Trade Deficit

A Trade Deficit occurs when the value of a country’s imports exceed its exports for a specific period of time, usually a year. The relationship between imports and exports are called the trade balance. When exports exceed imports it is called a trade surplus. Trade deficits can occur in both developing and advanced countries. While a trade surplus contributes to the GDP of a nation, a trade deficit will reduce GDP. While economists state that a controlled short term trade deficit is manageable and in some cases necessary for growth and development, they consider a long-term trade deficit to be a wealth destroyer that can trigger job losses, increase debts and lead to possible speculative attacks on currency.

HISTORY
 The Government of Pakistan set up TCP as private Limited company in July 1967 under the Companies Act 1913 (Now the Companies Ordinance 1984), with sole ownership and under the administrative control of Ministry of Commerce. TCP is acting as a public sector trade house i.e. exports of agriculture & consumer goods and import of essential commodities under specific directives of the Government. The initial paid up capital of the corporation contributed by the Government was Rs. 2.5 million which was subsequently increased to Rs. 7.5 million in 1971 against authorized capital of Rs.100 million. TCP's Paid up Capital was subsequently increased to Rs.100 million by issuing bonus shares of Rs.92.5 million in 1978-82 through TCP's own sources i.e. profit. In December 2005, the authorized capital has been increased to Rs. 1,000 million. And action to increase the paid up capital by Rs. 685.805 million is in hand.

 At the time of its inception. PAKISTAN TRADE DEFICIT WIDENS IN APRIL .     PAKISTAN BALANCE OF TRADE Pakistan recorded a trade deficit of 174836 PKR Million in April of 2013. Pakistan exports: cotton and knitwear (28 percent of total exports). Others include: United States. 2001. From the year 1980-81. The Federal Cabinet in its meeting held on 4th Dec. United Kingdom and Germany. RECP and CEC were merged in TCP with effect from January 19. the government decided to remove the monopoly of TCP on imports of the country. Main trading partners are United Arab Emirates (10 percent of total exports and 17 percent of imports) and China (9 percent of exports and 15 percent imports). Balance of Trade in Pakistan is reported by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Main imports are: fuel (40 percent of total imports). all items of imports being handled by the TCP were placed on free list. from 1957 until 2013. Ferrous and Non Ferrous items to supply industrial commercial consumer. Pakistan runs regular trade deficits primarily due to high imports of energy. machinery and transport equipment (18 percent) and chemicals (16 percent).09 PKR Million reaching an all time high of 6457 PKR Million in June of 2003 and a record low of -215020 PKR Million in December of 2011. carpets and rugs (8 percent) and rice (8 percent). bed wear. In the year 1999-2000 the Government assigned new role to TCP keeping in view the fact that there was a need for such an organization to stabilize the prices. TCP had the monopoly of importing selected industrial raw material. Historically. 1996 approved the merger of CEC and RECP with TCP. Till 1989-90. except the import of edible oil under grant/aid and import in emergency under specific government directives. Pakistan Balance of Trade averaged -18351.

28 percent over March of 2013 and of 12. One reason is falling value of dollar (to import the same oil volume) and the other is raising consumption.In April.592.08 percent over March of 2013 and of 3.277 million Rupees as against 361. Pakistan trade deficit widened 14. and to develop the high value manufactured goods industry in Pakistan.441 million Rupees as against 209. Industrial equipment makes another 30% of our import bill.480 million Rupees in April of 2012.585 million Rupees in March of 2013 and 340. The only way to reduce the import bill is to develop renewable energy sources. power generating. In April of 2013. showing an increase of 0. CAUSES AND SOLUTION OF TRADE DEFICIT . exports amounted to 209. aircrafts. Consumer goods imports have less of an impact on the import bill than the two other components mentioned above. imports were worth 384.75 percent yoy to 1. Around 30% of the import bill is made up of oil imports each year and it accounts for almost half of the increase in the import bill during the last 5 yrs. showing an increase of 6. THE MAIN REASONS BEHIND THE LARGE TRADE DEFICIT OF PAKISTAN Pakistan's trade deficit has also increased because of rising 1) oil imports 2) industrial equipment imports. Therefore. Industrial equipment such as telecom.311 million Rupees registered in the previous month. in April.266 million Rupees.79 percent to 174. as imports increased more than exports. Therefore.836 million Rupees from the 152.68 percent over April of 2012.274 million Rupees reported in March of 2013 and 202. ships etc purchases have increased.010 million Rupees in April of 2012.86 percent over April of 2012. According to provisional figures compiled by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Pakistan´s accumulative trade deficit for the first 10 months (July – April) of the fiscal year 2012-13 declined 6.

and an infiltration of consumer goods produced in the developed world. Instead of giving boost to export and add to our current accounts Pakistan’s total imports for food group are reported at $3.0% to 4. The declining trend in agriculture growth that ranged from 3. It should focus on making dams and adding thermal. Worsening Energy Crisis: Serious energy shortage. as textile.32 billion in 2013 against 2012 imports of . It has caused severe problems in production cycle and resultantly the cost of production has increased. steel and other units have suffered heavily. The solution is government makes comprehensive plan for overcoming the problem otherwise besides the trade deficit.0% during the last five years thereby is shortage of our food security. long spells of load-shedding and falling to the lowest ebb oil reserves are looming risks to our production level and economy. 2. Pakistan would not be able to maintain growth rate. unemployment and inflation are also likely to shoot-up. Around 25 percent of textile units have been closed because of shortage of electricity while a sizable number of units are likely to be closed and mills are also facing these grave problems. Further lowering of tariffs as per IMF and WTO requirements has actually led to an increase in imports. has played havoc with the industrial sector. This import depends upon country’s demand and production capacity. plastic. The load shedding in the country. Since the local producers are unable to produce enough goods and services to satisfy domestic demand therefore imports are drawn to fill in the gap. The protection of domestic consumer hinges upon smooth running of the industry and if the industry of the country is facing closure threat. coal and nuclear energy and developed new methods of generating the electricity. massive electricity failure from KESC and WAPDA. Another solution is that industries and factories generate their own power which helps them to increase his production most of the organization use this method but not overall it. during the last few years in particular. It is not a new phenomenon but since 50s Pakistan is importing more than it is exporting. Surging Imports: Pakistan’s trade deficit is widening as imports grow fast while exports are moving up slowly.1. Overall organization should apply this method which not only helps them to increase his production but also helps to economy. Pakistan’s already weak production base has been further hit hard by the energy crisis.

marble. Japanese and other South East Asian states. leather goods. Pakistan now is being very well recognized for producing and exporting cements in Asia and Mid-East. But in Pakistan situation there is lack of technical skill and education because here is illiteracy level is high. surgical instruments. Diversifying the Export Base: Pakistan exports rice. But main problem of Pakistan is that we exports in limited countries not move forward to other countries and and in some cases we move to the new market our product is not exported as much as our expectation level the main reason is that Pakistan’s quality of manufactured goods mostly mismatches the prevailing international standards as evident from the products from EU. And other reason is cost very high as compare to the international market. electrical appliances. sports goods. cotton fiber. we must have to register as a prerequisite any export enhancement drive depends upon availability of a good number . cement. carpets and rugs and food products. Quality production with differentiation requires technical skills to people entering in the industry requires. We can improve our production by enhancing education level and technical expertise and suggestion to the government should set up a chain of polytechnics for the people intending to enter industrial job market. Technical Skills: Increasing exports requires bigger surpluses of goods and commodities. clothing. Pakistan needs to push up exports and substitute imports with local products and for this we have to widen a meaningful production base with matching capacity. An international survey carried out a few years ago found that the productivity of the average Japanese female factory worker was four times higher than the productivity of the average Pakistani male factory worker.$2. software. 3. tiles. UAE. American. The solution is if we want to diversify the range of exportable products we must give monetary and other incentives to manufacturers to engage in research aimed at developing new value-added products and improve prior products for the export. The solution is Government of Pakistan must constitute a high-powered committee to devise a strategy for curtailing lavish imports to a minimum level in order to minimize the trade deficit. However. range of exportable products with quality matching the international standards. furniture. UK and China. Main exports partners are United States. textiles. 4.48 billion.

Sharp fluctuations in energy prices keep industry indecisive and tentative round the year and hence miss competitive market orders. Cost Competitiveness: There is no denying the fact that Michael Porter’s ‘cost leadership strategy’ is lynchpin of success in today’s competitive world. Encourage new small and medium size export enterprises. 5. 7. Cost Effective Competitiveness: Energy Tariff to maintain . Unless the cost of doing business is lowered. Therefore Pakistan’s industry shall improve its production techniques and minimize on wastage rates. IMF’s credit facility-carrying price tag is likely to push up energy costs and interest’s rates will have telling effects on our manufacturing sector.of value added items of decent quality and diverse products to our export profile otherwise exports can’t take a quantum leap. Such an anti-industrialization clause conflicts government much propagated resolve to bring shift in ‘consumption-led to production-led growth’. cutting down on unnecessary expenditure. the drive to boost our exports and reduce the trade deficit is likely to flounder. take up research and development and come out with a better product and market in domestic and export market. Cauterization of Industry: Another important problem is there is lack of clustering between industries. If Clustering between /of five to ten small or medium enterprises help them to pool their resources for improving production techniques. and create motivation at workplace to bring down production cost and make exports globally competitive. 6.

Beside. our production cost will not go down and our export earnings will not go up unless the domestic prices of petroleum products are cut and electricity tariffs are reduced. The management also needs to rely on thorough planning and fixing the government support prices. Import of edible oil could be controlled by increasing production of oil seed and import of milk powder can be substituted by dairy farming.But no effort to boost exports can succeed if the government keeps imposing mandated increases in the prices of manufacturing and agricultural inputs. Revitalizing Agriculture Base: Pakistan economy is mainly agriculture centered and strengthening agriculture base would strengthen our economy accordingly. Seeing the wastage. By this way he is planning to choke the supply of water to Pakistan and turn over our fertile and arable . commercial and domestic consumers of electricity and gas have also been badly hit by several rounds of tariff increases. its grave impact on negative trade balance ought to be at the top agenda in our restructuring campaign. backwardness and mismanagement in agriculture sector. Here we are confronting a very grave situation so much so that India and Pakistan may avoid nuclear war but they are positively advancing to a war on water. Efforts must be done to avoid recurrence of the phenomenon of first exporting on cheaper price and then importing (the same commodity) on higher prices as it happened in case of wheat in 2008. they have been very quick in rising domestic POL prices whenever international oil prices have risen. Industrial. saving the foreign exchequers on imports of these products. Every increase in these tariffs increases prices across the board. agricultural. up gradation of forms to market road network. Pakistan can earn current account by improving production and storage techniques. including electricity and gas tariffs and taxes on POL products. raising manufacturing and farming costs and making our products less competitive in export markets. Whereas. India is reportedly engaged in construction of more than 50 dams on Chenab River. The government is expected to address this issue by providing incentives to agriculture. Pakistan’s electricity tariffs are already the highest in the world. Following several rounds of mandated price increase for POL products in recent months and inland freight costs. It may be underscored further that agriculture itself is based on the supply of water. All this suggests that our trade gap is not likely to squeeze. in the past. 8. High cost energy would make our products further costly and hence less competitive in foreign markets. and establishment of cool chains for diary milk and other perishables can save billions of rupees loss. Improvement in cotton production will enable our textile industry to operate at optimum capacity to utilize 16 million bales of cotton and exploit the opportunity window being offered by the ongoing economic global crisis.

Friendly countries are reluctant and market borrowing does not seem likely because of Pakistan’s downgraded risk rating. and improving agricultural growth to balance the trade and repay the debts. As a solution then. If we fail to bring India to senses through international pressure. The policy needs to be aimed at reducing imports and increasing exports with broadened production base. Factors affecting the trade deficit are largely of domestic origin and that can be fixed or alleviated by the tools of the national budget and trade policy both. fiscal discipline and broadened tax base. well thought out plans. reviving domestic industry. The stage has come when the problem of a deficit coupled with high inflation and low economic growth is causing the balance of payments problems to be more serious. For this there is dire need to bolster internal resources through improving system of governance. There is no short cut but to mobilize all relevant sources. Sharp drop in international fuel prices and expected bumper crops of rice and wheat this year are offering an opportunity for Pakistan to control its import bill and turn the direction of trade deficit. the trade gap can only be narrowed if exports are increased with wider base and a larger volume. Obviously we can’t revitalize the agriculture sector without forcing India to respect international law on the flow of rivers and Indus Basin Treaty. There is a case for optimism in this regard especially if consistent efforts are made at marketing and promoting Pakistan's major export goods. war would become inevitable Conclusion Pakistan’s negative trade balance is a constant problem since 50s and its causes lie not in international trade but in factors affecting international capital flows.lands to deserts. . Privatization of national assets on dismally low prices during the period of ongoing recession is poor choice and borrowing from the IMF has started showing stresses on the public.