BLACK & VEATCH INTERNATIONAL COMPANY Kent Lackey, P.E., Project Manager* Email:, Address: 8520 Cliff Cameron Drive, Suite 350, Charlotte, NC 28269 Phone: (704) 510-8421; FAX (704) 548-8640 Randy Ashburn, P.E., Engineering Manager Ted Stolinski, P.E., Pump Specialist

In today’s climate, design of large capacity wastewater pumping stations involves complex balancing of several critical priorities including reliable long term service, operations and maintenance considerations, capital cost, and constructability amongst others. The underlying drive to reduce capital cost due to the current economic climate can at times be counter to achieving a reasonably conservative and optimum engineering solution to meet the remaining priorities. Looking “outside the box” to develop innovative solutions that reliably meet both short term and long term needs while minimizing operations and maintenance and capital cost is of paramount importance. This paper will present a wastewater pumping station design in North Carolina that couples innovative design methodologies with innovative pumping station design concepts to meet this challenging balance of priorities. This includes the use of physical hydraulic modeling coupled with engineering experience and 3D design to significantly reduce the size and thus overall cost of large capacity pumping stations. The use of “confined inlet – trench style” wetwells first implemented during the design of the 60 mgd McDowell Creek WWTP Influent Pumping Station for CMU and later refined for the Elledge WWTP 100 mgd influent pumping station will be discussed along with its benefits of optimized hydraulics, increased solids removal capabilities, and reduced cost. The demonstrated results of the recent design innovations developed on these projects provide significant value as prototypes for developing sound, reliable engineering solutions for future wastewater pumping stations.

Wastewater pumping stations, wastewater pumps, pump station design

The design of large wastewater pumping stations has evolved in the past decade or so with a focus on not only pump hydraulic performance but also focusing on the minimization of solids buildup within pumping station wetwells. This is a critical aspect of wastewater pumping station design as the buildup of solids can require significant regular maintenance to remove the solids. If not properly maintained, solids buildup can lead to premature pump wear or even pump failure. For smaller pumping stations where pumping units may be installed in a relatively small precast concrete manhole or vault, turbulence introduced into the pump wetwell by incoming flow and pump operation is generally capable of keeping solids flowing through the pumping units to eliminate significant deposition. While the turbulence is not ideal for optimum pump performance, the pumping units are generally small in size and the impact of the turbulent effects is less of a concern. However, as pumping unit size increases and separation of pumping units is required to eliminate hydraulic impacts or to separate discharge piping and valves for operation and maintenance purposes, pump

minimize solids deposition. Additionally. The standards have adapted over time and were achieved with input from engineering firms. The standards generally provided for the certain design guidelines to eliminate or minimize solids accumulation which in turn reducing maintenance and improves pump performance. Figure 1: HI Wetwell Configurations for Solids Bearing Liquids 1 Open-Trench Type Wetwell Confined Inlet Type Wetwell INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . based on a history of less than desirable pumping station performance. and provision for vertical or sloped walls. owners and users of pumping facilities to have a foundation upon which to develop functional and economical pumping facility designs1. In 1998. In the past ten years. and reduce cost. The fundamental design principles were focused on minimizing horizontal surfaces in the wetwells. large wastewater pumping stations have been developed for Charlotte-Mecklenburg Utilities. directing solids to a pump location for removal. Virginia. utilities and others. and the Town of Mooresville derived from the basic principals of the HI standards but customized to meet project specific applications to achieve optimum performance and reduce cost. performance criteria. The standard recognized the need for additional considerations for wetwells (intakes or sumps) for solids bearing liquids with allowances for removal of floating and settling solids was important. Loudon County. etc. Hydraulic Institute Standards1 The Hydraulic Institute Standards were developed for the purpose of providing designers. Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Utility Commission. pump manufacturers. A thorough understanding of the basic design principles provided in the HI standards allows for the engineering of application specific designs that optimize pump station hydraulic performance.wetwells can become significantly larger in area. The standard presents several general wetwells configurations (Figure 1). with a focus on optimal pump hydraulics newer designs often include features to eliminate the impact of turbulent incoming flows on the pumping units which can lead to poor hydraulic performance due to surface and subsurface vortices and flow pre-swirl. Minimizing deposition of solids can therefore be more difficult as the turbulence of incoming flows is less likely to keep the solids in suspension. the standards were revising including some key wastewater application revisions • • • • Addition of intake or sump design guidance for solids bearing liquids Introduction of trench type intake geometry Use of circular intakes Model testing criteria for scaling.

once the anomalies or unsatisfactory conditions are identified. Settled solids and floating solids can be removed by operating each pump at full speed for a short period of time while allowing the liquid level to drop which creates swift currents entraining floatables into the flow which his subsequently pumped into the discharge piping. The jump scours the solids off the bottom and entrains floatable material. the solids settling is minimized by sweeping the solids into the pump inlet with the flow. Furthermore.To assist with cleaning the wetwells or preventing sedimentation the standards presents several methods including what is commonly referred to as “self cleaning” in which the pumps are configured in a trench type arrangement (See Figure 1) with the last pump set a little deeper than the others. Additionally. For complete similarity. By maintaining slightly higher velocity at the pump inlets. The hydraulic jump moves towards the last pump and causes each pump to lose prime and cavitate when the jump passes underneath.000 gpm each or total station capacity greater than 100. Confined inlet style wetwells are configured such that the pump suction bells are isolated in individual confined cells to isolate each pump from hydraulic disturbances caused by adjacent pumping units. Additional methods for wetwell cleaning are suggested as well including mixers or jets that operate periodically to elevated solids and push them to the pump inlets. gravitational force.000 gpm Pumps of an open bottom barrel or riser arrangement with flows greater than 5000 gpm Applications where proper operation is critical and repair or remediation of a pour design could lead to cost greater than 10 times the cost of a model study. viscous. INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . This promotes better flow hydraulics as well as restricts the area for possible solids settling to small horizontal areas directly below the pump inlets. The pumps are sequentially stopped when this occurs until the jump has pushed all material to the last pump which pumps the material into the discharge force main. Physical models were utilized for both the McDowell Creek WWTP Influent Pumping Station and Elledge WWTP Influent Pumping Station designs to aid in the development of the wetwell design and to optimizing hydraulic performance and sedimentation characteristics of the design. Physical Model Development Physical models are developed by ensuring that certain force relationships (inertial force. An ogee style vertical transition is provided at the influent side of the wetwell. They allow the identification of hydraulic anomalies or unsatisfactory flow conditions which could affect performance of the hydraulic system components as well as identification of solids deposition issues within hydraulic structures. achieving a critical velocity down the spillway and creating a hydraulic jump at the toe of the spillway. viscous force and surface tension force) in the model and the prototype (full scale system) are dynamically similar. The Hydraulic Institute Standards also provided for guidance related to model testing in the 1998 edition. Hydraulic Modeling Physical hydraulic models and computational fluid dynamic models (models) can be utilized to evaluate the performance of hydraulic structures. In essence the standards recognize that alternative pumping station configurations may be required at times and allows for deviation from the standard providing a reasonable model study is conducted to ensure good pump performance and intake hydraulics. the models can be used to test modifications which will remedy the undesirable conditions. This included general guidelines for determining if physical model testing is required including: • • • • • Wetwell or sump geometry deviating from the design guidelines within HIS Non-uniform approach flow to the pump wetwell or intake Pumps with capacity greater than 40. and surface tension forces must be the same between the model and prototype. for large expensive pumping station model studying is recommend due to the benefits of optimizing hydraulics and the inconsequential cost of the model study itself. During the cleaning procedure all pumps are stopped and then the last pump is operated at a flow rate equivalent to 75% of its capacity. This purpose is to draw the wetwell level down rapidly. This is only possible with a model scale of 1:1. the ratio of the inertial force to the gravitation.

fatigue. If the model testing indicates undesirable hydraulic performance or sedimentation the model can be modified and retested until the design provides satisfactory performance. Flow Fr = Fm ModelFroudeNumber = =1 F p Pr ototypeFroudeNumber Long Radius Reducing Elbow The geometric scale of the model used for evaluation of a pump wetwell is selected to minimize the viscous and surface tension effects and to allow for proper performance observation. Using this information a model scale can be developed to satisfy the various requirements and a testing program is developed based on the following model scale relationships. Viscous effects are defined by the Reynolds number and surface tension effects are defined by the Weber number where. Non-uniformity in flow approaching pumps can result in excessive pre-swirl of flow approaching the pump impeller. and non-uniform flow distribution approaching the pump impeller. An additional application of physical modeling is to modify the model to incorporate cost saving strategies and tested the model to verify performance is not impacted. Length Lr Velocity Lr 1/2 Discharge Lr 5/2 _____________________________ Once constructed the model is tested under a full range of operating conditions to evaluate the solids deposition and hydraulic performance of the pumping station design. Because of the potential impact of these hydraulic conditions on pump performance. vibration. U gL = InertialForce GravitationalForce Pump 4 Bay Pump 5 Bay Pump 6 Bay U = characteristic flow velocity g = gravitational acceleration L = characteristic length Pre-swirl Meter For gravitational similitude. the INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . generally the gravitational force is the primary force. This ratio is represented by the Froude Number: Fr = where. In this manner the model can be a valuable tool in achieving the most cost effective design. Accordingly. Model Performance Criteria It is very important to maintain satisfactory hydraulic conditions prior to pumping units for several reasons. damage to impeller blades. free-surface or sub-surface vortex formation in the vicinity of the pump bell. These in turn can lead to accelerated bearing wear. Reynolds number = Re = UL ν = InertialForce > 6 x 104 ViscousForce Model Scale Relationships _____________________________ Parameter Relation ρU 2 L InertialForce = > 240 Weber Number = We = σ SurfaceTensionForce Viscous effects are considered negligible if the model Reynolds number at the pump bell entrance is greater than 6 x 104 and surface tension forces are considered negligible if the model Weber number is greater than 240. For open channel (free-surface) flow systems. and premature failure of the pumping unit. including flow visualization of vortices and measurement of pre-swirl and velocities.Therefore. it is necessary to determine the primary force relationship which best simulates the prototype conditions. and cavitation of the pumping unit. when modeling at a reduced scale. the ratio between the inertial force and the gravitational force must be equal between the model and prototype. These hydraulic conditions can lead to fluctuating loads on the pump impellers. reduction in pump performance.

Hydraulic Institute (HI) developed performance criteria to be utilized in evaluating the performance of centrifugal pumps (Hydraulic Institute Pump Intake Design Standard. The primary design criteria for both projects included: INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . 1998). Figure 2: HI Vortex Classification Index Number Vortex Activity: Free-surface and sub-surface vortices create fluctuating loads on pump impeller No Indication of 1 1 Swirling or Rotation blades as the blade passes through the vortex 2 core which is a low pressure zone. A short-term rotation of 7 degrees may be acceptable if it occurs less than 10 percent of the time or for infrequent pump operating conditions. the HI design guidelines coupled with physical modeling were utilized to develop a consolidated influent pumping station (screening. Flow pre-swirl is measured using a swirl meter which measures the rate at which flow rotates which in turn defines the angle of rotation. Flow Pre-swirl: Excessive flow pre-swirl affects the angle at which flow approaches the pump impeller. HI limits free-surface and sub-surface vortices entering the pump to less than Type 2 (vortices with coherent swirl). Generally pump impellers are designed assuming the incoming flow will approach the impeller axially. very strong freeDiffuse Swirling Core surface vortices can also cause reduction in pump capacity due to the entrainment of air into the flow 4 stream or loss of prime of the pumping unit. time variations in the velocities entering the pump may cause vibration and noise. if the level of pre-swirl fluctuates. In some cases. and influent pumping) using an innovative “trench style confined inlet” wetwell configuration to meet a set of strict design criteria provided by the client while at the same time providing optimal hydraulic performance. grit removal. In addition. HI limits the short-term (10 to 30 second model average) and longterm (10 minute model average) rotation to a maximum of 5 degrees. This loading Surface Dimple and unloading of the impeller blades may lead to increased bearing wear and fatigue of the 3 pumping unit. the temporal variation in velocity at any point shall be within plus or minus 10 percent of the time averaged cross sectional velocity. this will cause loading and unloading of the impeller blades which may lead to vibration or fatigue. Additionally. 5 Air or Vapor Bubble in Core 6 Solid Air or Vapor Core Flow Uniformity: Spatial and temporal fluctuations in flow velocity entering a pump can cause nonuniform loading of the pump impeller which in turn leads to non-uniform pressure on the impeller blade. Excessive pre-swirl can cause reduction in the minimum pressure on the impeller blades. Development of the Trench Style. Likewise. A description of the various hydraulic conditions and the evaluation performance criteria utilized for this project is given below. Well Organized and Defined Core (No Air) The HI Vortex Classification System is provided at the right in Figure 2. This can lead to cavitation and fatigue of the impeller blades and pumping unit. Confined Inlet Wetwell Design During design of the McDowell Creek WWTP 60 mgd influent pumping station in 2003. Type 3 (dye core vortices) may be acceptable if they occur for less than 10 percent of the time or under infrequent operating conditions. The same configuration was later used to develop the design for a 100 mgd influent pumping station at the Archie Elledge WWTP in Winston-Salem which is current under construction. and in extreme cases can lead to low enough pressures that cavitation may occur. The HI performance criteria require that time average velocities at points in the throat of the bell or in the location of the pump impeller shall be within 10 percent of the average cross sectional velocity in the pump suction.

The result was a fairly compact facility (Figure 3) with all process enclosed for optimum odor control and operations and maintenance. There were several advantages of the HI design over common rectangular wetwell configurations that had been used commonly before in that it provided a reduced footprint by use of a trench style wetwell which was narrow in width and it incorporated a cleaning procedure to allow for effective removal of solids to eliminate permanent deposition. Three dimensional design and physical modeling were used to develop a compact footprint for the overall facility by reducing flume lengths between processes while at the same time optimizing hydraulics and sedimentation elimination through use of physical modeling. The length of the ogee spillay for each of the two wetwells would add considerable size and cost to the pumping station. INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . grit removal and pumping in one fully enclosed facility was desired. Figure 3: Consolidated Influent Pumping Station At first. The “self cleaning” wetwell was a proven design with a number of installations throughout the United States. Concern over the hydraulic impacts of flow along the trench creating turbulence as it passes pumping units and its effect on adjacent pumping units. However. there were concerns over whether the HI “self cleaning” design was the best concept for the particular application due to the following: • • • The hydraulic grade line of the pumping was 50 feet below grade. Concern regarding the cleaning procedure which requires the pumps to operate under extreme cavitation conditions during cleaning albeit for a short time.• • • • • • • Screening and grit removal prior to pumping to minimize impeller wear Minimize/eliminate solids deposition in wetwells to eliminate wetwell maintenance Minimize potential for concrete degradation due to H2S Reduce odors Desired dry pit style pump configuration for pump longevity and maintenance Design to be compliant with HI standards for pump station design Consolidated facility with screening. the intent for the McDowell project was to develop the pumping station wetwell design based on the HI “self cleaning” wetwell configuration which utilizes an ogee spillway coupled with a cleaning procedure to remove solids from the wetwell during regular cleaning cycles.

Table 1 compares the model performance of the drypit confined inlet trench style configuration versus the wet-pit self cleaning trench style configuration. This is likely attributed to several factors • The confined inlet wetwell provide individual cells for pump inlets or pumping units thus eliminating hydraulic interactions between adjacent pumping units that can create vortices and irregular flow patterns INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . Through model testing the custom configuration proved successful both from a hydraulic performance and sedimentation standpoint and was originally incorporated into the McDowell Creek WWTP 60 mgd influent pumping station design and subsequently into the Elledge WWTP 100 mgd influent pumping station design.As a consequence. Figure 4 depicts the layout of the “trench style confined inlet wetwell” design for the Elledge WWTP. Both physical modeling programs were conducted by the same modeling consultant. It was determined through the use of physical modeling a more streamlined (smaller footprint) facility could be developed because acceptable hydraulic performance could be demonstrated for the custom design in lieu of simply relying on prescribed design dimensions provided in HIS or in other full scale prototypes. A custom wetwell design was developed based on a combination of HI trench wetwell concepts and duplex lift station confined inlet concepts in order to take advantage of the small footprint of the trench style wetwells and to minimize solids deposition as with the confined inlet duplex lift station configuration. Northwest Hydraulic Consultants. A physical model was again used during the design of the Elledge WWTP design to further refine the wetwell configuration and facility layout while optimizing hydraulics. At the same time designs were being considered to evaluate opportunities for reducing the overall footprint of the consolidated pumping station in order to reduce project cost. due to the size and cost of the Elledge IPS the design team felt it would be valuable to model the design to ensure optimal hydraulic performance not only for the wetwells. but the confined inlet dry-pit style performance was significantly better than the minimum HI criteria and the self cleaning style design. While HI does allow for the design of new pumping stations using an existing pumping station as a prototype. Physical model testing was performed for both project and subsequently for the 100 mgd Elledge WWTP influent pumping station. Figure 4: Trench Style Confined Inlet Pump Station Configuration Flow Direction Hydraulic Performance At the same time the McDowell Creek WWTP 60 mgd influent pumping station was being designed another 100mgd influent pumping was being designed using the HI “self cleaning” trench style configuration with submersible pumps. alternative wetwell configurations were considered in order to develop a wetwell configuration that could provide an optimal combination of hydraulic performance and sedimentation minimization while reducing cost and potential pump damage due to operation under cavitation conditions. but for the vortex grit removal basins and approach flumes. Both configurations met the HI design criteria thus indicating the designs would provide good hydraulic performance.

In general. Solids Deposition Performance Settling of solids in wastewater wetwells is a common problem for all wastewater systems that requires periodically maintenance and cleaning. This would be more a benefit of the dry-pit configuration and not necessarily attributable to the confined inlet.• • • The confined inlet longitudinal flow pattern is above the inlets where the flow is unimpeded thus the only flow impact is as the flow passes over cell divider walls whereas longitudinal flow in the self cleaning passes each pump on its way to adjacent pumping units which can create undesirable flow swirling within the wetwell that may lead to higher flow pre-swirl or other hydraulic anomalies. physical modeling of the wetwell provided to be an extremely valuable tool for assessing potential hydraulic issues within pump wetwells that can lead to poor pump performance or premature wear. In wastewater pump stations a carefully balancing act of optimizing pump hydraulic performance and minimizing wetwell solids deposition is required. Wetwell designs such as those used for clean water where limiting approach velocities is preferred to optimize pump inlet hydraulics and thus pump performance can elevate solids deposition problems. trench style wetwell configurations for wastewater provide lower solids deposition potential than typical rectangular wetwells due to the narrow geometry which allows for a more uniform flow pattern and elevated velocities within the wetwell thus reducing settling. The sloped walls between the confined inlets can lead to eddy formation as flow passes over the walls between pumps but this impact is minimized by lowering the wall slightly and eliminating a sharp peak with a small horizontal top surface. Table 1: Pump Station Wetwell Hydraulic Comparison The important conclusion is that both wetwell configurations did perform reasonably well and met the HI design criteria and that the confined inlet style wetwell shows significant promise in optimizing wetwell hydraulics thus pump performance. Flow approaching the pump in the dry-pit configuration is through a suction pipe which provides some approach length to provide more uniform flow to the impeller whereas the wet-pit style does not allow for flow straightening due to the configuration. With rectangular wetwells there exists “deadspots” in flow that allow for solids deposition thus increasing the need for cleaning. To ideally eliminate solids deposition the solids need to be swept through the wetwell and towards the pumps so that they enter the pumps and are effectively removed INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . Finally.

One approach is to automate a “cleaning” cycle within the pump wetwell to periodically remove settled solids without the need for vacuuming or physical cleaning of the wetwell such as with the HI “self cleaning” design. a subsequent test was performed to determine if a cleaning cycle for surface particles could be created without taking the pumping system out of operation (See Figure 6). The fillets and floor cones also provide for improved hydraulics by eliminating subsurface vortices that generally form directly below a pump inlet and at the sidewalls. With the HI “self cleaning” wetwell configuration removal of surface debris or floatable is also handled by the automated cleaning cycle.from the wetwell. However. Figure 5 depicts the solids movement in the confined inlet wetwell design. the new pumping station design did not account for automated removal of suspended materials. During pump operation in any given cell. The key is to be able to effectively remove those solids when the pumps begin operating. the solids were effectively pulled into the pump inlet cleaning the bottom of the confined inlet generally within five minutes of operation. but all entrains the floatables into the liquid thus removing them with the pumped fluid. The hydraulic jump provides a scouring action for solids removal. A second approach is to optimize the solids movement in the wetwell to eliminate solids deposition altogether which is the basic premise of the confined inlet design. The geometry of the confined inlet was tested during the physical modeling program for both the Elledge WWTP and McDowell Creek WWTP projects. foam or other floatable particles. Neither the Elledge WWTP nor the McDowell Creek WWTP had any history of experiencing foam or grease accumulation in their existing influent pumping stations so there was reduced concern of it being a problem in the new pumping station. This approach utilizes a cleaning cycle to scour settled solids and push them to an end pumping unit to effectively remove the solids from the wetwell. The pumping station was provided with access hatches above each wetwell to flush suspended material into the flow stream to be removed by the pumping units or to allow for skimming. floatable particles were effectively being pulled down to the pumping units consistently. Surface Cleaning Demonstration Another consideration of wetwell design is the removal of surface particles such as grease. This demonstrated the “self cleaning” capabilities of the confined inlet during normal operation without the need for an automated cleaning procedure. there were effectively no solids settling in the bottom of Figure 5: Solids Movement in Confined Inlet Wetwell the confined inlet. Sloping sides of the confined inlets help channelize solids to the pump inlets and fillets and/or floor cones at the bottom of the confined inlet provide for a circular flow pattern pulling the solids into the pump inlet. Therefore. solids will settle below and around the pumping units. This is accomplished by reducing the horizontal surfaces within the wetwell upon which the solids can settle to a minimum and forcing the solids towards the pump inlet during normal operation. Solids could be viewed sliding down the confined inlet separation walls and flowing into the pump inlets. Therefore. The wetwell is lowered during the cycle and the as the pumps operated the level continues to lower and generates a hydraulic jump at the base of the ogee spillway that moves longitudinally in the wetwell towards Figure 6: Floatable Removal Demonstration the last pump. Representative solids Flow were also place in the bottom of each pump cell to simulate buildup during periods of time when the Directio pumps were not operating. complete elimination of solids settling may not be achievable. and the last pump in the INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . The results of the test indicated that when the wetwell was lowered to an elevation slightly higher than the top of the pump inlet pit walls. Once the pump was turned on. Simulated grit and solids were introduced into the model upstream of the wetwells with a variety of pump operating conditions being performed. Even with trench style wetwells. it was noticed that when the wetwells were operated at lower levels. while pumps are not operating. During the demonstration testing of the confined inlet wetwell design.

suspended particles would be drawn into the pump inlet.wetwell was turned on to full capacity. modified to fit specific project needs. Simply using yesterday’s solutions to meet today’s needs may not provide the most valuable solution for a large capacity pumping station design. The confined inlet trench style wetwell design concept derived from the Hydraulic Institute design criteria for solids bearing liquids. Custom engineering of pumping station designs is still around and should be carefully considered to get the most long term value out of stressed capital budgets while providing for optimum performance. and proven through the use of physical modeling represents a unique solution that couples superior pump performance and effective solids removal to provide a reliable. optimize operations and maintenance and reduce cost. This procedure will thereby allow for the removal of surface particles within the wetwell while in operation by simply reducing the wetwell level set point. References 1 American National Standard for Pump Intake Design. minimize solids sedimentation. As with the self cleaning wetwell this is expected to have limited effect on grease accumulation as the grease tends to stick to the sidewalls of the wetwell and solidify. operations and maintenance and cost. cost effective design for large scale wastewater pumping stations.1998 INNOVATION IN LARGE CAPACITY WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION DESIGN . The design approach used for the McDowell Creek WWTP Influent Pumping Station and Elledge WWTP Influent Pumping Station projects coupling the using of physically modeling with 3d-design techniques allowed for the development of innovative. Conclusions Design of large capacity wastewater pumping station often requires a careful balancing act between hydraulic performance. Hydraulic Institute . It is important for engineer’s to understand the dynamics of wetwell hydraulics and solids sedimentation and where possible use that knowledge coupled with sound engineering judgment and cutting edge engineering tools to develop “out of the box” innovative solutions that optimize hydraulic performance. cost saving designs.