermometer which was located at the throat of the air box. The air box is the box which is used to damp down the pressure fluctuations and the air flow in the air box before it comes into the engine. Manometer level, (h) The manometer is connected to the throat of the air box, and it gives the pressure difference between the atmosphere and inside the air box. The obtained pressure difference is then used to calculate the mass flow rate of air going in the engine. Time to the engine to consume 50 ml of fuel, (t) The fuel was flowing from the fuel tank into the fuel flow meter, where the tube was calibrated into 50 ml gaps. The tube was filled in through a valve, then the time was noted for the drop in fuel level in one gap. This gave the time for the engine to consume 50 ml of fuel, to obtain the mass flow rate. Engine speed, (N) The engine speed was set to 1500 revolution per minutes which has not been changed.

Net brake load, (L) It is the applied load on the engine which can be adjusted and shown on a big dial. Exhaust temperature near the exhaust valve, (Tex) On different brake load when the crank angle and pressure was recorded the exhaust temperature was then also recorded. Mole fractions of the exhaust gas species (O2, CO, CO2, NOx) The mole fractions of the exhaust gases were measured from the computer giving the specific readings.

My observed values Brake Load (kg) θa (oC) h(mm H2O) t (s) Tex (oC) O2 (%) CO (%) CO2 (%) NOx (ppm) HC (ppm) 4 14 56 54 216.24 15.05 0.08 4.44 347 480 8 14 54 38 272.36 12.76 0.08 6.29 604 460 12 14 52 30 332.42 10.16 0.07 8.41 820 510 16 15 44 24 425.95 6.28 0.08 11.45 720 630

Pressure - Crank Angle

Pressure - Crank Angle 4Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600

Pressure - Crank Angle 8Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600

Pressure - Crank Angle 12Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600

Pressure - Crank Angle 16Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600

A more closer view:

Pressure - Crank Angle 4Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Pressure - Crank Angle 8Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Pressure - Crank Angle 12Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Pressure - Crank Angle 16Kg
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

It can be observed that increasing the net break load increase the pressure in firing cycles. A constant maximum pressure can be observe slightly after the top-dead centre throughout all Pressure - Crank Angle graphs.

P-V Diagrams
3.0 2.5 Cylinder Pressure /MPa 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0E+00 2.0E-04 4.0E-04 6.0E-04 8.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.2E-03 1.4E-03 1.6E-03 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 Volume /m^3

Pressure - Volume 4Kg

3.0 2.5 Cylinder Pressure /MPa 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0E+00 2.0E-04 4.0E-04 6.0E-04 8.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.2E-03 1.4E-03 1.6E-03 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 Volume /m^3

Pressure - Volume 8Kg

5.0 4.0 Cylinder Pressure /MPa 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.0E+00 2.0E-04 4.0E-04 6.0E-04 8.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.2E-03 1.4E-03 1.6E-03 -1.0 -2.0 Volume /m^3

Pressure - Volume 12Kg

5.0 4.0 Cylinder Pressure /MPa 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.0E+00 2.0E-04 4.0E-04 6.0E-04 8.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.2E-03 1.4E-03 1.6E-03 -1.0 -2.0 Volume /m^3

Pressure - Volume 16Kg

Pressure - Volume graphs are constant for the first two break load but increasing for the other higher break loads. Pressure increased for the last two higher load due the more work so more fuel consumption, increasing the fuel air ratio.

CALCULATIONS 1. Brake Power (mass load of 4kg) The brake power ( ) was calculated from:

Where, L = Weight of brake load = ( 4 kg × 9.81 m/s2 ) = 39.24 N N = Speed of Engine = 1500 rpm = = 25 rev/s

α = 0.447 m-1 (constant and was already given) Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) This was calculated from the following equation:

Where, n = Number of revolutions per cycle = 2 Vs = Volume which is swept in one cycle of the engine = 1394.8 × 10-6 m3 σ = Number of cylinders = 1 Mass flow rate of the fuel (mf) The mass flow rate of the fuel was calculated using:-

Where, ε = Mass of fuel of 50ml = 0.0178 kg t = time for engine to consume 50 ml of fuel = 54 s

Mass flow rate of air (ma) The following equation was used to calculate:-

Where, Cd = discharge coefficient ( constant) = 0.6 A = Area of orifice of the air box = 6.424*10-4 m2 ρa = density of air = 1.2 kg/m3 ΔP = pressure drop across orifice = 549.36 Pa Volumetric Efficiency (ηv) The volumetric efficiency was calculated using the following formula :-

Mechanical efficinecy (

)

Specific fuel consumption (kg/MJ)

Thermal efficiency (ηth):

where ΔHL = specific enthalpy of reaction = 38.6 MJ/kg

Equivalence ratio ()

Where, F/A = specific fuel/air ratio = 0.02302 (F/A) stoich = stoichiometric fuel/air ratio = 0.08417

My calculated values - Results Brake Load/kg Brake power/W bmep/kPa Fuel Mass Flow Rate /kg/s Air Mass Flow Rate /kg/s Volumetric efficiency Mechanical efficiency Specific Fuel Consumption /kg/MJ Thermal Efficiency Equivalence Ratio 4 2193.959732 125.9087364 0.000325556 0.014141151 0.662484744 0.022207211 1.48387E-07 0.174588742 0.273499662 8 4387.919 251.8175 0.000463 0.013886 0.650547 0.036834 1.05E-07 0.245717 0.395789 12 6581.879 377.7262 0.000586 0.013627 0.638386 0.05437 8.9E-08 0.290981 0.510883 16 8775.839 503.6349 0.000733 0.012535 0.58723 0.074176 8.35E-08 0.31038 0.694236

Ws bmep mf ma ηv ηmech sfc ηth φ

Based on my calculated values and of Group 5 the following graphs have been drawn:
10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 0.0002 0.0004 kg/s 0.0006 0.0008 W Group 8 Group 5

Brake Power/Fuel mass flow rate

600 500 400 KPa 300 200 100 0 0 5E-08

bmep/sfc

Group 8 Group 5

0.0000001 kg/MJ

1.5E-07

0.0000002

0.016 0.014 0.012 0.01 kg/s 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 100

Fuel mass flow rate/bmep

Group 8 Group 5

200

300 KPa

400

500

600

0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 100 200

(F/A)/bmep

Group 8 Group 5

300 KPa

400

500

600

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100

Volumetric efficiency/bmep

Group 8 Group 5

200

300 KPa

400

500

600

450 400 350 300 Degrees 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

Exhaust Temperatur/bmep

Group 8 Group 5

100

200

300 KPa

400

500

600

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100

Equivalence Ratio/bmep

Group 8 Group 5

200

300

400

500

600

18 16 14 12 Oxygne % 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

Oxygen/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 Group 5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 CO % 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0

CO/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 Group 5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

14 12 10 CO2 % 8

CO2/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Group 5

1200 1000 800 NOx / ppm 600 400 200 0 0

NOx/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 Group 5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1200 1000 800 NOx / ppm 600 400 200 0 0

NOx/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 Group 5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

700 600 Hydrocarbon / ppm 500 400

Hydrocarbon/Equivalence Ratio

Group 8 300 200 100 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Group 5

Discussion
From the graph (Brake power/ Fuel mass flow rate) and from the results table it can be seen that increasing the break load increases the brake power which much more for group 8 than 5. The same trend can be seen with all graphs including the bmep value on the x-axis for both group at a predicable rate but for group 8 higher values than for group 5 due to the higher engine speed. From the oxygen/equivalence ratio graph it can be observed that both groups are using the nearly same amount of oxygen a bit higher for group 5. This shows that group 8 F/A was much higher than of group 5. Interesting observation can be made of CO realise, that group 5 is much higher at beginning then dropping very quickly. For group 8 CO levels were pretty much constant at nearly the same level. CO2 is as expected much higher for group 8 than group 5 due to the higher engine speed because of higher fuel consumption. Nox was released a higher rate from group 5 than group 8 were it actually has dropped a higher break load. Hydrocarbon were released at very low levels for group 5, comparing the very high increasing emission of group 8 meaning a lot of unburned fuel leading to low efficiency. The stoichiometric equation for RME burning in air is given below:

C21H 28O 2  27(O 2  3.76N 2 )  21CO2  14H 2 O  101.52N 2
Comparing these values to general diesel specifications, specially air/fuel ratio it can be seen that RME requires more fuel due to the lower energy density. RME produces lower emissions of CO, Nox and Co2 compared conventional petroleum diesel.

Conclusion It can be conclude that running the engine at lower speed will result in higher efficiencies and less emissions.