# AC VOLTAGE REGULATION USING SCR

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

Aim: To study Control scheme of AC voltage regulation Power circuit of AC voltage regulation Test the circuits

Theory: In the bridge circuit, diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and commutated simultaneously. Here, natural commutation is used. AC voltage is applied across the SCRs. commutation occurs. When the voltage across the SCR goes below zero, natural

During the positive half-cycle, SCR1 forward biased and, then there will be current through P – SCR1 – RL – N.

During the negative half-cycle of the a.c. input, SCR2 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, there will be current through N – RL – SCR2 – P. The output power is controlled through phase control of ac waveform. Control Scheme: Since the output power is controlled by phase control of the ac waveform, phase control IC TCA 785 is used in this experiment. Functional description: IC 785 is a 16 pin IC. In this IC, the synchronization signal is obtained via a high ohmic resistance from the supply A.C. voltage. A zero voltage detector evaluates the zero passages and

transfers them to the synchronization register. This synchronization register controls a ramp generator, the capacitor C10 of which is charged by a constant current (determined by R9). Varying the resistance R9 can control the slope of the ramp. Inside the IC, there is one comparator. One input of the comparator is ramp voltage generated. Another input is DC control voltage, which is obtained in Pin 11 making use of external Potentiometer. If the ramp voltage V10 exceeds the control voltage V11 (triggering angle), a signal is processed to the logic. Dependent on the magnitude

of the control voltage V11, the triggering angle  can be shifted within a phase angle of 0 to 180. For every half wave, a positive pulse of approx. 30 S duration appears at the outputs Q1 (Pin 14) and Q2 (Pin 15). If pin 12 is connected to ground, pulses with duration between  and 180 will result. The outputs Q1 is given to trigger circuit 1 and the output Q2 is given to the trigger circuit 2. The outputs of the trigger circuits are connected to the pair of SCRs.The trigger circuit consists of pulse transformer at the output. It has 1:1pulse transformer. There are 2windings. One winding is connected as primary and other one windings is used as secondary to trigger the SCR. By varying the control voltage, the phase angle is changed.

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7. Ensure that the kit is in OFF condition. Measure the trigger pulse across the PG1 and PK1 terminals and measure the DC output voltage waveform at the Vac terminals. 5. Gradually vary the phase angle and note down the output AC voltage. Connect the (0-15V) Ac voltage input to the rectifier circuit. 4.NK2 and NG2 terminals to the corresponding terminals. 2. Connect the PG1 terminal to the PG1 terminal. 3. Set the phase angle at 30 degree using potentiometer. Connect the VOLTMETER across output DC voltage. 6.PROCEDURE: 1. 10. Connect the AMMETER at the (0-500mA) terminals for measure the load current. . 9. Switch ON the module and 15V AC input voltage. the Vac output terminal for measure the 8. Similarly connect the PK1 .

DATA ACQUISITION THROUGH SERIAL PORT TO PC USING ARM 7 LPC2148 USER MANUAL AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION .

GUINDY.VI. THIRU.VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.com VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PRIVATE LIMITED LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Technical Reference .KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE. CHENNAI .600 032. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. III FLOOR. PH: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.34. BLOCK II.

Topic .2011 Board VIK-ARM7 Development Chapter 1 Introduction to the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Chapter 1 provides a description of the LPC2148VIK.ARM7 DB along with the key features and a block diagram of the circuit board.

S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support. that combine microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory 512 kB. A 128bit wide memory interface and unique accelerator architecture enable 32bit code execution at the maximum clock rate.1 Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Functional Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Vikasha Electronics 1. .1.0 1. the alternative 16-bit Thumb mode reduces code by more than 30 % with minimal performance penalty. For critical code size applications.0 Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB The LPC2148 microcontroller is based on a 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI.

make these devices very well suited for communication gateways and protocol converters. providing both large buffer size and high processing power. SPI. PWM channels and 45 fast GPIO lines with up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins make these microcontrollers suitable for industrial control and medical systems. 1. single or dual 10-bit ADC(s).0 Full-speed device. with conversion times as low as 2.Due to their tiny size and low power consumption.  Two 10-bit A/D converters provide a total of 14 analog inputs. Serial communications interfaces ranging from a USB 2. SSP to I2C-bus and onchip SRAM 40 kB. 10-bit DAC. Vikasha Electronics  In-System/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip bootloader software. Various 32-bit timers. soft modems.  EmbeddedICE RT and Embedded Trace interfaces offer real-time debugging with the on-chip RealMonitor software and high speed tracing of instruction execution. LPC2148 are ideal for applications where miniaturization is a key requirement. . voice recognition and low end imaging. multiple UARTs. such as access control and point-of-sale.  Single 10-bit D/A converter provide variable analog output.  40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 512 kB of on-chip flash memory 128bit wide interface/accelerator enables high-speed 60 MHz operation. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 ms.1 Key Features of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB The VIK-ARM7 DB has the following features:  16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package.44 µs per channel.

 Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions as well as peripheral clock scaling for additional power optimization. Brown-Out Detect (BOD) or Real-Time Clock (RTC). SPI and SSP with buffering and variable data length capabilities. Single power supply chip with Power-On Reset (POR) and BOD circuits: CPU operating voltage range of 3.  Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs.  Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external interrupt.  Chapter 3 LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Quick Start Installation Guide .  USB. 50 pin Expansion I/O Connectors.  On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal in range from 1 MHz to 30 MHz and with an external oscillator up to 50 MHz. two Fast I2C-bus (400 kbit/s). PWM unit (six outputs) and watchdog.  Vectored interrupt controller with configurable priorities and vector addresses.6 V (3.  Up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in a tiny LQFP64 package.3 V ± 10 %) with 5 V tolerant I/O pads.  60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling time of 100 µs.  Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down.  Up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins available.0 V to 3. Two 32-bit timers/external event counters (with four capture and four compare channels each).  Low power real-time clock with independent power and dedicated 32 kHz clock input.

This chapter describes the Software Installation procedure for LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB.1 2.0 System Hardware and Software Requirements . Topic 2.0 2.2 System Hardware and Software Requirements Software Installation Procedure Getting Started Vikasha Electronics 2.

exe from the CD-ROM. The requirements for the operating platform are: Minimum Hardware Configuration      233 MHz.These operating platform requirements are necessary to install the Keil µ (micro) version Integrated Development Environment and support the Serial/USB port. Note: For Windows 2000 and XP you must install Keil IDE using Administrator privileges. The following screen will appear. 2. or faster Pentium or compatible 600 MB of free hard disk space Microsoft Windows 2000 or XP 64MB of RAM Local CD-ROM Drive Recommended Hardware Configuration   256MB of RAM 500 MHz. 1. Insert the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 CD into the CD-ROM Drive. Go to arm7\software\keil IDE and run mdk350. Vikasha Electronics . or faster Pentium or compatible 2. make sure the PC has a Serial/USB port and an operating system (Windows 2000/XP) that supports USB. Also prior to installing the Keil IDE make sure the Virus checker on your system is turned off or disabled. It may be turned on or enabled when running Keil IDE.1 Software Installation Procedure Before you install the VIK-ARM7 software.

Vikasha Electronics .3. Enable the License Agreement option and click Next.

the following window will appear and click Finish. Vikasha Electronics .4. After installation.

The help included with the Keil IDE contains in-depth information and will help you to get started with your LPC2148VIK-ARM7 and to learn more about its features. To start Keil IDE. . double click the Keil µversion 3 icon on your desktop.5.

exe from CD-ROM. . 1. Go to arm7\software\programming utility and run setup.Vikasha Electronics Follow the procedures to install LPC2000 Flash Programming Utility.

Now press Reset Switch (RST) of VIK-ARM7 DB board and click OK. After installation.Vikasha Electronics 2. 2. . Turn the Switch (SW1) of VIK-ARM7 DB to RUN Mode. click Finish. Then click the Read Device ID You can see the message “Read Part ID Successfully” at the bottom of Flash utility. To view the output press Reset Switch (RST) once again. Create a shortcut icon on the desktop and double click to open. From this we can conclude that the connection has been established successfully.

Creating Applications It explains the Build Mode of µvision and shows you how to use the user interface to create a sample program and also discuss the options for generating and maintaining projects.Vikasha Electronics 2.2 Getting Started This Getting Started user’s guide provides an overview of the Keil ARM toolchain and explains how to Create Applications and how to test the programs. Choose the name and location for the file to be stored. . To create a new project file. This includes output file options. configuration of ARM tools for optimum code quality. follow the procedures given below. and the features of µvision project manager. Select New µvision Project from Project menu.

Vikasha Electronics To create a new project µvision asks you to select a CPU for your project and click yes to add Startup Code to your project. .

In the options for target menu -> Linker enable the Use Memory Layout from Target Dialog. the project window will appear as shown below.Vikasha Electronics After adding source code to your project. .

. choose crystal value as 12 MHz and Operating system as None.Vikasha Electronics In Target option.

Rebuild all target files. Build Target. Vikasha Electronics Testing programs Translate the current file (compile). It also discusses the varies features of Simulation Mode. enter the Name of Executable file and choose the path to store the file.In Output option. Also enable Create HEX file option and click OK. This explains the Debug Mode of µvision and shows you how to use the user interface to test a sample program. .

PINSEL0 = 0x00000000.h> #include<lcd.h> main( ) { volatile unsigned long temp. Depending on the Options for Target – Debug configuration. The µVision simulator traps and reports illegal memory accesses To start the debug mode of µVision with the Debug – Start/Stop Debug Session command. µVision will load the application program and run the startup code. Note: Copy all the header files from arm7\basic programs\header files of CD-ROM and paste it in the following path C:\Keil\ARM\INC\Philips.The µVision Debugger simulates up to 4GB (Giga Bytes) of memory from which areas can be mapped for read. unsigned int val = 0. Start Debug Mode Application Program Execution For further details please refer. Vikasha Electronics CODING OF 8 Channels ADC :#include<lpc214x. the help option in Keil µVision. write. unsigned char ch = 0. . or code execution access.h> #include<uart.

case 3: temp = AD1DR3. uart_num(val). } } } .0). break. break.ch++) { switch(ch) { case 0: temp = AD1DR0. val = val & 0x03FF. break. uart_tx_st(" Output:"). case 5: temp = AD1DR5. delay(1000). break. break. break. PINSEL0 |= 0xCF333000. uart_tx_ch(0x0A). displaynum(ch. display("Digtal val:". PINSEL1 |= 0x00001800. display("Channel:".ch<8. case 6: temp = AD1DR6.0. } val = temp >> 6. break. case 2: temp = AD1DR2. uart_tx_st("ADC '1' Channel:").1). delay(1000). break. case 7: temp = AD1DR7. while(1) { for(ch=0. delay(25).1). serial_init( ). displaynum(val. uart_tx_ch(0x0D).PINSEL1 = 0x00000000.10.12.0. case 1: temp = AD1DR1. case 4: temp = AD1DR4. lcd_init( ). AD1CR = 0x002109FF. uart_num(ch).0).

IOCLR0 = 0xFFFFFFFF.h> #include<lcd. lcd_cmd(0x38). temp =(long) ch << 16. } void lcd_cmd(char ch) { long temp. . // Cursor ON lcd_cmd(0x06).17-low. //PORT 0 P0.16-P1.17->RS=1.23 data lines IOSET1 = temp. IODIR0 = 0x00060000. temp =(long) ch << 16. //PORT 1 P1. IOCLR0 = 0x00040000. // Cursor move to right lcd_cmd(0x01).18->EN=1 IODIR1 = 0x00FF0000. // 8 bits LCD 2x16 Initialize command lcd_cmd(0x38).18->EN=1 IODIR1 = 0x00FF0000. P0.**______________________________________________________________________ ______** CODING OF LCD :#include<lpc21xx.16-P1. P0. P0.23 data lines lcd_cmd(0x38). IOSET0 = 0x00040000. IOCLR1 = 0x00FF0000. lcd_cmd(0x0c). // Clear the LCD delay(5).18-high to low pulse delay(10).17->RS=1. //PORT 0 P0. //PORT 1 P1. IOCLR0 = 0xFFFFFFFF.h> void lcd_init( ) { IODIR0 = 0x00060000. //PORT 0 P0. } void lcd_data(char ch) { long temp. return.

char y) // display string data . row { char in.cursor position columun . delay(10).P0.IOSET1 = temp.18-high to low pulse void display(char *str.y). gotoxy(x. } void gotoxy(char xx.i<7000.char yy) { char adr. IOCLR0 = 0x00040000.17-low. if(yy==0) adr=0x80. xx = xx & 0x0f.char x. lcd_cmd(adr). while(d) { for(i=0. } void lcd_clr(void) { lcd_cmd(0x01). adr = adr| xx. IOSET0 = 0x00060000. return. } //PORT 0 P0. for(in=0. // columun .in++) // display until NULL character lcd_data(str[in]). row // 1st row // 2nd row // separate low bits // add with row of the lower bits // LCD command for row and column // clear the LCD // delay routine form 1ms . IOCLR1 = 0x00FF0000.str[in] != '###BOT_TEXT###'. return. } void delay(int d) { int i. else adr=0xc0.i++).

gotoxy(x. } else i=0. // recursion function of number separate and display the number return. i=1. // position of columun and row in[3]=(unsigned char)(no%10). in[2]=(unsigned char)(no%10). i. void serial_init(void) { // serial calling function initialization .d--. no=no/10.char y) // display number and columun and row { unsigned char in[4]. for(.i++) lcd_data(in[i]+0x30). no=no/10. if(in[0] == 0) // space for 0th array { lcd_data(' '). in[0]=(unsigned char)(no%10).y). } } void displaynum(int no. in[1]=(unsigned char)(no%10).h> unsigned char i.h> #include<uart. } **______________________________________________________________________ ______** CODING OF UART ://program for serial communication #include<lpc21xx. // seperate the 4 digit value no=no/10.i <4.char x.

} void uart_tx_st(unsigned char *data) { for(i=0. U0LCR = 0x03.0 and p0. pin U0FCR = 0X07.i++) { uart_tx_ch(in[i]+0x30). // seperate the 4 digit value no=no/10. U0LCR = 0x83. i=1. U0DLL = 0x61. U0THR = temp. } // p0. . for(.i++) uart_tx_ch(data[i]). in[1]=(unsigned char)(no%10).i<4. } else i=0. if(in[0] == 0) // space for 0th array { uart_tx_ch(' '). in[3]=(unsigned char)(no%10).PINSEL0 |= 0x00000005.2 act as a serial txd and rxd // enable transmitter and receiver and buffer // set the size of serial buffer as 8bits // set the lower byte data latch register // also the lower bts // size of serial buffer is 8 // transmit character function // wait till char to be transmitted // load the char to transmit hold register // transmit a string function // wait till transmit upto reach null char // transmit a single char void uart_num(unsigned int no) // display number and columun and row { unsigned char in[4]. no=no/10. U0DLM = 0x00. // recursion function of no separate and display the no. no=no/10. in[2]=(unsigned char)(no%10). in[0]=(unsigned char)(no%10). } void uart_tx_ch(unsigned char temp) { while (!(U0LSR & 0x20)).data[i]!='###BOT_TEXT###'.

. 2. 1. Open the Hyper Terminal windows using the given below details. // hold the received output in received buffer register } **______________________________________________________________________ ______** Output: Now create the hex file and download it to the target board. Connect 8 Channel ADC Interface Add-on card to ARM7 LPC2148 Kit in 50 pin FRC connector. } int getkey (void) /* Read character from Serial Port */ { while (!(U0LSR & 0x01)).   (or) C:\Program Files\Windows NT Vikasha Electronics Open the Hyper terminal window and give any name to your connection.return. // wait to get response from gsm modem return (U0RBR).

. NOTE : (Close any other application which using serial port like flash programming utility). and set the port settings as shown below.Choose the COM port as per the connection.

Data Acqusition through serial port to PC viewing in hyper terminal window. 5. 4. Verify the voltage using banana connector of each channel(AD1. In the ARM7 LPC2148 Kit Change the toggle switch (SW1) position to Run Mode and Press Reset. Storage data by click Edit in menu bar then click select all and Paste in notepad save the file.7) vs GND ground by Multimeter. voltage range vary from 0 to + 3. DC MOTOR INTERFACE .3V and ADC Value vary from 0 to 1023 as it a 10 bit resolution.0 to AD1.3.

GUINDY.VI. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE.KA.com INTRODUCTION: .AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO. THIRU.600 032. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl. BLOCK II.34. CHENNAI . III FLOOR.

CONNECTOR DETAILS . The transistorized amplifier stage drives a mosfet for switching the supply voltage applied to the DC motor. The PWM pulse is taken through an output port pin (PA0). which contributes to the change in the speed of the DC motor. which act as the buffer stage. The opto isolated pulse drives a NPN-PNP complementary transistor stage. The PWM pulse is fed to a transistorized inverter (Q5) the collector of the transistor is connected to 4050 gates.The DC Motor control interface consists of a buffer amplifier. when the motor switches ON. The output pulse from the buffer is further opto isolated using the opto isolator (MCT 2E). The output of the transistor stage is connected to the gate of the mosfet (Q4). This helps in preventing false triggering the microprocessor unit. a pulse width modulated pulse by software programming. The microprocessor kit generates. The experiment can be conducted to obtain change in the speed of the motor by changing the delay in the software program and simultaneously. with one of its ports defined as the output port. The PWM pulse is obtained through an 8255 peripheral interface IC. measuring the pulse width of the generated pulse. Depending on the pulse width (it can vary between10 % to 90%) the average DC voltage applied to the DC motor varies. and the final stage consists of a transistorized pulse amplifier. opto isolator.

DETAILS 17 18 20 22 24 RESET GND PA7 PA6 PA5 2. DETAILS 1 2 3 4 + 5V GND GND + 12V 3. 6 PIN MOLEX: PIN NO.1. 4 PIN RMC: PIN NO. DETAILS 1 2 3 4 5 6 A A B B + 12V + 12V I/O address for 8255 (bottom 26 pin connector) . 26 PIN FRC CONNECTOR: PIN NO.

01 OUT 20 CALL 9017 MVI A. 01 ADD B NOP NOP NOP DCR A JNZ 901A RET MVI A. DELAY OFF Program . DELAY ON 900A CD 17 90 900D 3E 00 900F D3 20 9011 9014 9017 9019 CD 22 90 C3 04 90 3E 01 80 901A 00 901B 00 901C 00 901D 3D 901E C2 1A 90 9021 9022 9024 9025 9026 9027 9028 9029 C9 3E 64 90 00 00 00 3D C2 25 90 . 80 OUT 23 MVI A. 00 OUT 20 CALL 9022 JMP 9004 MVI A. DELAY OFF . DELAY ON COUNT (01 TO FF) . 7F MVI A.Port A Port B Port C Cntrl Reg - 20 21 22 23 PROGRAM FOR 8085:9000 9002 9004 9006 9008 3E 80 D3 23 3E 7F 3E 01 D3 20 MVI A. 64 SUB B NOP NOP NOP DCR A JNZ 9025 .

(3019) . 0FF26h MOV AL. High delay count (01 to ff) . (3017) 300B EE 300C E8 08 00 300F B0 00 3011 3012 3015 3017 3019 EE E8 0C 00 EB EF B4 20 90 301A 90 301B 90 301C FE CC 301E 75 F9 3020 3021 3023 3024 3025 3027 3029 C3 B0 01 90 90 FE C8 75 FA C3 . 20h loop1: NOP NOP NOP DEC AH JNZ loop1 RET delaylow: MOV AL. 01H loop2: NOP NOP DEC AL JNZ loop2 RET . AL CALL delaylow JMP loop0 delayhigh: MOV AH.902C C9 RET PROGRAM FOR 8086: 3000 3003 3005 3006 3008 BA 26 FF B0 80 EE B0 01 BA 20 FF MOV DX. AL loop0: MOV AL. (3023) . (3021) . 00H OUT DX. 01h MOV DX. AL CALL delayhigh MOV AL. 80h OUT DX. 0FF20h OUT DX.

PROGRAM FOR 8051:
8500 8502 8505 8506 delay 8508 74 01 MOV A, # 01 MOV DPTR, # 4000 MOVX @DPTR, A LCALL 851A MOV A, # 00 MOVX @DPTR, A LCALL 8524 LJMP 8506 ; DELAY OFF ; LOOP ; DELAY ON 74 80 90 40 03 F0 79 50 LOOP: MOV A, # 80 MOV DPTR, # 4003 MOVX@DPTR, A MOV R1, # 7f ;user can change the ;control port of 8255

850A 90 40 00 850D F0 850E 12 85 1A 8511 8513 8514 8517 74 00 F0 12 85 24 02 85 06

DELAY ON:
851A 74 00 851C 29 851D 00 851E 00 851F 00 8520 8521 8523 14 70 FA 22 MOV A, # 00 ADD A, R1 NOP NOP NOP DEC A JNZ 851D RET

DELAY OFF:
8524 8526 8527 74 64 99 00 MOV A, #64 SUBB A, R1 NOP

8528 8529

00 00

NOP NOP DEC A JNZ 8527 RET

852A 14 852B 70 FA 852D 22

DC VOLTAGE REGULATION USING SCR

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX,

THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

Aim: To study Control scheme of DC voltage regulation Power circuit of DC voltage regulation Test the circuits

Theory: In the bridge circuit, diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and commutated simultaneously. Here, natural commutation is used. AC voltage is applied across the SCRs. commutation occurs. When the voltage across the SCR goes below zero, natural

During the positive half-cycle, SCR1 and SCR4 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, then there will be current through P – SCR1 – RL – SCR4 – N.

During the negative half-cycle of the a.c. input, SCR3 and SCR2 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, there will be current through N – SCR3 – RL – SCR2 – P. SCR1 and SCR4 are triggered at same firing angle in each positive half cycle. SCR3 and SCR2 are triggered at the same firing angle in each negative half-cycles of the supply voltages. The output power is phase controlled DC waveform. The output values are π+α Vdc = 1/π α Idc = Vdc/ R = (2Em/ π R) ( cos α) ∫ Em sin θ dθ = (2Em/π) (cos α)

Idc and Vrms can be verified Control Scheme: Since the output power is controlled by phase control of the ac waveform. 30 S duration appears at the outputs Q1 (Pin 14) and Q2 (Pin 15).Vrms = (Em/√2 ) = Erms After the experiment. Similarly. phase control IC TCA 785 is used in this experiment. a signal is processed to the logic. This synchronization register controls a ramp generator. the phase angle is changed. In this IC. the primary of another 1:1 pulse . For every half wave. It has 1:1 pulse transformer. pulses with duration between  and 180 will result. Inside the IC. the capacitor C10 of which is charged by a constant current (determined by R9).C. the potentiometer is provided. Dependent on the magnitude of the control voltage V11. In the experiment board. Functional description: IC 785 is a 16 pin IC. If pin 12 is connected to ground. One input of the comparator is ramp voltage generated. a positive pulse of approx. A zero voltage detector evaluates the zero passages and transfers them to the synchronization register. The primary of 1:1 pulse transformer is connected to the trigger output of positive half cycle. theoretical values of Vdc. there is one comparator. voltage. If the ramp voltage V10 exceeds the control voltage V11 (triggering angle). Another input is DC control voltage. There are 2 windings. The trigger circuit consists of pulse transformer at the output. The outputs of the trigger circuits are connected to the pair of SCRs. By varying the control voltage. The triggering pulse for the positive cycle and negative cycle are taken out. The outputs Q1 is given to trigger circuit 1 and the output Q2 is given to the trigger circuit 2. to vary the control signal. the synchronization signal is obtained via a high ohmic resistance from the supply A. the triggering angle  can be shifted within a phase angle of 0 to 180. One winding is connected as primary and other one windings are used as secondary to trigger both SCRs at a time. The secondary are named as P1 and P2. which is obtained in Pin 11 making use of external Potentiometer. Varying the resistance R9 can control the slope of the ramp.

The secondary is named as N1. The following 4 pages gives the details of IC TCA 785 .transformer is connected to the trigger output of negative half cycle.

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NK2. 16. Connect the PG1 terminal to the PG1 terminal. Connect the AMMETER at the (0-500mA) terminals for measure the load current.PK3. 17. 19.PG3.NG2. 12. 18. Gradually vary the phase angle and note down the output voltage. Switch ON the module and 15V AC input voltage.NK4 and NG4 terminals to the corresponding terminals.PROCEDURE: 11. Set the phase angle at 30 degree using potentiometer. 13. 20. 15. 14. Connect the VOLTMETER across the Vdc output terminal for measure the output DC voltage. Similarly connect the PK1 . Measure the trigger pulse across the PG1 and PK1 terminals and measure the DC output voltage waveform at the Vdc terminals. . Connect the (0-15V) Ac voltage input to the rectifier circuit. Ensure that the kit is in OFF condition.

LDR MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OPERATION MANUAL .

III FLOOR. e. BLOCK II. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. thereby lowering resistance.600 032. .KA. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE.AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO. CHENNAI . GUINDY.g. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor.34. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency. photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band.com INTRODUCTION: A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity.VI. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity. THIRU.

street lights. and added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band. since the electrons do not have as far to jump. and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap.silicon. Applications Photoresistors come in many different types. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best farinfrared detectors available.e. lower energy photons (i. They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction. also called dopants. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities). longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device.. Extrinsic devices have impurities. Lead sulfide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for the mid infrared spectral region. BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: LDR ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE LIGHT . This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters. and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy. and outdoor clocks. there will be extra electrons available for conduction. clock radios. alarms.

Connect the + 5v power supply to signal conditioning circuit. PROCEDURE: 1. . 2. Place the multimeter probe across the Analog O/P and its corresponding ground (GND).Connection Diagram for LDR 8085 MicroProcessor kit LDR Module POWER SUPPLY +5 V GND -5 V sw 9 pin Connector ADC CARD + ADC I/P GND 5V +5 V GND -5 V Analog O/P signal condition for LDR GND LAB EXPERIMENT AIM: To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the resistance depend on light measuring voltage unit and thereby to study LDR functionality.

the resistance value of LDR is measured through multimeter. Now.3. By using the regulator. we calculated the output by a resistance value versus analog output. 4. By switch ‘OFF’ the signal conditioning circuit. the corresponding analog output will be displayed. 6. the Light intensity is varied in the LDR module. Connect the LDR module to the signal conditioning circuit and switch ‘ON’ the LDR module. 5. TABULATION: Intensity (In V) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 0 100 230 0 1 2 0 80 FF DISPLACEMENT SYSTEM USING LVDT MEASUREMENT OPERATION MANUAL .

THIRU. one of the secondary voltage will increase. III FLOOR.com DESCRIPTION: An LVDT displacement transducer consists of one primary coil and two secondary coils arranged symmetrically to form a hollow cylinder.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl. BLOCK II.KA.AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO. the output voltage magnitude can be made . If the core is displaced from null position. and the other will decrease causing a net difference in output to appear in the secondary terminals.34. The two secondary terminals are connected in series opposition giving zero output when the magnetic core is in null position. The primary coil is excited by an AC carrier signal of 1 to 5Khz.600 032. With proper design. If the magnetic core which moves axially is in the centre of null position both secondary windings have equal output. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. CHENNAI .VI. GUINDY.

and higher output signal. less hysterisis. high resolution. less friction. BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: LVDT ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE DISPLACEMENT Connection Diagram for LVDT 8085 MicroProcessor kit 9 pin Connector LVDT Module 9 pin Connector +12 V -12 V GND ADC CARD + ADC I/P GND 5V signal condition for LVDT Analog O/P GND EX I/P Transducer O/P LAB EXPERIMENT AIM: . Phase of the output will indicate the direction of the displacement from the null position. DISADVANTAGES OF LVDT: The disadvantages are its sensitive to stray magnetic fields.proportional to the displacement of the core from the null position. vibrations. temperature and its limited dynamic response. ADVANTAGES OF LVDT: The advantages of LVDT are better linearity. low power consumption and ruggedness. (within the specified range).

To get linearity response.card. TABULATION: Displacement (In mm) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 20 10 0 0 1 2 0 80 FF PRESSURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OPERATION MANUAL AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION . Measure the voltages at the amplifier output and draw the graph.

GUINDY. CHENNAI .34. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. III FLOOR.com BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: PRESSURE SENSOR ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE PRESSURE TABULATION: Pressure (In bar) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 0 2 4 0 1 2 0 80 FF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT .KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE. THIRU.600 032. BLOCK II.VI. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.

SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. III FLOOR.34.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE.USING RTD OPERATION MANUAL AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO. GUINDY.600 032.VI. THIRU. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl. CHENNAI . BLOCK II.com INTRODUCTION: .KA.

a metal sheath encloses the RTD element and the lead wires connected to it. accuracy. RTDs are commonly categorized by their nominal resistance at 0 °C. A more common configuration is the thin-film element. Thin-film elements are cheaper and more widely available because they can achieve higher nominal resistances with less platinum. Wire-wound RTDs are constructed by winding a thin wire into a coil. Typical elements used for RTDs include nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu). RTDs are popular because of their excellent stability. but platinum (Pt) is by far the most common because of its wide temperature range.Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) operate on the principle of changes in electrical resistance of pure metals and are characterized by a linear positive change in resistance with temperature. RTDs are constructed by one of two different manufacturing configurations. they can be prone to self-heating. The relationship between resistance and temperature is very nearly linear and follows the equation For <0 °C RT = R0 [ 1 + aT + bT2 +cT3 (T . b. and because they require current excitation. and c are constants used to scale the RTD . and stability. because of the careful construction and use of platinum. and exhibit the most linear signal with respect to temperature of any electronic temperature sensor. To protect the RTD.100) ] (Equation 1) For >0 °C RT = R0 [ 1 + aT + bT2 ] Where RT = resistance at temperature T R0 = nominal resistance a. however. They are generally more expensive than alternatives. RTDs are also characterized by a slow response time and low sensitivity. which consists of a very thin layer of metal laid out on a plastic or ceramic substrate. Typical nominal resistance values for platinum thin-film RTDs include 100 Ω and 1000 Ω.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: RTD ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE TEMPERATURE Connection Diagram for RTD 8085 MicroProcessor kit RTD Module POWER SUPPLY +5 V GND -5 V sw 9 pin Connector ADC CARD + ADC I/P GND 5V +5 V GND -5 V Analog O/P signal condition for RTD GND LAB EXPERIMENT AIM: To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) measuring unit and to study its linearity in terms of temperature. Resistance temperature detector is one type of sensors. When the bulb is switched “ON”. PROCEDURE: An application module (RTD) is provided to determine its characteristics 1. 2. A bulb fitted in an enclosure is used for changing the temperature inside the enclosure. it’s inside temperature starts . A PT 100 RTD is used for measuring the temperature. Temperature measurement can be made with various types of sensors.

13. TABULATION: Temperature (In Celcius) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 0 50 100 0 1 2 0 80 FF SEQUENTIAL TIMER TRAINER KIT . Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both zero degree and 100 degrees.

but in sequence. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX.KA. GUINDY. INTRODUCTION A timer is a specialized type of clock.BLOCKII. not simultaneously. then dried. Whereas a stop watch counts upward from 0 to 2000. another event starts. It can be used to control the sequence of an event or process.34.VI. In many applications. varying events are taking place. the clothes are washed.CHENNAI . a timer starting counting set down from a specified time interval.VIKASHA ELECTRONICS PVT(MADRAS)LTD. after a set time. bleached. when one event is completed. for measuring elapsed time. . As an example. in process control. These events take place in predetermined time intervals and in sequence. EXPERIMENTS Aim To study the sequential timer and switch OFF & ON three control outputs subsequently. NO. in textile unit.600 032. THIRU.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE.III FLOOR. again washed in water.

. a free running clock. The binary output form the counter can be used with combinational logic signal to read the DIP switches. are actuated. to provide different preset time intervals actuating different elevates. The clock is fed to a counter IC 7217.and there are all in fixed sequence. In a three stage sequential timer. heater. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION: An electronic sequential timer is used for such applications. with combinational logic. depending on the requirements. to fulfill these requirements or a single timer. There will be either more than one time. and fed to the counter IC 7217. initially the display is blank. different types of elements like motors. etc. . (-1 second pulse) using IC 555 is generated. the timing intervals (3 for the three processes) can be set. In the 3 stage sequential timer. three timing intervals can be set and three different elements can be switched ON or OFF. During these events. STOP switches are provided to control the clock using IC 4093. using DIP switches.

clock is fed to counter IC 7217 and the counter starts decrementing from the set value. the first stage output is activated. the counter starts decrementing and it is displayed. Accordingly. For every clock pulse. The second stage. simulates to the first one. . the ‘loaded value’ is displayed. the sequence repeats for the third stage. The selection i s done by binary counter IC 4518 and the digital bidirectional switch IC 4066. The same pulse is fed to IC 4066 (bidirectional switches). with the sequence of events. to display the set value from the DIP switches. selects the corresponding output circuit using combinational logic. When the value reaches zero.The binary output is used as the address for selecting the display (LED digits). It is indicated by the corresponding LED. It is used for stopping the clock signal. Simultaneously. a pulse from ‘ZERO’ output charges the state of counter IC 4518. Once the sequence is completed. the DIP switches output are also selected. ‘RESET’ switch has to be pressed to clean the date and ‘START’ switch has to be pressed. a ‘STOP’ pulse is generated from the third stage. to initiate the sequence. At the end of the second stage timing. is also initiated. An additional ‘STOP’ switch is also provided to manually control the 3 stage sequences to repeat the process. When a start button is pressed. (IC 4093). The same address from a parallel counter IC 4518.

2. 4.PROCEDURE: 1. . 5. Similarly load the second and third timer values using second and third switch. 6. the first timer output terminal will turn to high level and LED glows. When the first counter value has reached zero. Similarly the third counter will work and turn ON the third output after the corresponding value gets loaded in the counter. Switch on the timer module. Set the timer clock at the minimum frequency at the 3. The second output will turn ON when counter value reaches zero. Press the start button. Simultaneously next value gets loaded in the counter and starts decrementing the value at specified time interval. Select the first timer value using the first thumb wheel switch. now the timer starts counting and simultaneously the display shows the decremented values. 7.

com BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: . BLOCK II.KA.34. III FLOOR. THIRU. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl. GUINDY.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE. CHENNAI . SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX.VI.STRAIN GAUGE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OPERATION MANUAL AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.600 032.

STRAIN GAUGE ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE WEIGHT TABULATION: Weight (In grams) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 0 200 400 0 1 2 0 80 FF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING THERMOCOUPLE OPERATION MANUAL AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION .

THIRU. SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX. an electric current will flow round the circuit.KA. III FLOOR.34. Seeback arranged 35 metals in order of their thermoelectric properties. BLOCK II. CHENNAI .VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.600 032. The thermo couple is used as a primary transducer for measurement of temperature.VI. converting temperature changes directly into emf.com INTRODUCTION: A thermocouple is a thermo electric device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy. The current flows across the hot junction from the former to the latter metal of the following series: . THERMOELECTRIC PHENOMENA: If two wires of different metals A and B are joined together to form two junctions and if the two junctions are at different temperatures. GUINDY.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE. Telephone Office: 044 – 2250 1972 Fax: 044 – 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl. This is the seeback effect.

Much experimentation with thermocouple circuits has led to the formulation of the following empirical laws which are fundamental to the accurate measurement of temperature by thermoelectric means: (1) the algebraic sum of the thermoelectric emf’s generated in any given circuit containing any number of dissimilar homogeneous metals is a function only of the temperatures . the thermal emf and hence the current produced is proportional to the temperature difference existing between the junctions. When two wires of different materials are joined together at either end. a thermoelectromotive force (emf) is generated causing a current to flow around the circuit. The amount of voltage change per degree of temperature change of the junction varies with the kind of metals making the junction. forming two junctions which are maintained at different temperatures. chromel-alumel”. The seeback emf depends on the difference in the temperatures of the two junctions. K type thermocouple is a combination of two metals namely. an emf will appear across the open circuit. Over a limited range of temperature. then the current flows from copper to iron at the hot junction and from iron to copper at the cold (reference) junction as shown in Fig 1 (a).Bi---Ni---Co---Pd--U---Cu---Mn---Ti---Hg---Pb--Sn---Cr---Mo---Ph---Ir---Au---Ag--Zn---W---Cd---Fe---As---Sb---Te--- If metal A is of copper and meta B of iron. If copper wire is cut.

and (ii) if all but one of the junctions in such a circuit are maintained at some reference temperature. A cold junction compensation circuit with a semiconductor sensor is used to measure the ambient temperature. The temperature of the measuring junction can be determined from the thermo emf only if the absolute temperature of the reference junction is known.of the junctions. the emf generated depends only upon the temperature of that junction and can be used as a measure of temperature. which is the reference temperature in our circuit. BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT: THERMO COUPLE ANALOG OUT ADC µPROCESSOR UNIT DIGITAL VALUE TEMPERATURE Connection Diagram for Thermocouple 8085 MicroProcessor kit Thermocouple Module POWER SUPPLY +5 V GND -5 V sw 9 pin Connector ADC CARD + ADC I/P GND 5V +5 V GND -5 V Analog O/P signal condition for Thermocouple GND LAB EXPERIMENT .

Switch “ON” the bulb. The temperature to be displayed is the ambient temperature. A TC sensor is fixed in the enclosure to measure the inside temperature.type) measuring unit and there by to study its linearity in terms of temperature. When the temperature reaches 80 degrees.AIM: To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the Thermocouple Temperature sensor (J . CALIBERATION OF THE INSTRUMENT 15. At one stage the analog voltage 0. . When the bulb is switched “ON”. Use the “offset” potentiometer to set the initial analog output voltage (0. 6.5 to 2. Thermocouple output signal is amplified and applied to an analog to digital converter. The temperature inside the enclosure starts increasing.0 represents the temperature 30 degree to 80 degree.0voltage. A bulb fitted in an enclosure is used for changing the temperature inside the enclosure. Provision is also made to change the gain in amplifier stage using a “gain” potentiometer.5) at the ambient temperature. adjust the “gain” potentiometer and set the analog output at 2. Please note that the amplifier offset changes from negative to positive when the “offset pot” is rotated in clockwise direction. Thermocouple temperature sensor is one type of sensors. PROCEDURE: An application module (J type TC) is provided to determine its characteristics 4. Temperature measurement can be made with various types of sensors. (both in negative and positive direction) using a “offset” potentiometer. 5. Provision is made for changing the offset of the amplifier stage. keep the bulb in “OFF” condition. 14. Repeat steps 5 and 6 a few times. 16. its inside temperature starts increasing from the ambient temperature. Initially. 17. A thermometer is also provided to measure the temperature in degrees centigrade. A K type thermocouple is used for measuring the temperature.

096 mV for 100 degrees.18. Connect a milli volt source instead of thermocouple. 19. If a milli volt source is available. the instrument can be calibrated instead of TC and bulb set up. Adjust the offset Measuring temperature with Thermocouples: Type Alloy of +ve wire Platinum 30% Rhodium (70% Pt . The graph provides the linearity of the given TC sensor 20. Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both zero degree and 100 degrees. Draw the graph of temperature versus voltage levels.30% Rh) Alloy of -ve wire Platinum 6% Rhodium (94% Pt . Feed 4. note down the voltage levels of the various stages of the amplifier sections from ambient to hundred degrees centigrade. potentiometer. Adjust the gain potentiometer to read display of 100 degrees. feed zero milli-volt. to display zero degrees centigrade. To determine the linearity of the given TC for every 5 degrees increase in temperature.6% Rh) Temperature Range 0 to 1700 Deg C 32 to 3100 Deg F B . As per TC table. 21. for zero degree calibration. 22.

10% Cr) (75% W .3% Re) Chromel (55% Cu .13% Rh) Platinum 10% Rhodium (90% Pt .25% Re) Constantan (90% Ni .C Tungsten 5% Rhenium Tungsten 26% Rhenium (74% W .45% Ni) Tungsten (100% W) Iron (100% Fe) Chromel (90% Ni .45% Ni) TABULATION: Temperature (In Celcius) Analog Out (In V) Digital Value (In HEX) 0 50 100 0 1 2 0 80 FF .26% Re) Constantan (55% Cu .2% Al) Nisil (Ni-Si-Mg) Platinum (100% Pt) 0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F 0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F -200 to 900 Deg C -330 to 2280 Deg F 0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F 0 to 750 Deg C 32 to 1380 Deg F 500 to 1250 Deg C -330 to 2280 Deg F -270 to 1350 Deg C -450 to 2370 Deg F 0 to 1450 Deg C 32 to 2640 Deg F 0 to 1450 Deg C 32 to 2640 Deg F -500 to 350 Deg C -330 to 660 Deg F D E G J K N Nicrosil (Ni-Cr-Si) Platinum 13% Rhodium (87% Pt .26% Re) (95% W .10% Cr) Tungsten 26% Rhenium (74% W .2% Mn .5% Re) Tungsten 3% Rhenium Tungsten 25% Rhenium (97% W .45% Ni) Alumel (96% Ni .10% Rh) Copper (100% Cu) R S Platinum (100% Pt) T Constantan (55% Cu .