# 1

•Lift coeffcient:
•Moment coeficient:
•Center of pressure:
•Aerodynamic Center:
x
y
o
V
·
l
m
c V l C
l
2
2
1
/
·
= µ
2 2
2
1
/ c V m C
m ·
= µ
Point about which moment is zero
not change with angle of attack
Thin Airfoil Theory
2
Thin Airfoil Theory – Setup
Non-penetration condition?
Kutta condition?
Bernoulli?
Assumptions:
1. Airfoil is thin q << c
2. Angles/slopes are small e.g.
sino ~ o, coso ~ 1, slope ~ angle
3. Airfoil only slightly disturbs
free stream u', v' << V
·
o
V
·
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
(<0)
u=V
·
coso+u'
v=V
·
sino+v'
x
Chord c
Camber
t c l
t c u
l u t
l u c
q q q
q q q
q q q
q q q
÷ =
+ =
÷ =
+ =
or
) (
) (
2
1
2
1
½ Thickness
y
Symbols:
(cusped TE)
3
Thin Airfoil Theory - Simplifications
Bernoulli:
Kutta Condition:
u=V
·
coso+u'
v=V
·
sino+v'
x
c
V(c,0
+
)
V(c,0
-
)
y
Assumptions:
1. Airfoil is thin q << c
2. Angles/slopes are small e.g.
sino ~ o, coso ~ 1, slope ~ angle
3. Airfoil only slightly disturbs free
stream u', v' << V
·
4
Thin Airfoil Theory - Simplifications
o
V
·
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
(<0)
u=V
·
coso+u'
v=V
·
sino+v'
x
t c l
t c u
q q q
q q q
÷ =
+ =
y
o
V
·
x
y
Exact:
Linearized:
y=0
+
y=0
- u(c,0
+
)=u(c,0
-
)
· ± ±
÷ ~ V x u x C
p
/ ) 0 , ( 2 ) 0 , (
Non-Penetration Condition:
5
A Source Sheet
J ump in normal velocity component
(numerically equal to half the sheet
strength)
A Vortex Sheet
J ump in tangential velocity component
(numerically equal to half the sheet
strength)
Solving for the Flow
o
V
·
x
y
Linearized problem:
y=0
+
y=0
- u(c,0
+
)=u(c,0
-
)
· ± ±
÷ ~ V x u x C
p
/ ) 0 , ( 2 ) 0 , (
dx
d
dx
d
V
x v
t c
q q
o ± + ÷ ~
·
±
) 0 , ( '
o
V
·
x
iy
Proposed Ideal Flow Solution:
y=0
+
y=0
-
x
1 dx
1
z
Source sheet
+vortex sheet
7
Solving for the Flow
o
V
·
x
y
Linearized problem:
y=0
+
y=0
- u(c,0
+
)=u(c,0
-
)
· ± ±
÷ ~ V x u x C
p
/ ) 0 , ( 2 ) 0 , (
dx
d
dx
d
V
x v
t c
q q
o ± + ÷ ~
·
±
) 0 , ( '
o
V
·
x
iy
Proposed Ideal Flow Solution:
y=0
+
y=0
-
x
1 dx
1
Source sheet
+vortex sheet
· · ·
±
±
÷
=
}
V
x q
dx
x x
x
V V
x v
c
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1 ) 0 , ( '
1
0 1
1
¸
t
· · ·
±
}
÷
=
V
x
dx
x x
x q
V V
x u
c
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1 ) 0 , ( '
1
0 1
1
¸
t

Kutta
condition:
0 ) ( so
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1
so
) 0 , ( ' ) 0 , ( '
1
0 1
1
1
0 1
1
= +
÷
= ÷
÷
=
· · · · ·
÷
·
+
} }
c
V
c
dx
x c
x q
V V
c
dx
x c
x q
V V
c u
V
c u
c c
¸
¸
t
¸
t
Non-
penetration:
Pressure:
Pressure Difference:
8
General Algebraic Solution
· ·
+
÷
= + + ÷
}
V
x q
dx
x x
x i
V dx
d
dx
d
c
t c
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
0 1
1
¸
t
q q
o
· ·
÷
÷
= ÷ + ÷
}
V
x q
dx
x x
x i
V dx
d
dx
d
c
t c
2
) (
) (
) (
2
1
1
0 1
1
¸
t
q q
o
Non-penetration
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
) cos 1 ( /
1 2
1
1
2
1
u
u
+ =
+ =
c x
c x
t
9
General Algebraic Solution
Fourier Series Solution gives:
¿
·
=
·
+
÷
÷ ÷ =
1
) sin( 2
sin
cos 1
) 2 ( / ) (
n
n o
n B B V u
u
u
o u ¸
where:
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
p
C A
m
O
l
10
Transferring the moment - Conclusions
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
m
O
l
m
x
) ( 2
1 0
B B C
l
+ ÷ = t to
) (
2 1 4
1
4
1
B B C C
l mO
+ + ÷ = t
Now:
( )( )
¿
·
=
÷
÷ ÷
= A
1
0
) sin( 4
sin
cos 1 2 2
) (
n
n p
n B
B
C u
u
u o
u
11
Example 1 – Symmetric Foil
An airfoil has a straight camber line
defined as:
Determine the aerodynamic characteristics
and vortex sheet strength.
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
) ( ) (
2 1 4
1
4
1
B B C C
l c
x
mx
+ + ÷ = t
) ( 2
1 0
B B C
l
+ ÷ = t to
0 / = c
c
q
¿
·
=
·
+
÷
÷ ÷ =
1
) sin( 2
sin
cos 1
) 2 ( / ) (
n
n o
n B B V u
u
u
o u ¸
12
Example 2 – Parabolic Foil
An airfoil has upper and lower surfaces
defined as:
Determine the aerodynamic characteristics
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
) ( ) (
2 1 4
1
4
1
B B C C
l c
x
mx
+ + ÷ = t
) ( 2
1 0
B B C
l
+ ÷ = t to
) / 1 )( / ( 3 . 0 /
) / 1 )( / ( 5 . 0 /
c x c x c
c x c x c
l
u
÷ =
÷ =
q
q
13
Example 3 – NACA 2412
A NACA 2412 airfoil has a camber line
given by the equations:
Determine the aerodynamic characteristics
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
) ( ) (
2 1 4
1
4
1
B B C C
l c
x
mx
+ + ÷ = t
) ( 2
1 0
B B C
l
+ ÷ = t to
1 / ) / ( /
/ 0 ) / ( /
10
4
2
36
2
45
2
90
1
10
4
2
16
2
10
1
s s ÷ + =
s s ÷ =
c x c x c x
c x c x c x
c
c
q
q
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
s s ÷
s s ÷
=
1
10
4

9
1
45
2
10
4
0
4
1
10
1
c x
c
x
c x
c
x
dx
d
c
q
( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
> > + ÷
> > + ÷
=
0 cos 1
18
1
45
2
cos 1
8
1
10
1
p
u u u
u u t u
q
p
c
dx
d
° = =
+ =
102 7722 . 1
) cos 1 ( 4 . 0
2
1
p
p
u
u
16
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
) ( ) (
2 1 4
1
4
1
B B C C
l c
x
mx
+ + ÷ = t
) ( 2
1 0
B B C
l
+ ÷ = t to
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0138 . 0 2 cos cos 1
8
1
10
1 2
2 cos cos 1
18
1
45
2 2
0815 . 0 cos cos 1
8
1
10
1 2
cos cos 1
18
1
45
2 2
009 . 0 cos 1
8
1
10
1 2
cos 1
18
1
45
2 2
0
2
0
1
0
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
= + ÷ + + ÷ =
} }
} }
} }
t
u
u
t
u
u
t
u
u
u u u
t
u u u
t
u u u
t
u u u
t
u u
t
u u
t
p
p
p
p
p
p
d d B
d d B
d d B
° = ¬ + =
+ ÷ =
08 . 2 2279 . 0 2
) ( 2
1 0
ol
l
B B C
o to
t to
0532 . 0
) (
2 1 4
1
4 /
÷ =
+ = B B C
mc
t
Use Matlab!
15
Comparison
with data
C
mc/4
C
l
http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/re
ports/1945/naca-report-824/
Summary of
airfoil data
Abbott, Ira H Von
Doenhoff, Albert E
Stivers, Louis, Jr
16
Example 4 – Helicopter Rotor
p
is measured
on a helicopter rotor airfoil section as a
function of angle of attack. Estimate the
change in angle of attack.
}
=
t
u u u
q
t
0
) cos( ) (
2
d n
dx
d
B
c
n
o
V
·
x
0
u
c
0
) cos 1 ( /
2
1
u + = c x
t
q
u
q
t
q
c
q
l
( )( )
¿
·
=
÷
÷ ÷
= A
1
0
) sin( 4
sin
cos 1 2 2
) (
n
n p
n B
B
C u
u
u o
u
17
Comparison with Exact
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
x/c
C
p
NACA 0012

2
o
angle of attack
4
o
angle of attack
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x/c
A

C
p
NACA 0012

A
C
p
at 2
o
A
C
p
at 4
o
Change in
A
C
p
Thin airfoil theory
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
-0.05
0
0.05
x/c
y
/
c
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
-0.05
0
0.05
x/c
y
/
c