Prof. Dr. S.

Lemke

Handout Film Image + Sound + Narrative + Performance  FILM I. The image
The visual code. The smallest unit is a frame showing a single picture. If one projects a sequence of twenty-four frames per second on a screen, the human eye is deceived into seeing a moving image. A shot (“ instellung!" is a sequence of frames filmed in a continuous (uninterrupted" take of a camera. A ta#e stops when the camera stops rolling or goes offline. A sequence of shots ma#es up a scene. A scene is a sequence of action segments which ta#e place, continuously, at the same time and in the same place. $hen you jump from place to place, or from time to time, it is a new scene. Shot ty es are %ased on two distinguishing features& '" the camera(s distance from the o%ject, )" the si*e of the o%ject. The four central categories are close-up, medium shot, full shot, and long shot.

'. !"treme close#u . A small o%ject or part of an o%ject shown large (a spea#ing mouth, a telephone receiver". +ften a detail shot shows a plot-relevant o%ject -- a ring, a telephone num%er on an envelope, etc. ). $lose#u , close shot. ,ull view of, typically, a human face. (semi#close#u shows the upper third of a person(s %ody" -. Medium shot. A view of the upper half of a person(s %ody. .. %merican shot. A three-quarter view of a person, showing her or him from the #nees up. /. Full shot. A full view of a person (Halbtotale" 0. Long shot. (total" A view from a distance, of a large o%ject or a collection of o%jects (e.g., of %uildings, a %ridge". +ften used to esta%lish a setting (esta&lishing shot". 1eople, when present, are reduced to indistinct small shapes. 2. !"treme long shot. A view from a considera%le distance (e.g., the s#yline of a city". If people can %e made out at all, they are mere dots in the landscape. Frame rate' ). frames per second is the normal projection speed. Increasing the speed of the frame rate during filming is called slo( motion, decreasing it is called fast motion. Free)e frame occurs when a single frame is repeated.

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are %ased on an optical effect and usually signal a change of scene& • • fade out . in contrast. The camera5s lens moves towrds or away from an o%ject ()ooming in. The camera moves towards or away from a stationary o%ject. The camera follows (trac#s" or precedes (pulls" an o%ject which is in motion itself. a dolly shot of a wedding party. downwards. 9amera is mounted on a crane structure. )oom (the camera actually remains stationary". shooting straight and level (this is the default angle". in the other framing. They disrupt normal models of continuity editing. $utting. shot* reverse shot. The gap will ma#e the picture 8jump8. the camera is assumed to %e shooting from a stationary position. An immediate shift to the ne4t shot without any transition whatsoever. tracking shot* ulling shot. crane shot. typically in a conversation situation. A system of cutting to maintain continous and clear narrative action. ush in. ) .Prof. 7oom shots are frequently used to direct attention to a particular detail. fade in. The direct cuts are as follows& • • • direct cut. )ooming out" %y smoothly e4tending or shortening its focal length. 3sually. .. right. ull &ack. Two or more shots edited together that alternate characters. or they may %e used for intentional effect. Lemke $amera Movement. 6ormally used for moving through a location -. 8The camera dollies past a queue of guests waiting to %e let in8. The camera surveys a scene %y tilting around its vertical or hori*ontal a4is. Dr. 6ormally. this is recogni*a%le as apparent motion only %ecause the o%ject retains its original perspectival aspect (and the camera actually remains stationary".. It is identified %y the type of transition which is produced. A shot ta#en from a camera mounted on a wheeled platform (a dolly". :eaving a gap in an otherwise continuous shot. $amera angles are a result of the camera(s tilt& upwards. The two major #inds of cuts are (direct( and (transitional(.g.e. +um cut.to color. lo( angle The o%ject is seen from a low-level position (camera loo#ing up".. (An aerial shot is a %ird(s-eye view ta#en from a helicopter". If the camera changes its osition while filming we get the following types of (dynamic shots(& • • • • • • an. S. 9haracters in one framing usually loo# left. dolly shot. dissolve.. A gradual transition created %y fading out the current shot and at the same time fading in the new shot (creating a %rief moment of superimposition".ump cuts are indicative of either careless editing. • • • straight#on angle The camera is positioned at a%out the same height as the o%ject. or sideways. Transitional cuts. !diting $ontinuity !diting. straight cut. high angle The o%ject is seen from a%ove (camera loo#ing down". The end of a shot is mar#ed %y fading out to an empty screen (usually %lac#"< there is a %rief pause< then a fade in introduces the ne4t shot. A cut mar#s the shift from one shot to another.

(i e.ocali*ation can %e determined %y answering the question Whose point of view orients the current segment of filmic information? +r& Whose perception serves as the current source of information? 1erception includes actual as well as imaginary perception (such as visions. The ways and means of presenting information from some%ody(s point of view. speech or music which does not come from a source located in the current scene. 6oise. Narrative Narration. In a heterodiegetic narrative. am&ient sound A diegetic %ac#ground sound such as the clatter of typewriters in an office or the hu%%u% of voices in a cafe. shown in the act of producing his or her narrative discourse. voice over' (a" ?epresentation of a non-visi%le narrator(s voice< (%" representation of a character(s interior monologue (the character may %e visi%le %ut her@his lips do not move". the story is told %y a narrator who is not present as a character in the story. If and when they are present. Focali)ation. S. This supplied sound usually creates mood. they are either (homodiegetic( or (heterodiegetic(& • • In a homodiegetic narrative. >omewhat reminiscent of turning a page. we see waves %rea#ing on a desolate seashore and we hear Sea Symphony.irst." replacement of the current shot %y the ne4t. Sound • • • • diegetic sound (indigenous sound". remem%er that not all films ma#e use of narrators.or instance. • • • flash&ack An alteration of story order in which the plot moves %ac# to show events that have ta#en place earlier. 6oise. also voice#over narrator An unseen narrator(s voice uttering narrative statements. speech or music coming from an identifia%le source in the current scene. flashfor(ard An alteration of story in which the plot presentation moves forward to future events and then returns to the present. nondiegetic sound. fast pan from o%ject A in the current shot to o%ject = in the ne4t. off#screen narrator. filmic narrators come in two #inds depending on whether they are visi%le on-screen or not. • Aepending on whether narrators tell a story in which they were involved themselves. II. . memories". dreams. A smoothly continuous left-right (or up-down etc. acting and tal#ing to the (or an" audience. Dr. Lemke • • s(ish an.Prof. . III. or a story a%out others.or instance. - . on#screen narrator A narrator who is %odily present on screen. we hear a weather report and we see that it comes from a car radio which some%ody has just turned on. the story is told %y a narrator who is present as a character in the story. . . A %rief.

" to what s@he has just seen. the slapstic# comedy of :aurel and Eardy. arly melodramatic styles. or the deadpan of =uster Featon.this is the focali)ed o&+ect or (center of attention(. A ga*e shot is usually followed %y a 1+C shot. There is enormous historical and cultural variation in performance styles in the cinema. >hot ' shows the face of a character ga*ing at something. annoyance./ shot. clearly inde%ted to the 'Dth century theater. and figure %ehavior. All of the elements placed in front of the camera to %e photographed@shot& the settings and props. such as superimposition (Übereinanderlagerung". The camera assumes the position of a character and shows the o%ject of his or her ga*e what the character would see.apanese period films. Dr.Prof. A general term for various photographic manipulations that that create fictitious spatial relations in the shot. There are many alternatives to the dominant style& the #a%u#iinfluenced performances of #yu-ge#i . A picture of a character loo#ing ((ga*ing(" at something not currently shown. Lemke The %asic concept in focali*ation theory is focus. Performance %cting. the viewing position of a character reaction shot. A shot showing a character reacting (with wonder. . etc. and rear projections (foreground filmed against a screen< %ac#ground imagery is projected from %ehind the screen". over#the#shoulder shot. I/. the typage of silent >oviet 9inema< there are the improvisatory practices of directors li#e . matte shots (different areas of the shot ta#en separately and com%ined in la%oratory wor#". the use of non-professional actors in Italian neorealism. we will often as# two questions& $ho sees and what is the o%ject (thing or human %eing" that the focali*er focuses onB • • • • • oint of vie( shot. horror. P. gave way to a relatively naturalistic style. %ut not fully into. . 9onsequently. costumes and ma#eup. A sequence of two shots& a ga*e shot followed %y a 1+C shot. lighting.ohn 9assavettes or ric ?ohmer. not to mention the e4u%erant histrionics of =ollywood films. S. s ecial effects.the focali)er< and )" the object seen ‘in focus’ -. mise#en#scene. The camera gets close to. in film analysis. amusement. eye#line shot. ga)e shot. and this term refers to two intricately related things& '" the position from which something is seen -.