Proof for Fermat’s Last theorem for n=4


It is not my intention to repeat what is there in great mathematician’s books. I am presenting whatever I understood. If we want to solve any equation, We may solve it using fundamental principles of mathematics. If the equation to be solved is need three equations. (a, b, c are all integers >0), There are three unknowns, we

Thus we have first clue or hint that is all are integers – [1] Let us examine three conditions comparing (a + b) and “c” 1) (a + b)=c => 2) (a + b)<c 3) a+b>c => , then => ( then also then it is possible to have

That means we have second clue as a+b > c  a > (c-b) --- [2]

------ [3] That means fourth power of “a” should have c-b , c+b and (c-b) because from the first principles we can see that if since as its factors, I will concentrate on to be true, then

) We have fourth clue that number 1 is common factor to all, so it is natural to examine with the condition c-b=1 then [3] can be reduced to Since both (2b+1) and are odd numbers it implies that is odd number  a is odd number, let us take b as even and c as odd number Let a = 2m+1 and b=2p and c=2p+1 Since a>(c-b)=1 from [2] , then = (4p+1) ( ) , Let us assume that they have odd prime factor like 3

Let us examine (4p+1) and or p1 where p1 is odd prime number –[5] Let 4p+1=p1 * q1 [6]

And From [6] and [7]

= p1*q2[7]

Since p1 is a prime number, q2-q1 is definite multiple of 8 Let (q2-q1)=8r that implies Since p1 is prime number there is one possibility that r=p1* and p=(p1*s)[8]

Summing [6] and [7] gives

[9] [10] Subtracting [10] from [9] 2*q1=2(4p+1)/p1 Since p is divisible by p1 according to [8] (4p+1) is not divisible by p1  q1 is not an integer , that means 4p+1 is not an integer, so also p (4p+1) and step [5] will not have common prime factor p1 as assumed in the above in the

“a” is anyways odd number even if you take “b” as odd number and “c” as even number we end up product of two co-primes being equal to Since they are co-primes and product of two co-primes can’t be expressed like

Bingo…. We have just proven that we can’t have integers such that


Extending the above rules to higher differences c-b=2

Let us keep (c-b) as 2 and we check for any combination that satisfies =[5] -- [6] Since c-b=2 both must be odd since all a,b,c may not be even at the same time so b=2k-1 and c=2k+1— [7] From [6] and [7]  16 8(2k-1+1)( an even integer Observing k and k(2k-1)+1 are co-prime we have only one possibility =0 We can’t have integer solutions to the k if So we can’t find any integers such that We can’t find any integers ============================================================= Let us extend the above argument to (c-b)=d>2 Let us keep “a” is odd, b as even c is odd and also “d” a=q*d,b=2s,c=2s+d and d=2t+1 ) =16(2k)( 



Let us examine product of two terms

to make

an integer let us assume that “s” and “d” are co-primes the only way to make 4s/d is an integer is d=multiple of 4 and “s” is multiple of 4/d let d=4t, that means “d” is an even number If “d” is even and b is even “c” must be even , so also “a”, the equation can be reduced until diff between “c” and “b” is odd number, in that case s/d should be integer to make the product integer

Even if u make s/d is an integer, we know from [5] that (4p+1) and can’t be expressed 4th power of an integer the only possibility is that b is odd , so that c is also odd and a is even

are co-prime and

we can prove similarly even this condition will end up like s/d should be an integer That means “s” is multiple of “d”  “b” is also multiple of “d” If “a” is multiple of “d” and “b” also multiple of “d” that means “c” also multiple of “d” That means the equation can be reduced until d=1

From –[5] we know that (4p+1) and of an integer

are co-primes and can’t be expressed 4th power

We have already proven that there are no integer solutions if d=1

EUREKA… we have proven that if n=4 we can’t have integer solutions for