Notes for ME3003 - Environmental Studies for Mechanical

Engineers Module 2 – part 2 Topics covered: Water Pollution – Causes and Effects, Marine Pollution, Soil Pollution. References used Book 1 : [1] Environmental Studies, by Mr. Benny Joseph.

Book 2 : [2] Environmental Engineering and Management, by
Mr. Suresh. K. Dhameja.

organic waste which if present in large quantities. Causes Effects Ref [1] Bacteria. Oxygen demanding waste . will deplete oxygen from water because it is decomposed 2 bacteria. . by oxygen-consuming- fish and other aquatic life die. death. sickness. virus. disease. inorganic.Water pollution – Causes and Effects Presence of impurities (organic. biological. radiological) and foreign substances in such quantities which cause health hazards by lowering the quality of water and making it unfit for use. parasitic worms (enter 1 water from domestic sewage).

water soluble radio yields. reduce crop toxic metal (Pb. promote corrosion in equipment using this water. phosphate and nitrate compounds. cooling towers. salts. 3 Water soluble organic chemicals .Acids. 4 Radioactive substances . . ionizing radiation etc. cause death of aquatic life. which die. 6 temperature. Heat – of hot water from power plants. harm aquatic life. which is discharged into water. make water unfit for drinking. Hg) compounds.Water pollution – Causes and Effects Causes cause Inorganic plant nutrients water Effects excessive Ref [1] growth of soluble algae etc. cause birth defects. decreases and dissolved increases oxygen water 5 isotopes. decay resulting in oxygen depletion. cancer etc.

coal mines etc. roads discharged into ground and surface waters and pollute them. sewage treatment plants.Water pollution – Sources Sources of water pollution Ref [1] Point sources e. . run-offs from agricultural etc. ditches. / get industrial land. These are easy to be identified. offshore oil wells.g. factories. Pipe. regulated and monitored.g. Ground water pollution – caused by waste disposed on land. Non-point sources e.

Ref [2]  Colorless. Pb etc. pollute surface water bodies.  Aesthetically pleasant. consume oxygen resulting in reduced DO levels.) provide nutrition to microorganisms that decompose organic matter. odorless. Cd.  Arsenic. paper mills etc. without suspended solids and turbidity. These are nutrients and encourage algae growth which consume oxygen which reduces DO (dissolved oxygen) levels. free from toxic  Dissolved inorganic solids (in moderate quantity). should not cause stains in clothes.Water pollution – Drinking water quality Potable drinking water should be substances etc. nitrate in fertilizers. leading to death of aquatic organisms. Effects of water pollution (Health hazards from water pollution) Ref [1]  Phosphate. .5) . harm aquatic life and also reach humans through these. clear.  Non-corrosive (pH between 7 and 8. detergents etc.  Organic pollutants (coming from petroleum refineries.

 Radioactive pollutants (from Uranium mining/refining areas.  Oil pollutants cause death of aquatic life. nuclear power plant etc.Effects of water pollution (Health hazards from water pollution) Ref [1]  Non-biodegradable pesticides reach humans through food chains and get accumulated in the fatty tissues and harm nervous systems .  Fluoride-containing pollutants cause dental problems.  Typhoid. gastro- intestinal. blood. thyroid gland etc. caused due to drinking of contaminated water. neuro-muscular respiratory disorders.  Thermal pollution reduces DO levels reduces survival of aquatic life. Cholera etc. muscles. .) reaching humans through food chain get accumulated in liver.

 Natural causes like earthquake on ocean floor etc. cause harm to marine life. Fishing nets. air-borne nitrogen oxygen depletion. death of 1 2 Nutrients Plastics oxide from cars etc. . farming. spread cholera. are not included as causes. typhoid and 3 Pathogens Sewage and livestock.  Causes originate from land or sea.Marine Pollution Ref [1]  Introduction of energy / substances into the marine envt resulting in harms / hazards to living organisms. other diseases. Marine pollution refers to pollution caused as a result of human activity only. run-off Effects from cause blooming of algae. and affect quality of sea water. beach litter. marine life. Causes and Effects of Marine Pollution Type of pollutant Source / Cause Sewage.

offshore drilling etc. accidents at sea. PCB. hydrocarbons in oil destroy corals and harm marine organisms. Fat soluble pesticides from farms. (DDT. Contains excess of nutrients and toxins. clog gills Due to erosion. heavy 5 metals) wastewater discharge.Causes and Effects of Marine Pollution Type of pollutant Source / Cause Effects Ref [1] Hinder photosynthesis. disease of marine life. lasting cause effect). toxins are harmful.) From land (industry and cars). .crude and refined petroleum (fuel oil. Contaminate seafood. Natural insulation or buoyancy of marine organisms affected by oil. Oil spills In (have low long levels. gasoline 6 etc. mining. Industrial discharge. by 4 Sediments Persistent toxins forestry. Volatile Oil . of fish.

.  Better coastal & marine planning and management.Control of Marine Pollution Ref [1]  Improve sewage disposal facilities.  Better use of municipal sewage systems. Each house can have septic tanks.

Soil Pollution  Soil is made up of organic and inorganic layers.  Pollution of soil is caused when / substances / organisms enter soil and harm its quality. industries result in respiratory and nervous problems.  Hazardous substances from industries (Chemical. e.  Inorganic – rocky layers . petroleum and metal related).  Toxic chemicals due to solid waste disposal. resulting in their spilling. Ref [1] energy / biological Causes of Soil Pollution  Accidents involving vehicles carrying fuels. .g. garbage from homes.  Organic – formed by decaying of plants and animals.

Control of Soil Pollution Ref [1]  Restricting construction in certain sensitive areas. (like CO2. H2O etc. to degrade / breakdown hazardous substances to non-toxic / less toxic substances. chemical and biological) of industrial wastes.  Bioremediation  A treatment process that uses fungi / bacteria / yeast etc. Reuse and Recycle) so that it results in lesser fertilizer and pesticide use.  Treatment (Physical.  Use 3 R’s (Reduce.) .

Ref [1]  Bioaugmentation – Inoculating soil with microbes.  Bioventing – Injecting air / nutrients into unsaturation zone.stimulating biological activity. .Control of Soil Pollution Types of Bioremediation  Biostimulation .  Biospraying – Injecting air / nutrients into unsaturated and saturated zones.

End of Module 2 part 2 notes .