# CHAPTER- 1

:
INTRODUCTION TO DYNAMICS
Mechanics as the origin of Dynamics:
Mechanics is defined as that science which describe and predicts the conditions of rest or
motion of bodies under the action of forces. It is the foundation of most engineering sciences. It can
be divided and subdivided as below:

(i) Newtonian Mechanics
(Engineering Mechancis)

(ii) Relativistic Mechanics
(It deals with the conditions
involving seed of bodies

close to the speed of light )

(a) Mechancis of rigid bodies

Statics

Dynamics

Kinematics

(b) Mechanics of deformable bodies

(iii) Quantum Mechanics
(It deals with the conditions
involving extremely small
mass and size ie atomic distance)

(c) Mechanics of fluids

Mechanics of Compressible
fluids

Mechanics of
Incompressible fluids

Kinetics

Dynamics:
It is which of Newtonian Mechanics which deals with the forces and their effects, while
acting upon the bodies in motion. When we talk about the motion of the planets in our solar system,
motion of a space craft, the acceleration of an automobile, the motion of a charged particle in an
electric field, swinging of a pendulum, we are talking about Dynamics.
Kinematics:
It is that branch of Dynamics which deals with the displacement of a particles or rigid body
over time with out reference to the forces that cause or change the motion. It is concerned with the
position, velocity and acceleration of moving bodies as functions of time.
Kinetics:
It is that branch of Dynamics which deals with the motion of a particle or rigid body, with
the reference to the forces and other factor that cause or influence the motion. For the study of
motion Newton’s Second Law is widely used.

Chapter:- 2
Determination of motion of particles:
• In general motion of particles (position, velocity and acceleration ) is expressed in terms of
function as,
2 3
X = f(x) , [ x = 6t +t ]
* But in practice the relation of motion may be defined by any other equation with function of x, v,&
t.
a = f(t)
a = f(x)
a = f(v) etc.
so these given relation are integrated to get the general relation of motion x = f(t) .
2

3

Case-I: When acceleration is given as function of time [i.e a = f(t) ] [ a = 6t +t ]
We know,
a = dv/dt
or, dv = f(t) dt
Now integrating both sides taking limit as time varies from 0 to t and velocity varies form vo to v.
v
v o

t
0

dv =

t
o

v − vo =

v = vo +

f (t)dt

f (t)dt
t
o

f (t)dt .......(i)

Again, velocity is given by,
V = dx/dt dx = vdt
Again integration both sides of equation similarly form time 0 to t and position xo to
x. We get,
t

dx =
x – xo =

x=x +
o

0
tv
¢

o

o

t

+

0

v

0

vdt

o

t

x
x

0

f (t)dt dt Putting value of V form equation (i)

t

+

f (t)dt dt .........(ii)

0

Thus position is obtained from equation of a = f(t)
# Find the velocity and position of a particles after its 5 sec from Rest, which moves with equation of
2
a = 6t -4t.
Solution:
2
Given equation a = f(t) a = 6t – 4t
xo = 0 , vo = 0 and t =
5. We know,
5

t

V0 =

o

t

f (t)dt =

o

5

f (t)dt =

0 (6t

2

− 4t)dt =

6t 3
3

[

3

v = 2t − 2t
Again,

]

2 5
0

4t

2
0

2

= 200 m / s

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -2

t

t

X = xo + v o +

0

f (t)dt dt

0

t
0

=0+

5
0

[0 + 200]dt =

200dt = [200t]0

5

= 100 m
Therefore, x = 100m and v = 200m/s after 5 second of motion.
2

Case-II When the acceleration is a given function of position [ i.e a = f(x) eg. x +4x]
We know,
a = dv/dt = dv/dx . dx/dt = v.dv/dx
or, vdv = adx
a = f(x)]

or, vdv = f(x)dx [

Now , Integrating both sides of above equation , taking limit as velocity varies from Vo to v as
position p varies form xo to x.
v

i.e

x

vdv =

vo

v2

or,

f (x)dx

xo

v0

2

x

=

v=

x

xo

0

f (x)dx

f (x)dx

x
0

0

1
2

x

+2

v

2

=

2

2
2

v 2v
¤

t

f (x)dx

x

.......(1)

0

Again We know,
V = dx/dt dx = vdt.
Integrating both sides with limits as time varies from 0 to t and position from xo to x . i.e
¤

x
x o

t

dx = o vdt ........(1)
Putting value of v varies from equation (1) we get,
+2

2

v

x – xo =

1
2

x

f (x)dx dt

x

0

o

1
2

t
2

x=x +
0

v
0

x

+2

o

x

f (x)dx dt

£

0

2

Case III : When acceleration is a given function of velocity (i.e a =f(v) eg. a = v +v)
We know, a = v dv/dx
f(v) = v dv/dx
Or , dx = v dv/f(v)
Integrating both sides taking limit as velocity varies form vo to v and position varies from xo to x
dv
dv
x − x0
x
v
v
dx = v
=
v
¤

¤

x0

v0

f (v)

v0

f (v)

dv
f (v)
0
2
e.g The acceleration of a particle is defined as a = -0.0125v , the particle is given as initial velocity
v0, find the distance traveled before its velocity drops to half.
Solution:
2
Given, a = -0.0125v i.e a = f(v) ,
Initial velocity vo, final velocity vo/2
For motion a = f(v) xo = 0, x = ?
x = x0 +

v

v

v

v
v

x = xo +

dv
f (v)

v

0

v0

x=

v
−1
− 0.0125v 2 dv = 0.0125

2
v
0

v0

[ln v] 2

1

=−

=−

v0

0.0125

v0

2
v
0

1
v dv

ln v0
2v0
0.0125
1

Or, x = 24.08 m ans.
2.2 Uniform Rectilinear motion:
* Uniform motion means covering equal distance over equal intervals of time. ie velocity = constant.
We have,
V = dx/dt = v [ v = constant velocity of body]
x
x 0

¤

dx = udt

dx =

t
0

vdt [ Integrating both sides under limits as position varies from xo to x and time 0 to t]

x – xo = vt
x = xo +vt
Change in position (or displacement) is equal to uniform velocity x change in time [ i.e s = vt]

2.3 Uniform Accelerated Rectilinear motion:
If constant acceleration be ‘a’ then,
dv/dt = a = constant

Integrating both sides with limit v0 to v and 0 to t
. We get,
0

t
0

dv = a

dt

¡

v
v

v − v0 = at

v = v0 + at ........ (1)
Again for position , we have
v = dx/dt …..(2) from 1 and 2.
dx = (vo +at) dt ,
Integrating both sides over the limits
x
x 0

t
0

(v 0 + dt)at x − x0 = v0t +
1 2
1 2
at x = x0 + v0t + 2 at
2
Also, a = v

¤

dx =

dv

dx

xo = Initial position

Or, vdv = adx

Integrating both sides under limits
v
v 0

1
2 (v
x0

)

x

vdv = a

2

2

x
2

− v0

0

dx

)= a( x −

x = Final position v0
= Initial velocity. v
= Final velocity 0 =
Initial time
t = Final time

2

v = v0 + 2a( x − x0 )

2.4 Motion of several particles:
Two or more particles moving in straight line.
Equations of motion may be written for each particles as:

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -4

(a) Relative motion of two particles
(b) Dependent motion.
(a) Relative motion of two particles:
Consider two particles A and B moving along the same straight line as follows:
A

B

xA

[x

x

x

x

]

A

B/A = B -

B/A

xB

Position co-ordinates of A = xA
Position co-ordinates of B = xB
Relative position co-ordinate of B w.r.t A = xB-xA = xB/A
xB = xA+xA/B ………(1) [ + xB/A
B is right to A in position ] [
B is left to B in position ]
-xB/A

Differentiating equation (1) w.r.t time we get,
VB = VA+VB/A ------(2) [ VA , VB
absolute velocity of pt. A and B]
[VB/A velocity of B observed from pt. A]
Differentiating equation (2) w.r.t time we
get, aB = aA +aB/A ………… (3)
[ aB , aA
absolute velocity of pt A and B and aB/A acceleration of pt B w.r.t pt A. ]
(b) Dependent Motion:
When the position of a particles will dependent upon the position of another or several other particles, the
motions are said to be dependent. eg :- pulley systems, Gear system etc.
Pulley system as Dependent motion:
Consider the pulleys system in which the position of Block ‘B’ depends upon the position of Block A as
follows:
From Figure:
IH = Constant
G

H

JB = Constant
Arc CD = Constant
Arc EF = Constant
AC+DE+FG = Constant
Now,

xA

D

C

D’
xB

E

J F

A XA = AC +IH = AC + Constant ………. (i)

XB = FG +JB = FG + Constant ………….(ii)
B
Multiplying equation (ii) by 2 and Adding to
(ii) we get,
XA +2xB = AC+2FG+ Constant
= AC + FG+FG +Constant
= AC +FG+DE+D’G+ constant [ Since FG = DE+D’G]
=AC+FG+DE+ Constant [ Since D’G = Constant ]

xA+2xB = Constant ……..(iv) [ AC+DE+FG = Constant ]
If A block ‘A’ is given xA motion it will produce xB = (- xA/2) as the motion of Block B.

Differentiating equation (iv) w.r.t time , we get,
VA+2VB = 0 , ………(v)
Or, VB = -(VA/2)
Similarly differentiating equation (v) w.r.t time we get,
AA +2aB = 0 ………(vi)
Or, aB = - (aA/2) [ Negative sign denotes opposite in direction ]
* In this case displacement, velocity and acceleration of one body gives the displacement, velocity and
acceleration of other body. This arrangement is called 1-degree freedom .
# Derive the equation of motion of the given pulley system.
Solution:
2xA +2xB +xc = Constant ……….(1)
2vA +2vB +vc = 0 …………..(2)
2aA +2aB +ac = 0 ………….(3)

xA

G

I

M

N o
xC

D

E F

x

B

C
J

K

L

A

B

2.6 Graphical solution of Rectilinear motion problems:
* Graphical solution are very helpful to simply and solve the problems of Dynamics.
* Using the motion graphs (i.e x –t , v-t and a-t ) the missing value at any point can be obtained .
* If any on equation of motion is known all the three graphs can be obtained as follows.
If equation of displacement x = f(t) ……..(i) is known,
Then , V = dx/dt …….(ii)
a = dv/dt …….(ii)
i.e velocity is slope of x-t curve and acceleration is slope of v-t curve.
x

V

a

x= f(t)
Sloe
= dx/dt = a1

V1

x
1

a= f(t)

a

V= f(t)

1

Sloe
= dx/dt = v1

t
t1

t
t1

t
t1

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -6

If x-t curve is given, then computing slope at each point of x -t curve corresponding v-t curve can be generated
and computing slope at each point of v-t curve a-t curve can be generated.
Again,
From equation (ii)
dx = vdt
t2

dx =

x1

vdt
t1

¤

x2

=

x −x
2

t2

1

vdt ...........(iv)

t1

And from equation (iii) ,
t2

dv =

v1

¤

v2

v −v =
2

t2

t1

...........(v)

1
t1

This means change in position in given by the area under curve v-t and change in velocity is given by
area under the curve a-dt.
a

V

a1

x

V2

t2

V 1

vdt = x2 - x1 x
1
t1
t

t

x2

t

t
t1

t2

t1

1

t2

Tutorial Examples:
3

t ˆ
)
r
1) The motion of a particles is defined by the position vector r = 6ti + 4t j + 4 k where r in meter and t in

second. At the instant when t = 3 sec, find the unit position vector, velocity and acceleration.
Solution:
3
t ˆ
r
)

We have , r = 6ti + 4t j + 4 k
ˆ
ˆ
r

27 ˆ

At time t = 3 sec. r =18i + 36 j+ 4

r=

r
r

= (18

) 2 + (36 ) 2

27 2
+

k

= 40.81m

4
Now unit position vector at t = 3 sec.

ˆ

ˆ=

¤

r

ˆ 27 ˆ
+ 36 j + 4 k
40.81

ˆ+

r

ˆ= r
r rr

ˆ+

= 18i

(0.44i

ˆ

0.88 j 0.165k

) Ans

Again,

r
r dr d
ˆ
v=
=
6ti + 4t
dt
dt
ˆ
ˆ 3 2ˆ
r
t
v = 6i + 8tj + 4 k

3

+

j

t
4

ˆ

k

At time t = 3 sec.

r

ˆ
=

v

6i

+ 24 j

ˆ 24 ˆ
4
+

k

1

r
Velocity (v) =

2
=

v

24

2
+ 24

6

22

+

= 25.64 m / s

7

r

V = 25.64 m/s

dv

r

d ˆ

Again, acceleratio n (a )=

=

dt
ˆ 3 ˆ
r
a = 8 j + 2 tk
r

At t = 3 sec ,

a

ˆ
=8j

ˆ
+

6i

dt

8tj +

3
4

2
t

k

ˆ
+ 4.5k

[

2

Acceleration, (a) = ar = 8 + (4.5)

2

]

1
2

= 9.18 m / s

2

Ans

2) A ball is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 9.15m/s. After 1s another ball is thrown with the
same velocity. Find the height at which the two ball pass each other?
Solution:
Let the initial velocity of both balls
V01 = v02 = vo = 9.15 m/s
h be the height at which two balls pass each other t1 be the time elapsed by the first ball before passing second
and t2 be the time elapsed by second.
From the given condition:
t1 – t2 = 1 ……..(i)
st
2
for 1 ball , n = v0t1 – ½ 9t1 ……..(ii)
2
nd
For 2 ball n = v0t2 – ½ 9t2 ………(iii)
Substituting equation (iii) form equation (ii) , we get,

1
2
2
9(t 1 − t 2 )= v0 (t 1 −t2 )
2
1 9( t
+ t 2 )(t 2 − t 1 ) = v 0 (t 1 −t 2
1
2
(t 1 + t2 2v0 2 ×9.15

¤

)=

9 =

)

=1.865
9.81

(t 1 + t2 )=1.865 ...........(iv)
Adding equation (i) and (ii) , we get t1 = 1.43 sec and t2 = 0.43 sec
h = v0t1 −

1
2
2 9t1 =

3.05m h = 3.05 m

Hence , two balls pass each other at 3.05m above the ground.
2

3) In the following pulley system, Block 2 has velocity 2m/s upward and its acceleration is 3m/s downward
2
while block 3 has velocity and acceleration 2m/s up ward and 4m/s downward respectively. Find the
velocity
and
acceleration
of
block
1.

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -8

Solution:
Given, V2 = 2m/s ( )
2

a2 = 3m/s ( )
v3 = 2m/s ( )
2
a3 = 4m/s ( )
E

Here ,
AB +CF = constant
GI +HJ = Constant
DE = Constant
Portion of rope around the pulley is also constant.
Now,
X1 = AB + constant ……..(i)
X2 = GI +CF+ constant …….(ii)
X3 = HJ+CF+ Constant ……(iii)
Multiplying equation (i) by (2) and adding
(i), (ii) and (iii) , we get
2x1 +x2+x3 = 2AB+CF+CF+GI+HJ+Const.

x1

C

B

x2
A
1
x3
G
I

2x1+x2+x3 = const. ………..(iv)

2
J

Differentiating equation (iv) w.r.t time.
2v1+v2+v3 = 0 ………(v)
2a1+a2+a3 = 0 ……..(vi)

3

From equation ‘v’

v1 = −

v2 − v3
2

=

−2 −2
2 = −2 m / s

Therefore, velocity of block 1 (v1) = 2 m/s
( ) From equation (vi)

a1 =

− a2 − a3
2

=

F H

+3 +4
2
2 = 3.5 m / s
2

Therefore, acceleration of block 1 (a1) = 3.5 m/s ( )

Chapter – 3
Curvilinear Motion of Particles
3.1

Position vector, Velocity and Acceleration:
When a particle moves along a curve path other than a straight line, it is said to be in
curvilinear motion. Vector analysis is used to analyze the change in position and direction of motion
of particles.
Y

Y

Y

r
p

p
s
r

r

p

r

r

r
O

t
s

r

p

p

s

r

(a)

X

O

r

(b)

o

X

(c)

X

Let, at time ‘t’ the position vector of particle be r and at another time (t + t) the particle takes a new
position p' and its position be r !. Then r represents the change in directoin as well as magnitude of
the position vector r . (fig. a) The average velocity of the particles at time interval
t= r
t

( in magnitude and direction of r )
r =d r
dt
t

Instantaneous Velocity, v = lim
t 0

g

As r and t becomes shorter, P & P gets closer and v is tangent to the path of the particle. (fig c)
And, As t decreases, length of PP ( r ) equals to length of arc s (fig b)
= lim PP = lim s
t
t
t 0
t 0

= ds
dt

Y

V

Change in position ( r ) can be resolved into two components,
i One parallel to x-axis and ( PP )
ii Other parallel to y-axis ( P P
r = PP

p
r

)

Y

Y
+PP

¡

or, lim r = lim PP + lim P P
t t 0 t
t
t 0
t 0

p

P

v

y

v

y

O
x

x

v
P vx
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -10
O
X

X

or, = lim x ˆ
t
t 0

i + lim

dx ˆ

=
or, = vx i

or,

0

t

dy ˆ

i+

dt
ˆ

or,

j

t

dt j
ˆ

+ vy j

ˆ

ˆ

= xi + yj

Then,
2

vy2

V = vx +
tan =

vy

= tan

Positive Value of vx
[Magnitude of Velocity]

vx

−1 vy

vx

Right Direction

Positive Value of vy

Upward Direction

vx =

dx

dt = x ;vy =

dy

dt = y

[Direction of Velocity]

g

Similarly, acceleration by curvilinear motion can be computed as:
Y

Y

Y
Q

v

vy

s
r

r

v

v

v

Q
r
O

q
ay

Q

v

ax

v

(a)

O

X

(b)

X

O

If v and v be the velocities at time ‘t’ 4
(t + t) i.e. tangents at P and
acceleration of the particle over the timer interval is given by
t(a) =

q

q

x

(c)

P , then the average

v
t

or, a = lim v = d v
dt
t
t 0
¡£

Again, v can be resolved into QQ
v = QQ

&Q Q

parallel to x & y-axes respectively. Then,

+QQ

or, lim v = lim QQ + lim Q Q
t t 0
t
t t 0
t 0
v

or, a = lim
+ lim vy ˆ
t
t
t 0
t 0
dvx ˆ dvy ˆ
or dt i + dt j
ˆ
ˆ
or, ax i + ay j
ˆ ˆ
or, a = xi + yj
2
or, a = (ax )2 + (ay )
acceleration in magnitude
i

j

ax =

X

dv x

dt
dvy
ay =
dt
f

ax

= tan

3.2

=

−1

(ay ax )

Derivatives of a vector function:
Y

tan

ay

in direction

Y
dp
du
p

O

(a)

X

O

(b)

X

2

p=f(u)=2u

+4u+3

Let, P(u) be a vector function of scalar variable u. If value of ‘u’ is varied, ‘ P ’ will trace a
curve in space. Considering change of vector P corresponding to the values u 4 ( u + u) as shown in
figure(a). Then
p = p(u + u) − p(u)

As u

0,

p
= lim
u
u 0

p(u + u) − p(u)

£

dp
= lim
du
u 0

i.e.

u

- (1)
dp
is tangent to the curve as shown in
du

p becomes tangent to the curve. Thus

figure(b).
Again,
Considering the sum of two vector functions p(u) &Q(u) of the same scalar variable u. Then
the derivative of the vector (P + Q) is given by:
d
(P + Q)
{P)
(P + Q) = lim
= lim
+
du
u
u
u 0
u 0
d (P + Q) = d P + dQ
d
u
du du

{Q)
u

=lim
u

u

+ lim
u

0

Q
u

- (2)

Again, product of scalar function f(u) and pf a vector function
Then, derivative of f P is given by:

(

0

P

P(u) of the same scalar variable u.

)

df .p = lim ( f + f ) P + P − f P
u 0
du
u
f
P
P+f
= lim
u
u
u 0
df
P
df
dP
du = du P + f du

- (3)

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -12

Similarly, scalar product and vector product of two vector functions P(u) and Q(u) may be
obtained as:
d

dP

dQ
du (P.Q) = du .Q + P. du

- (4) [Scalar Product]

d (P ×Q) = d P ×Q + P × d Q
du
du
du

- (5) [Vector Product]

Again,
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
P = Px i + Py j + Pz k - (6)
ˆˆ ˆ
where, Px , Py & Pz are the rectangular scalar components of vector P & i , j, k are the unit vector.
dP
du

dPy

dP ˆ

=

x

du ×i + du

ˆ dPy

×j

ˆ

+ du

×k -

(7) [where, P = f (u)]

g
And,

dP

dPy

dP ˆ
x

3.3

ˆ dPy

dt ×i + dt × j +

dt =

ˆ -

(8) [where, P = f (t)]

dt × k

Rectangular Components of Velocity and Acceleration:
When, the position of a particle is defined by at any instant by its rectangular co-ordinates x, y,

z as:

ˆ
&ˆ &ˆ &

r = xi

-

+ yj + zk

(i)

Then, differentiating both sides w.r.t. time, we get,

ˆ

d r &&ˆ && &&ˆ
= dt = xi + yj + zk
where,
x& = vx , y& = vy & z& = vz
&x&= ax , &y& = ay & &z&= az
So,
ˆ

ˆ

V = vx i + vy j+ vz k

ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
a = ax i + ay j + az k

¡
g

ˆ

V = (v

2

2
x

2
(ax

a=

2

+v +v )
y

2

z

2

+ a y + az )

Y
vy

v
x
v

z

v

o

X

Z

When the motion in each axis can be represented independent with each other then the use of
rectangular components to describe the position, velocity and acceleration of a particle is effective
i.e. motion in each axis can be considered separately.
For e.g. for projectile motion, neglecting air resistance, the components of acceleration
are: ax = 0 and ay = −g
or, vx = 0 and vy = −g

a
y

or, dvx = 0 and dy = −gdt
On Integrating both sides under the limits,
vx
v

x o

dvx = 0

vx

dy = −g t dt

y

vyo

−v

=0

x

vx

v

and

vy

=v

and

or, x = vxo

d
x
or,
dt

vy
&

and

xo

&

−v
yo
=v

=−gt

yo

= −gt − (v)

yo

− gt

y = vyo − gt

=v
xo

x

0

and

o

a

dy

and

=v

dt

dy = vyo dt − gtdt
or, dx = vxo dt and
Integrating both sides under limits considering motion starts from origin by co-ordinates i.e. x at t=0
; x=0 ; y=0 and at t=t0, x=x0 and y=y0
0

x0

dx = vx0

0

t

dt

y
0

and

o

dy = vy0

0

t

dt − g

0

t

tdt

2
= v t − 1 gt − (vi)
y0
x0
0
0
2
Thus motion under projectile can be represented by 2-independent rectilinear motion.

x =v t

and y

Y
uyo

Vxo

Xo

Vxo

Vx

V

O

X
uy

yo

Problems:
1. A bullet is fired upward at an angle of 30° to the horizontal from point P on a
hill and it strkies a target which is 80m lower than the level of projection as
shown in figure. The initial velocity of the bullet is 100m/s. Calculate:
a. The maximum height to which the bullet will rise above the
horizontal.
b. The actual velocity with which it will strike the target
Vo= 100m/s

c. The total time required for the flight of the bullet.
Solution:
V0 =100m / s

A

nmax

P
B

V
x =V0 cos 30 = 86.60m / s
V
0

y0

Hill

= V0 sin 30 = 50m / s
80m
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -14

V 2 sin

h =
a)

2

30 =127.42

0

max

hmax

2g
=127.42m ( Ans)

g

b) Let, V1y =vertical component of velocity at highest point A = 0
V2 y = vertical component of velocity striking target
H = vertical distance between point A and target = 127.42+80 = 207.42m

Then, V

2

−V 2 = 2gH

[V

2y

1y

or,

= 0]

1y

V2 y = 63.79m / s

f

V =V = V
2x

g

&

V2 =

1x

x0

V22x

= tan

= 86.60m / s [Vx0 = cons tan t]
=107.55m / s (Ans)

+V22y

V
−1 zy

= 36.37°

V
h = (Vy )0 t2 −

1

2 ×9.8

×t22 or, 4.905t22 − 50t2 −80
=0

xy

c)

or, −80 = 50 ×t2 −

1

Solving,
2
2 gt2

xv = t2 =11.60sec (Ans)

Vo=AA

Total time of flight is the sum of time to
reach B from A & to C from B
T=t1+t2
2
2V sin
V sin
0
t1=
& PB=Range=
g
g

nmax
P

B
80m

0

2) The motion of a vibrating particle is defined by the equation x=100sin t and y=25cos2 t , where
x & y are expanded in mm & t in sec.
a) Determine the velocity and acceleration when t=15
b) Show that the path of the particle is parabolic.
Solution:
a) We have,
f

x=100sin t

Vx = x& =100 cos t
2

ax = &x&= −100

f

t Again, y=25cos2 t

sin

Vy = y& = −50 sin 2 t

ay = &y& = −100

Then, for t=2sec,
Vx = [100 cos ×1]:Vy = [−50

2

2

cos 2 t

×1]

sin

V = V = Vx2 +Vy2

2

2

= (100 cos t) + (−50sin 2 )
V =100 mm / s

= tan

−1

V
(

y

)=0

Vx

And, For t=1sec
ax = [(−100

2

sin ]:ay = −100

2

2

×1 a = a = ax + ay =100
= tan

−1

2

2

cos 2
2

mm / s

ay

(
)=
270° ax
b) Since, x=100sin t
x = sin t

100
x )2 = sin 2 t
100

(

− (i)

Again, y = 25cos 2 t

+1 = 2 cos

or,

25
y + 25 = cos2 t
50

¥

2
or, y = 2 cos t −1
25
y
2

t

− (ii)

Adding equations (i) and (ii), we get ;

x2
10000

+

y + 25
= sin 2 t + cos 2 t =1
50

2

or, x + 200 y + 5000 =10000
2
2
or, x + 200 y + 5000, which is the equation of parabola = [ax + by = c]
3) The motion of a particle is given by the relation Vx=2cost & Vy=sint. It is known that initially
both x & y co-ordinates are zero. Determine
a) Total acceleration at the instant of 25
b) Equation of the parabola
a) Here, Vx=2 cost & Vy =sint
Then, ax=

dvx
= −2sin t
dt

dvy
and, ay = dt = cos t
ˆ
ˆ
a = ax i + ay j
ˆ
ˆ
a = −2sin t i + cos t j
or, y = −cos t +1
( y −1)2 = cos2
t
− (ii)

At t=2sec
ax=-2sinz=-1.82
ay=cos2=-0.42
2

= ax + ay

2

a

−1

= tan

=1.865m / s

2

y

a

=193°

x

For

t

=

¤

¤

Adding (i) and (ii ), x2 4 + ( y −1)2 =1
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -16 or,
2
2

x + 4 y −8y = 0, which is the required equation of parabola

2
sec

ˆ

ˆ

a = −2sin 2i + cos 2i

ˆ

[where, 2is in
ˆ

radian] Qa = −1.82i − 0.42 j
= Total acceleration
(−1.82)2 + (−0.42)2 =1.865m / s2

=

= tan −1 ay = tan −1
ax
dx

¤

b) Vx = 2 cos t
or, x = 2sin t

− 0.42
=193°( Ans)

−1.82
= 2 cos t

=

x
0

dx = 2

t
0

cos
dt

dt

x2
or,
= sin 2 t − (i)
4
y
t
Again, Vy = dy = sin t
0 dy = 0 sin tdt
dx
3.4
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation:
Let A and B be the particles moving is a same plane with rA & rB be their position with respect to
XY axis.
Considering New axes (X'-Y') centered at ‘A’ and parallel to original axes X-Y, the motion of
particle ‘B’ can be defined with respect to motion of particle ‘A’ such that:
From vector triangle OAB
r =r +r
where,
B
A
B/A
− (i)
• XA,YA & XB & YB are co-ordinates of A &
and similarly,
B w.r.t. XY axes
=X +X
X
B
A
B/A
• XB/A, YB/A are co-ordinates of ‘B’ .r.t. X'-Y' axis
- (ii)
YB = YA +Y B / A
Differentiating equ(i) w.r.t. time, we get:

¡

VB = VA +VB − (iii)
In scalar form:
&
&
&
X

Y

=X

B

&
B

=Y

&

+X

=V

(B)

Y

- (iv)

Equation of motion in y - axis

+V

( A)x

( A)
y

Equation of motion in x - axis

&

OR

( B )x

Equation of motion in both x and y axes

X

B/A

B +Y B / A

=V

V
V

A

r

where,
& &

( B / A)x

+V

X ,Y
A
&A &

( B / A)
y

y

X

,Y

B

&

B

are X & Y components of V
A

are X & Y componens of V

&

B

X B / A Y B / A are X & Y components of V B / A
Again,
differentiating (iii) with respect to time, we get:

a =a +a
B

A

B/A

aB =

(a Bx )2 + (aBy )2

a
= tan−1 By
a

− (v)

In scalar,

Bx

X

&&

&&
B

=X

&&

Y

A+X

&&

B

=Y

3.4

B/A

( B) x

OR

( B) y

B/A

+a

( A) x

=a

a

&&

A +Y

=a

a

&&

( B / A) x

+a
( A) y

- (vi)

( B / A) y

Tangential and Normal Components:
The velocity of particle is vector tangent to the path of particle. But acceleration may not be
tangent in curvilinear motion.
The acceleration vector may be resolved into two components perpendicular with each other
in directions
i First component along the tangent of path of particle (at)
ii Second component along the normal of path of particle (an)
Let eˆt and eˆn be the unit vectors directed along the tangent and normal of the path and
respectively. Then, in curvilinear motion, eˆt eˆn would change the direction as particle
moves from one point to another.
y

y

et=dr
ds

r/ s
p’
r

r

p

p
x

o

x

(a)

(b)

o

From fig (a)

[

r = r' − r & lim

r= s

]

s 0

Then, eˆt = lim r
s
s 0
eˆt =

dr
ds

g

Again, ˆ =
s

dr
ds
− (i)

lim

et

=

0

r=
s

s=
s

1

[lim

r = s

]

s 0

d r

Therefore, eˆt = ds is the unit vector along the tangetn to path.
Let, be the radius of curvature of the path at the point P and eˆt & eˆt ' be the tangent unit vectors at
P and P'. eˆt be the change in unit vector while the particle moves from P to P'.

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -18

y

ex
y
p’

e’

a =at et + an en

et

r

x
e’

o
en

ex

at

t
=dVe

dt

p
p
x

o

(b)

(a)

o

(c)

x

Now, from fig,
s = PP'=
eˆt = eˆt ' − eˆt

s

t

0

¤

Similarly,
d
1
an
d

=

deˆ

¤

eˆn = lim

eˆt =
eˆn =

eˆn

[As

s

0 eˆt = eˆn

1 in magnitude]

− (ii)

t

d

deˆ t

(iii)
= eˆn

d
ds
Also,
V = ds = lim s = lim
=
dt
t
t 0 t
t 0
d
V=
− (iv)
=
dt

d
dt

V=

dr

d r ds = eˆ v = veˆ
.
t
t
ds dt
ˆ
− (v)
=

dt

[V =

]

Vet

And,
a = d v = d (Veˆ ) = dv eˆ + v deˆt = dv eˆ + v deˆt . d . ds
dt
dt dt
dt t
dt t
d ds dt
t
1
&
or, a = V eˆt +V (eˆn )( )
&
or,

a

= Veˆt

V2
+

− (vi)

eˆn

which can be represented as in fig(c).
a = at eˆt + an eˆn , where
dv &
at = Tangential component of acceleration = dt = v
V2
&2
an =Normal component of acceleration =
=
Notes:
For increasing velocity at will be in the direction of velocity and fx decreasing velocity at will
be in opposite to the direction of velocity.
If the speed is constant at=0 but an 0. [an=0 fx Recti =
an is always directed towards the centre of curvature
3.6

]

For higher velocity and smaller radius higher is an.
Radial and Transverse Components:

For the motion described by polar co-ordinates.
Position of particles P is defined by the co-ordinates r & , where r is the length and

is the angle in radians.

The unit vectors in radial and transverse direction are denoted by eˆr and eˆ respectively along radius and 90° clockwise to the radius in
¤

direction. fig (a)

y

y

eo

e

er
e

r’
r = rer

eo

P(r, )

er
r
x

x

(b)

(a)

vectors er , & e

As the particle moves from P to P'. The unit

change to eˆ'r & eˆ' by

er and e respectively.
Here,
deˆr d
=

ˆ

ˆ
de

de

¢

=

=

d

is in direction of eˆ

- - - - - (i) direction of

dt

¢

&

d
.

d

d
dt

d
ˆ

&

de

= −eˆr - - - - - (ii)

direction of

¡

dt

& deˆr
= eˆ

.

¡

=

¢

deˆr

¢

&
eˆr

is in direction of - eˆr

d

Now,
r = reˆr

ˆ

e

¢

¢

rer

]

r

dt

eˆ + r
r

]

=ˆ&

&

- (iii)

deˆr
&
dt = r&eˆr + reˆr

dr

ˆ

[er

e

¢

= &ˆ + &
r

[V

(reˆ ) =

¢

dr
d
Then, V = dt = dt

which can expressed as
V =Vr eˆr +V eˆ ,

where
Vr &
&
V = Transverse component of velocity = r
= Radial component of velocity = r

And,
Similarly,

&&

¥

¦

ˆ

§

re

e

ˆ

&
&

¢

)e 

¢

¢

(

ˆ

2
&&
a (r= && − r )e & ˆ + r 2r +
¢

r

¢

&

ˆ

¢

[

re

¦

&

re r

]

er

[e

r

& =ˆ &
e

= &r&eˆr + r&eˆr + r& eˆ + r eˆ + r eˆ
= &&ˆ + & + & + r && − r & 2 ˆ

& = −ˆ
ˆ
&e

er

&&

¨

)

&

¢

£

&

]
&
¢

&
= dv = d &ˆ +
dt (rer r e
a dt

(v)

which can be represented as,
a = ar eˆr + a eˆ
where,
&
ar &= Radial component of acceleration = (r − r
&
&

2

&

) 

&&

(

)

and, a = Transverse component of acceleration = r + 2r
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -20

In case of a particle moving along a circular path with its centre at the origin O, we
have r=constant
& =0 &
&& = 0
Then,
&
ˆ
=

v r e
(vi)
&2
&&
a = −r
eˆ + r

− (vii)
or, r

r

¤

r

¤

Problems:

3 ˆ

1) The motion of a particle is defined by the position vector, r = 3t i + 4t j + 5t k , where r is in m
and t is in sec. At instant when t=4 sec, find the normal and tangential component of acceleration and
the radius of curvature.
Solution, we have

4 ˆ
r = 3t i + 4t j + 5t k
3
ˆ
dr
ˆ
2 ˆ
V = dt = 6ti +12t j + 20t k

dv
ˆ
ˆ
2 ˆ
& a = dt = 6i + 24tj + 60t k
Again,
1

V = V = (36t +144t + 400t
2

4

[

a = a = 36 + (24t) + (60t
2

)

6

)

]

− (i)

2

1

2 2 2

− (ii)

Now,
At t = 4sec
V=1294.54m/s [putting t=4 in equ-(i)]
2

a=964.81m/s [putting t=4 in equ-(ii)]
Again,
Tangential component of acceleration,
1

dv d
2
4
6
at = dt = dt (36t +144t + 400t ) 2
1
1
3
5
= .
1 ×(72t + 576t + 2400t )
2
4
6
2 (36t +144t + 400t ) 2
2
At time t=4 sec, at=963.56m/s (Ans)
Now,

g

Again,

an = 49.1m / s

=

(964.81) 2 − (963.56)2

a2 − at2 =

an =

V

( Ans)

(1294.54)2

2

an

2

=

= 34131.03m ( Ans)

49.1

2. A car is traveling on a curved section of the road of radius 915m at the speed of 50km/hr. Brakes
are suddenly applied causing the car to slow down to the 32 km/hr after 6 sec. Calculate the
acceleration of the car immediately after the brake have been applied.

Solution: Given,
915m
50km/hr 13.88 m/sec

b
b

b

V0

b
b

V1 32km/hr 8.88 m/sec
At the instant when the brake is applied,

b

a

(13.88)2

2

b

n

915

V1 V0

b

¡
g b

t

t

0.210m / s 2

0.833m / s

2

an eˆn at eˆt

at

−1

tan

n

0.83)

2

0.21

¤

a

−1

(

0.856m / s 

(0.21)

0.83

14.2

c

tan

¤

a a

0.833eˆt
2

§ ¦

¥ ¥
£
b

a 0.210eˆn

¥

¢

a

V

b

a

2

( Ans)

( Ans)

¨

3/4

3. The plane curvilinear motion of the particle is defined in polar co-ordinates by r=t

+3t and

2

=0.5t where r is in m, is in radian and t is in second. At the instant when t=4 sec, determine the
magnitude of velocity, acceleration and radius of curvature of the path.
Solution: We have,
3t 2

r

4 3t
2
Again,
0.5t
Now, we have

r

&&
4 3
&&

r

¥ 
¥ 
b f  
f 
eˆ 

&

1

2

3t

4 

r

t

3t / 2

t

3eˆ r

3 



¥
b  

v r&eˆ r

&

3t teˆ

4 

& 

t3

(i) 

Again, at t = 4 sec

&&

(r

&

2r

& ˆ
)e

3
2 

!
4

eˆ r 

3t t

t
4

2 3t
3t

1 

" 

3
t

( Ans)

2

4 

¢

b 

2

)e r

¢

3
t

r

¢

(r

¢

g
a

& ˆ

¢

b b

2

&&

133m / s2

3t

eˆ 

(15 ) 2 (112)2

¢

b

v

¤

¢

Again,

v

112eˆ

b

v 15eˆr

At t = 4 sec,

a

(

2

442)

' & b

Again, from equ(i) [for

(

\$#

a

21
(148) 2

2

b

442eˆr 148eˆ

%

a

466.12m / s

( Ans)

]

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -22

1
22

2
3t 2
v=

+3

=

v

t4
+

4

2

+ 3t

4

1
dv d t 6 33t 4 27t 2
2
Qat = dt = dt 16 + 16 + 2 + 9
Qa =

1
2

1

×

4
2
33t
27t
+9
16 + 16 + 2
t

6

1
2

×

3t

5
+
8

33t

3
+ 27t

4

At t = 4 sec,

at =16.055m / s

2
1

[

2

2

] [(466.12)

Qan = a − (a t ) 2 =
an = 465.84m / s

1

2

− (16.005)

2

]

2

¤
2

=

v2
a

¨

n

=

(113)2 = 27.41m
465.84

Hence, Radius of curvature = 27.41m (Ans)

Chapter – 4
KINETICS OF PARTICLES
NEWTONS SECOND LAW
4.1

Newton’s Second Law of Motion:
Newton has given his understanding of motion of particles and their causes and effects in 3
laws.
The first and third law of motion deals with the bodies at rest or moving with uniform velocity
i.e. without any acceleration.
For the bodies under the motion with acceleration the analysis of motion and forces producing
it is done by the application of Newton’s Second Law.
nd

Statement of Newton’s 2 Law:
“If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle will have an acceleration
proportional to the magnitude of the resultant and in the direction of this resultant force.
2
a

2
1

F

a
1

2

F

a

F2

If F1, F2 , F3 , etc be the resultant forces of different magnitude and direction acting on the particle.
Each time the particle moves in the direction of the force acting on it and if a1 , a2 , a3 , etc be the
magnitude of the accelerations produced by the resultant forces. Then,

F

F2

a1 ,

a2 ,

F3

g

F1

a3

........ etc

F1 = F2 = 3 = .......... = constant = mass of particle (m)
a1 a2 a3
So, when a particle of mass ‘m’ is acted upon by a force F and acceleation a, they must satisfy the
relation,
F = ma

− (i)

[where direction of F & a are same]

ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
i.e. Fxi + Fy j + Fzk = m(axi + ay j + azk )
which is Newton’s Second Law.
When a particle is subjected simultaneously to several forces equation(i) is modified as:
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
F = ma
j + az k )
i.e. (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k )= m(ax i + ay
where,

F = sum of resultant of all forces acting.

F , F , F ,
ax , ay , az are x, y and z component of the forces and acceleration acting on
the particle respectively.
Notes:
(i) When the resultant force is zero, the acceleration of the particle is zero.
x

y

(ii) When V0=0 and

z

F = 0 , Then particle would remain at rest.

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -24

F = 0 , Then particle would move with constant velocity, V along the

(iii)When V0=V and
straight line.

st

(iv) All the above cases defines the first law, hence the Newton’s 1 Law of Motion is a particular
case of Newton’s 2
4.2

nd

Law of Motion.

Linear Momentum and Rate of Change [Impulse Momentum Theorem}:

From Newton’s 2
or, F = m

nd

Law, F = ma

d v
dt

d
(mv) − (i )
dt
Multiplying both sides by dt and integrating under the limits, we get:
F=

Fdt =

v 2
v 1

dmv

f

g

t 2
t1

I1−2 = mv2 − mv1

− (ii)

Improper Path Function
The term

t 2
t1

Fdt is called the impulse ( I ) of the force during time interval (t2-t1) whereas mv is

the linear momentum vector of the
particle. So, equation (ii) states that
“ The impulse ( I ) over the time interval (t2-t1) equal the change in linear momentum of a
particle during that interval.” [Impulse Momentum Theorem]
The impulse of force is known even when the force itself may not be known.
Again, from equatin(ii)
mv2 = mv1 + I 1−2

− (iii)

( ) of the particle may be obtained by adding vectorically its initial

i.e. Final momentum mv2

momentum mv1 and the impulse of the force F during the time interval considered.
Or, showing in vector form.
mV 2

I1-2

I1-2

mV1
mV1

When several forces act on a particle, the impulse produced by each of the forces should be
considered.
i.e. mv1 +
where,

I 1− 2 = mv2 − (iv)
I 1−2 =

t 2
t1

(

)

F dt =

t 2
t1

(F1 + F2 + F3 .....)dt =

t 2
t1

F1dt +

t 2
t1

F2 dt +.....

F2

a

F

m

1

F2
=0

F1

m

m

F1

(ma)rev

4.3

System of Unit:
Units of measurement should be consistent and one of the standards should be followed.
Generally 2 standard units are taken:
a) System de' International Unit (SI unit)
b) U.S. Customary Units (used by American Engineers)
SI Units:
SI stands for System de’ International. SI units are the world-wide standards for the measuring

system. SI units are fundamental or derived.
Fundamental and Derived Units:
Fundamental and Derived units are the SI units. Fundamental units are independent of any
other measuring units and are the basic units for all other system whereas Derived units are the units
which are expressed in terms of powers of one or more fundamental units.
Fundamental Units
Derived Units
Length = metre (m)
Velocity = L/T = m/s Acceleration
2

2

Mass = kilogram (kg)

= V/T = L/T = m/s Force = ma =

Time = second (s)

ML/T = kgm/s (N)

2

2

SI units are the absolute system of units and results are independent upon the location of
measurement.
US Customary Units:
This system is not absolute system of unit. They are gravitational system of units.
Base Units
length = foot(ft)
force = pound (lb)
time = second (s)
Conversion from US Customary Units to SI Units:
length : 1 ft = 0.3048 m
force : 1 lb = 4.448 N
mass : 1 slug = 14.59 kg
: 1 pound = 0.4536 kg
4.4

Equations of Motion and Dynamic Equilibrium
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -26

Considering a particle mass ‘m’ acted upon by several forces. Then from second law,
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
− (i)

f

F = ma

(

F = m ax i + ay j

+ az k

)

Using rectangular components, the equation of motions are
F

x

= max ,

F

y

= may ,

Fz = maz − (ii)

(i) and (ii) gives the equation of motion of particle under the force F
Fx = m&x&,

or,

Fy = m&y&,

Fz = m&z&

Integrating these equation as done in 3.3, the equation of motion can be obtained.
Again, the equation(i) may be expressed as
F − ma = 0
i.e., if we add vector − ma to the resultant force in opposite direction, the system comes under the
equilibrium state. This force ( − ma ) opposite to the resultant force is called Inertial Force or
Inertia Vector. This equilibrium state of a particle under the given forces and the inertia vector is
said to be dynamic equilibrium.
At the dynamic equilibrium,
Fx = 0,
Fy = 0 &
Fz = 0
Inertia vector measure the resistance that particles offer when we try to set them in motion or when
we try to change the condition of their motion.

• Angular Momentum and Rate of Change (Angular Momentum Theorem)
Statement
“The rate of change of angular momentum of the particle about any point at any instant is equal

( ) acting on that particle about the same point.”

to the moment of the force F

Let a particle of mass ‘m’ moving in the XY-plane and the linear momentum of the particle is
equal to the vector mv.

Y
mVy

mV

The moment about O of the vector mv. (linear

mVy

momentum) is called angular momentum of the particle

mVy
y

at that instant and is denoted by H 0

x

X

o

Now, mvx and mvy are components of mv. in x & y
direction.
Then, from definition,
(+
H0=x(mvy)-y(mvx)

Total momentum about a
point is sum of moment about
the point Varignon's Theorem

[

H

o

= m(xvy − yvx )

] − (i)

g

Differentiating equ(i) with respect to time, we

&
H

0

= m dt

d

(xvy − yvx )

Qx& = vx

&

v&x = ax

&

y& = vy
&
vy = ay

get:

= m(x&vy + xv&y − y&vx − yv&x )
= m(xay − yax )

&

H

= xmay − ymax

&

= xFy − yFx

&

H
O

= moment of Force about

g

QH

[H

&

= m0

] − (ii )

g

Thus, the rate of change of angular momentum of the particle about any point to any instant is equal

( )

to the moment of force F acting on that particle about the same point.
i.5
(a)

Equation of Motion
Rectilinear motion of particles:
If a particle of mass ‘m’ is moving in a straight line under the action of coplanar forces

F1 , F2 , F3 , etc Then the motion of particle can be written as
F1

F = ma

− (i), where

F = F1 + F2 + F3

For Rectilinear motion, motion is only along the single con
F m
i.e. ax=a & ay=0 2
Equ -(i) may be written as

ordinate,

F3

g

ma
p

Fx = max

- (ii)
m
Fy = 0
These are the equation of motion for the particle moving in the straight line.
(b)

Curvilinear motion of particles:
i Rectangular components
ii Tangential and Normal components
iii Radial and Transverse Components

i. Rectangular components
From Newton’s second law,
Fx = max
;
Fy = may
For Projectile motion, neglecting air resistance

Fx = max = 0

f

Fy = may = −w = −mg
mg
or, ay = −
= −g
m
ax = 0
(i)
ay = −g
These are the equations of motion.

f

Fx = 0

Fy

ax = 0
Fx = 0

¡

W

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -28

ii.

Tangential and Normal components:

From Newton’s 2

nd

Ft = mat

law,

FT

dv
= m dt
v 2

at = dV
Fn
an = V

Fn = man = m

F=

dt
2

m

F +

F

t

x

These are the equations of motion.
iii. Radial and Transverse components:
From Newton’s 2

nd

law,

Fr = mar = m(&r&− r
F = ma = m(r

F=

&&

F +
r

&2

+ 2r&

F = ma

)

&

F

a

Fr = mar

)`
m

¤

These are the equations of motion.
Note:
In case of Dynamic Equilibrium all the components of forces are balanced by Inertial Vector or
Inertia force. So, for dynamic equilibrium condition, the equation of motion becomes
Fr = max = 0

- (i)

Fy = may = 0

Ft = mat = 0

- (ii)

Fn = man = 0
Fr = mar = 0

- (iii)

F = ma = 0

i.6

Motion due to Central Force-Conservation of Angular Momentum

When the force F acting on a particle P is directed towards or away from the fixed point O, the
particle is said to be moving under a central force. The fixed point ‘O’ is called the center of force.
As shown in the figure, particle P moves along the curve path.
O = origin of co-ordinates
Now,
Fr = Radial component of force F
F = Transverse component of force F
For central motion F = 0
QF = r

&&

+ 2r&

&

=0

&&
&
2
+ 2rr& )= 0
r (r
&
d 2 &
or, dt (r
) = 0 d (r 2 )= 0
1

f

or,

Integrating both sides we get
2

&

r =constant=h - (i)
Now, if elementary section are swept in time ‘dt’ be dA
1
r.rd
2

QdA =

[

= S / R ; S =1 for d

0]

1 2
or, dA = 2 r d
2
2
or, dA = 1 r d = 1 r &
dt 2
dt 2

[Dividing both sides by dt]

dA

dt = Rate of change of sweeping Area or AreaVelocity ( A.V .)
& 1
1
Q A.V . = 2 r 2
= 2h
Here,

h = 2 A.V . − (ii)

Thus, when a particle moves under the central force, the areal velocity is constant. This is also called
Kepler’s Law
Again, Angular momenum = momentum of linear momentum about the fixed point.
H 0 = mv ×r
Now,

&

v =r

&

H 0 = mr
¤

¤

H 0 = mr

r
2&

− (iii)

or, H 0 = mh

[Qr 2

or, H 0 = 2m( A.V .)

&

=h

]

[Q h = 2 A.V .]
[sin ce, A.V . = cons tan t & m = cons tan t]

H 0 = cons tan t
Hence, when a particle is moving under a central force, Angular momentum is always conserved.

i.7 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation:
Statement:
Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force, which is directly
proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between their centers.
Y

Mathematically,

F

Mm

F=

o

d2

P

dA

GMm

− (i )

2

where, m and M are masses in kg

d is the distance in m
d
Also, G is the Universal Gravitation constant with its value
-11

2

rd
F
r

d

F

rP

2

6.673×10 Nm /kg and Z
F is the force of attraction between them.
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -30

X

For a body of mass ‘m’ located on or near the surface of earth, force exerted by
on a body equals to the weight of the body i.e. F = mg and d = R (radius of the

the earth
earth).

− (ii )

GMm

F = mg =
Qg =

R2

GM

R2

2

where, g is the acceleration due to gravity with its standard value 9.81 m/s at the sea level.
Since, earth is not perfectly spherical so the value of R is different and hence g varies according to the
variation of altitude and latitude.
i.8 Application in space mechanics:
Earth satellite and space vehicles are subjected only to the gravitational pull of the earth after crossing
the atmosphere. The gravitation force acts as a central force on them and hence their motions can be predicted
as follows:
From central force motion, r

&

2

= h − (i)

Trajectory of a particle under a central force:
Considering a particle P under central force F (i.e. directed towards center ‘O’) Then we have
Radial component of force,

&& &2
Fr = mar = m(r − r )= −F
And, Transverse component of force

− (i)

&

&

&&

− (ii)

+ 2r ) = 0

F = ma = m(r

From equ(ii) since m 0
&&

r

&

+ 2r

1 d

&

&

(r 2 ) =

¤

or, r dt
On integrating,
2

r

=0
0

&

− (iii)

= cons tan t = h
h
& d

¨

= dt

=

2

r

Again,
d

r = dt
&&
r

dr d

=
dr

dr

=

dt
2
&& = − h

d

2

dt
1

r

r2 d

¡

Putting values of

2

&

h

2

d

r

=

r

d

2 .

h dr

=

.

d

d 1

&

& d

&

=

h dr

= . = −h
dt r 2 d
d r

.

£

& dr

− (iv)
d 1

−h

d

d r

− (v)

r
& &r&in equ(i) we get

m=

1

h2 d 2
2

h
−r

2

r d r
Putting v = 1 , we get

2

= −F

4

r

r
2

2

−mh u

2

d u

2

2+

2

h u

= −F

d
2

d u

F
− (vi )
2 2
d
mh u
This is second order differential equation, which is the trajectory followd by the particle which is
2

+u=

moving under a central force F .
Note:
i.

F is directed towards ‘O’

ii.

Magnitude of F is +ve if F is actually towards O (i.e. attractive force)

iii.

F should be ‘-ve’ if F is directed away from O.

The trajectory of a particle under a central force is
2

d u

+u=

2

d
Again,

F=

F
2 2
mh u

− (ii )

GMm
2
r2 = GMmu

where,

− (iii )

M = mass of earth
m = mass of the space vehicle
r = distance from the centre of earth to the space vehicle, u =

1
r

From equ (ii) & (iii)
2

2

d u
GMmu
2 +u=
2 2
d
mh u

=

GM
2 = constant
h

−(iv)

GM

n

This equ (iv) is second order differential equation with constant co-efficient

. The general

2

h
solution of the differential equation is equal to the sum of the complementary i.e.
U = Uc+Up
wherem,
Uc = complementy solution i.e. for tangient condition
Up = particular solution i.e. for steady state condition

Uc = A sin + B cos
GM

Up =

h2

Again,
Uc = A sin + B cos = C (cos cos 0 + sin sin 0) = C cos( - 0)
U = C cos( −

0

)+

GM
h2

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -32

Now,
choosing 0 = 0 and U
we, get:

1

GM
r=
h2

=

+ c cos

Again, we have the
equation of conic
section,

1

r [i.e. inital line is axis of symmetry]

− (v )

l
r = l + e cos
1 = 1 + e cos
r l l

− (vi )

n

Comparing equ (v) & (vi), we get:
e = cl
c=e
l
Again,
¤

=

l

h

= ch

2

GM
¤

1

h

l=

GM

2

e>1

e>1

¨

which is eccentricity of the conic section.

e<1
e<1

e

GM
So, three cases may arise:
a) If e>1 (i.e. conic is a hyperbola)
ch

earth

2

GM
2
h
GM
b) If e=1 (i.e. conic is a parabola)
i.e.

ch

trajectory of motion

or, c >

2

ch

>1

2

satellite

GM
2
h
GM
c) If e<1 (i.e. conic is an ellipse)
i.e.

i.e.

=1

or, c =

<1

or, c <

GM

h2

GM
Special Cases:

When e=c=0 the length of radius vector is constant and the conic section reduces to circle.

At the last stage of launching satellite into orbit, it has the velocity parallel to the surface of the earth and the satellite
begins its free flight at the vertex ‘A’.

Let, r0 , v0 be the radius vector and velocity at the beginning of free flight. Here, velocity reduces to transverse
components only.

h=r

2

0

¦

Again,

0

&

= r0

&

=r

2

0

&

&

− (vii)
GM

0

1

n

=

Then from equ (v)

r

2

h = r0

2
0

= r 0 v0

=

r=v

+ c cos

¤

=v

v

h

At vertex ‘A’, =0, r=ro and v=vo

free flight

[cos 0

− (viii)

c = 1 − GM
2
r0 (r v )

Vo

= 1]

0 0

For parabolic trajectory, c =

GM
2
h
c GM

=

o

2 2

− (ix)

r

A

powered flight

r v
0

n

From equ (viii) & (ix)
GM = 1 − GM

2

r

r v2
0

0

r 2 v2

0

0

0

or, 2GM = 1
r

r 2 v2
0 0

v0 =

2GM 0

−(x)

¤

r0
This velocity v0 is called the escape velocity. Since, this is the minimum velocity required for the
vehicle so that it does not return to its starting point.
2

2

2gR

¤

2GM

V
e

=

sc

=

r

r

0

mg

0

V

GM = gR

= GMm
R
2

e

2

− ( xi )

= 2gR
r0

sc

Note:
If Vo>Vesc, trajectory will be hyperbolic
Vo=Vesc, trajectory will be parabolic
Vo<Vesc, trajectory will be elliptical
Among the elliptical orbit, if c=0 then the ellipse reduces to circle.
n

i.e. putting c=0 in equ (viii), we get
¤

1 = GM v
r

r 2 v2

0

0 0

v
circ

circ

G
= M

2

= gR
r

r
0

− ( xii)

0

Perigee and Apogee
The closest point of the orbit from the earth is called perigee and the farthest point of orbit from
the earth is called apogee.
(ii) For Vcirc<Vo<Vesc, A=perigee and A'=Apogee
(iii) For Vo<Vcirc, A=apogee and A"=perigee
(iv) For Vo<<Vcirc, the vehicle doesn’t go to orbit.
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -34

Vo=Vese
Vo=Vcir<Vese
Vo=Vcir
Vo<Vcir
A’

A”

A

Time Period (or Periodic time) of Space Vehicle
It is the time required for the satellite to complete
its orbit and is denoted by .

Vo<<Vese

= Areainsideorbit(i.e.Areaof ellipse)
AreaVelocity

=

a

ab
h2

or, =

B
Vo

b

2 ab
h

− ( xiii)

A’

a = semi-major axis of ellipse =

A”

O

V1

r1 + r0
2

b = semi-minor axis of ellipse =

where,

O’

r0r1

B
V

1

A”

h = r0 v0
Tutorials:
1) A satellite is launched in a direction parallel to the surface of the earth with a velocity of 37000
km/hr from an altitude of 500 km. Determine the altitude attained by it when it covers the angular
distance equal to 135°. Also calculate the periodic time of the satellite. Take radius of earth, R=6370
km.
n

Sol :- Here,
Launching velocity (vo) = 37000 km/hr = 10277 m/s
6
Radius of earth (R) = 6370 km = 6.37 × 10 m

500km
0

V

Altitude of launching (h) = 500 km = 5 ×

r’

5

10 m
A’
6
5
6
Then, ro = 6.37 × 10 + 5 × 10 = 6.87 × 10 m
6
10
h = rovo = 6.87 × 10 × 10277 = 7.06 × 10
2

62

GM = gR = 9.81 × (6.37 × 10 ) = 3.98 × 10
14
3.98 ×10
GM
−8

14

A

3 2

r1

m /s

= (7.06 ×10 ) = 7.98 ×10
− (i )
We know, 1 = GM + c cos
r h2
h

10

2

2

g

6

At point ‘A’ =0 and r=ro=6.87×10
1
−8
+c
Q
6 = 7.98 ×10
6.87 ×10
−8
c = 6.576 ×10
Again, at =135°

g

r = 7.98 ×10

−8

+ 6.576 ×10

−8

cos135°

f

1

r'= 30029.44km

ro

Altitude gained by satellite (H) = r'-R = 23659.44
km Again, to calculate time period:
When the satellite covers 180°, it will make

g

1 = 7.98 ×10−8 + 6.576 ×10−8
r

1

r1 = 71255.07km

f

Then, a = ro + r1 = 6870 + 71225.07 = 39047.54 km
2
2
b = ro × r1 = 22120.49 km
3

2 ab 2 ×39047.54 ×10 × 22120.49 ×10
QTime period of the satellite, =
=
10
h
7.06 ×10
4
= 4.670647 ×10 sec
= 21hrs18 min26sec

6

g

2. The two blocks shown in the figure start from rest. The horizontal plane and the pulleys are
frictionless, and the pulley is assumed to be of negligible mass. Determine the acceleration of each
block and the tension in each cord.
A
T1
n

Sol : Let, tension in the cord ACD be T1 & cord BC be T2. From 700kg
figure, if block ‘A’ moves through distance SA then block ‘B’ moves
through SA/2.

V

f

A

QSB =

VB =

a

A

f

S

aB =

A

c

D

−(i )

2
2
2
nd
Using Newton’s 2 law for Block ‘A’, Block ‘B’ and Pulley ‘C’
Block ‘A’:
F =m a

T2

A

W

x

A

400kg

A

− (ii )

T1 =100aA
Block ‘B’:

300kg
T1

F =m a
y

B

B

F.B.D of A

WB −T2 = 300aB
300 ×9.81 −T2 = 300a A / 2

T2
300kg

−(iii )
T2 − 2 T1 = 0
Pulleys
Since mass of pulley is considered zero, we have:

¡

B

W

mBaB

Fy = mc ac = 0

T2 − 2T1 = 0 − (iv )
n

Putting values of T1 & T2 in equ (iv), we
get: 2943-1500A-2×100aA=0
2

QaA = 8.41m / s
aB =

a

A

2

2

= 4205m / s

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -36

QT1 =100aA = 841N
T2 = 2T1 =1682 N
3. The bob of a 3 m pendulum describes an arc of a circle, in a vertical plane. If the tension is twice
of the weight of the bob for the position when it is displaced through an angle of 30° from its mean
position, then find the velocity and acceleration of the bob.
n

Sol :
Applying Newton’s Second Law,
Ft = mat

or, mg sin 30° = mat

2

at = g sin 30° = 4.9 m /

s Again,
Fx = max

2mg − mg cos 30 = max
2

Qax = 2g − g cos 30° = 11.12m / s
1

[

2

a = a t + ar

¤
]

2
2

= tan

−1 a

n

2

=12.15m / s

= 36.22°

at
Velocity of Bob (v )= ax

ax =

v

2

Qv = 3×11.12
v = 5.78 / sec perp.to the chord
4. The motion of a 500 gm Block ‘B’ in a horizontal plane is defined by the relation r=2(1+cos2 t)
and =2 t, where r is expressed in meters, t in seconds and in radians. Determine the radial and
transverse component of the force exerted on the block when t=0 & t=0.75 sec.
n

Sol :
Here,

m = 500 gm = 0.5 kg
r = 2(1+cos2 t) - (i)

=2 t
- (ii)
Differentiating with respect to time, we get
&
&
=2
r = -4 sin2 t
&&
&&
=0
r = −8 cos 2 t
Now,

(
= m(r

Fr = mar = m &r& − r

&&

&2

F = ma
+ 2r&
2
When, t = 0, r = 4, r& = 0 & &r&= −8
=0

&

=2 &

&&

)

&

)

=0

Q

Fr = 0.5(− 8

2

− 4 ×4

2

)

Fr = −118.43 N
F = 0.5(4 ×0 − 2 ×0 ×2

)=

QF = 0
Similarly for t = 0.75 sec,
Fr = −39.5N , F = 79.0 N

0
&
r

=4
=1.5

&&

r
&

=0 r=2
=2

&&

=0

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -38

Chapter – 5
Kinetics of Particle : Energy and Momentum Method
5.1 Work done by a Force:
When a particle moves by the application of force F producing the displacement ds, then the
work done by the force during the displacement ds is defined by:
du = component of force along the direction of motion × distance travelled.
Q du = F cos .ds du
− (i )
= Fds.cos
F
Fsin

where, ds = d r

F
Fcos
dr

A
A’

A

ds

[ is the angle between the force and direction of motion]
Particular cases:
(a) When F is along the direction of d r , then
du = Fds [cos = cos 0 =1]

(b) If F is perpendicular to the direction of d r , then

[cos

Fcos

= cos 90 = 0]

du = 0
(c) For finite work done from s1 to
s2, Integrating (i), we get:
U1−2 =

s2
s1

( F cos )ds

U1-2

− (ii )

U1−2 = Area under the curve Fcos - s
S1

S2

5.1.1 Work of a const Force in Rectilinear Motion
F

U1−2 = ( F cos ) x
x = Displacement from A1 to A2

A2

[Re ctilinear Motion]
5.1.2 Work of a weight (or Force of gravity)

1

x

A

The work du of the weight is equal to the product
of weight (w) and the vertical displacement of the center of gravity G of the body.
i.e. du = -wdy
y2
y 1

g

du1−2 = −

g

U1−2 = −w y

A2

wdy

U1−2 = −w( y 2 − y1 )

A1
w

U1-2 is -ve when work is done on the body

Y1

Y2
Y

U1-2 is +ve when work is done by the body.

5.1.3 Work of a force exerted by a spring
When a spring is deformed, the magnitude of force F exerted by it on the body is proportional
to the elongation of the spring.
i.e. F = kx - (i)
where, k = spring constant
x = elongation length
Again, Elementary work
1
A
du = -Fdx = -k×dx
x

o

x2

finite work done during elongation from x1to x2
U

1−2

U
1−2

=−
=−

x2
x 1

1

A1

k × dx
A2

2 k(x 2

2

− x12 )

work is positive, when x<x, i.e. spring is returning.
5.1.4 Work of the Gravitational Forces:
We have,
− (i )
F = G Mm
r2
Now, the elementary work
− (ii ) [sin ce F is directed opposite in direction of motion]
du = −Fdr = − GM dr
2
r
So, the work for finite displacement
r2
GMm
1 1
U1 − 2 = − r1
dr = GMm

− (iii )
2
r
r
r
2
1
2 = wR 2
1 1
2
=
U
− (iv ) Here, r > R
1−2
r − r wR
QGMm = mgR

¤

5.2

2

1

Kinetic Energy of a Particle:

For a mass ‘m’ acted upon by a force F and moving along the curve path, the component of
force along the direction of motion is given by:
Ft = ma t
dv

dv

dv ds

t
=
=
ds
dt
ds dt
or, F cos ds = mvdv
Integrating both sides, taking limits we get

or, F cos

s
s

1

2

= mv

Qa

F cos ds = m

dv
= v ds

v
v

2
1

vdv

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -40

or, U
1−2

or, U
1−2

2
2
= 1 mv − 1 mv
2
1
2
2
2
2
= 1 mv − 1 mv
2
1
2
2

or,U1−2 = T2 = T1
− (i)
where, T2 and T1 is final and initial K.E. of the particle.
Hence, the work of the force F is equal to the change of K.E. of the particle. This is also called as
principle of work and energy.
5.3

Applications of Principle of work and energy:
With the help of work energy principle, solution of problems, involving force, displacement
and velocity can be obtained in simple form,
e.g. Analysis of Pendulum

To determine the velocity of bob as it falls freely from A1 to
A2, we’ve
U1−2 = wL
Again, at KE at A1
T1 = 0 [QV1 = 0]
KE at A2
2

T = 1 mv
2
2
2
Now, using principle of work and energy,

=U

1−2

or, T = U
1−2

2

T2 −T1

1

2

mv = wL = mgL
2 2

v2
[L is the vertical height of bob from reference point]
2gL
=
Advantages of this method:
To find v2 it is not necessary to find a2
Equation is in the form of scalar, hence it is easy to handle.
Forces which do not work (e.g. Tension on strings), etc are eliminated.
5.4

Power and Efficiency:
Power is defined as rate of change of work.

Pavg =
P=

u

t , Taking limit as

du
dt

P = F cos
or, P = FV cos

t

0 we get

−(i ), Putting du = ( F cos

)ds

ds
dt
−(ii )

ds
=V

dt
where, V is magnitude of the velocity at the point of application of force F .

Efficiency(

)=

Output work
Input work

5.5

Power output
<1 [due to losses due to friction]
Power input

=

or,

Potential Energy:

Consider a body of weight W, which moves along a curve path from A1 to A2.
Qwork done due to weight during the displacement,
U1−2 = Wy1 −Wy2 ,
Then, work at any position,
− (i)

U = Wy

The work done by gravity is independent of path and is proportional to position, work done by
gravity at any position is denoted by Vg.
U1−2 = (Vg )1 = (Vg )2 − (ii )
And, U = Vg − (iii ) where Vg = Wy
If (Vg)2>(Vg)1 then work is –ve (i.e. PE increases)
If (Vg)2<(Vg)1 then work is +ve (i.e. PE decreases)

(a) Potential Energy of Gravitational Force:
We know that work of Gravitational Force, when the body is displayed from A1 to A2,
i.e. U1−2 = − GMm − GMm
r1
r2
Then, work done at any position, U = −
Again, we know that work done, U = Vg

GMm
r

− (i )
− (ii)

From (i) and (ii)
Vg = −

GMm
r

− (iii )
GMm

F

= mg = w =
GMm = wR

¤

V

= − wR

R2

2

2

− (iv )

g

r
r is the distance of the body from the center of the earth. For large value of r, Vg

(b)

0

Potential Energy due to spring:

The work of force exerted by the spring on the body for the elongation from x1 to x2
1

U

=−
1−2

2

kx

2

2

1 2
kx
2 1

or, U1−2 == [(V e )2 − (V e )1

− (i )

]

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -42

When, (Ve)1 and (Ve)2 is the PE due to elastic force, then potential energy at any elongation of
spring x
1 2
− (ii )
Ve = kx
2
During the elongation the potential energy of the spring increases.
The work of the force is independent of the path followed and is equal to minus charge of
potential energy.
− (iii )

i.e. U1−2 = −(V 2 −V1 )
The force which satisfy the equation is called as the conservation force. The gravity force and the
elastic force are examples of conservative force.
5.6 Conservation of Energy:
We know, work of a force is equal to
U1−2 = −(V 2 −V1 )
− (i) [V be the PE]
Again, work of a force is equal to change in KE

U1−2 = −V2 +V1

¤

U1−2 = T2 −T1

From (i) and (ii)
V1 −V2 = T2 −T1

T1 +V1 = T2 +V2
− (iii )

E1 = E2

where, E = T+V = mechanical energy of the system. Hence, conservation of energy states that
mechanical energy of the system always remains constant.
− (ii) [T be the KE]
Examples of Conservation of Energy:
Analysis of Pendulum
For free fall of pendulum from Al, Then
For position A1,
KE, T1 = 0

[ V1 = 0 ]

PE, V1 = wL

T1 + V1 =
wL

- (i)

At position A2,
V2 =
KE at A2

2gL
(T2) =

1

mv

2
2

=

1

(2 gL)= wL

w

g

2
2
PE at A2 (V2) = 0 [ L = 0 at A2, datum]
− (ii )

T2 +V2 = wL

g

For position A
KE at A, (TA) =

1
2

2

mVA

=

1

w

g

2gL sin = wL sin

2
PE at A (VA) = w( L − L')= wL − wL sin

TA + VA = wL - (iii)
From equation (i), (ii) and (iii), the total mechanical energy of pendulum at any position is same and
is equal to wL.

g

At A1, Total energy is entirely due to PE
At A2, Total energy is entirely due to
KE At A, Total energy is sum of PE +
KE Note:
For the system interacting with other forms of energy as electrical, frictional, etc all the forms
of energy should be considered. In that case as well the total energy of system is always conserved.
Hence, energy is conserved in all the cases.
5.7

Principle of Impulse and Momentum:
Considering a particle of mass ‘m’ acted upon by a force F .

Then from Newton’s 2
F = ma
In x & y components,

nd

Law,

Fx = max
&Fy = may
F
dvx
dvy
Fy = m
&
=m
x
dt
dt
Since mass ‘m’ is constant

F = d (mv )
x
x
dt
Vectorically, we have

F = d (mv )
y
y
dt

&

− (i )

( )

F = d m v − (ii )
dt
This equation states, “Force F acting on the particle is equal to the rate of change of momentum

(mv) of the particle.
Multiplying equation (i) by dt and integrating on both sides, we get:
t1

t2

v2
v 1

Fx dt = m

(mvx )1 +

t1

t2

dvx = (mvx ) 2 − (mvx )1

Fx dt = (mvx

)2

− (iii

)

¨

Similarly,

(mvy )1 +

t1

t2

Fy dt = (mvy

)2 − (iv )

In vector form,

v =v +v
1

mv +

t2

1

− (v )

Fdt = mv
2

t1

x1

y1

x2

y2

v =v +v
2

F = Fx + Fy

where,
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -44

t

t2

Fdt = Impulse of force = I mp (1−2)

1

Given, by area under the curve F-t
Hence,

mv + I

= mv

− (vi )

2
(1−2)
From vector diagram,
1

mp

When several forces are acting on a
particle,

mv + I
1

mp

(1−2)

= mv − vii
2
( )

5.8 Impulsive motion and Impact
(1) Impulsive Motion:
When a very large force is acted during a very short time interval on a particle and produce a definite
change in momentum, such a force is called as impulsive force and the resulting motion is called
impulsive motion.
Example of Impulsive motion:

( )

Striking the ball with a cricket bat, large force F is applied in a small time ( t ), the resulting
impulse F t is large enough to change the direction of motion of ball.
mV

F

1

t

+

=

mV

2

From impulse momentum principle,
mv1 + F t = mv2

− (i )

Here non-impulsive forces (like weight of ball, bat, etc) are not included.
2.

Impact
A collision between two bodies, which occurs in very short interval of time and during which
the two bodies exert relatively large forces on each other is called an Impact.
The common normal to the surfaces in contact during the impact is called the line of impact or
line of action.
Types of Impact:

If the mass centers of the two colliding bodies are located on this line of impact, the impact is
central impact otherwise eccentric impact.
If the velocities of the two particles are directed along the line of impact, it is said to be direct
impact. If either or both particle moves along the line other than the line of impact, the impact is
Line of contact

said to be an oblique impact.
Hence, four types of impact may
occur. They are:
a) Direct Central Impact

A

B

CA

CB

VA

A
CA

VB

b) Oblique Central Impact
c) Direct Eccentric Impact

B

CB

Line of impact

Impact/action
Line of
VA

(a) direction central impact

(b) oblique central impact

VB

d) Oblique Eccentric Impact
B

VA

B

A
CA

A
A

VB
CB

C

Line of
impact

CB
VA
VB

(c) direct ecentric impact

5.9

(d) oblique ecentric impact

Direct Central Impact:
Two particles A and B of mass mA and mB are moving in a straight line with velocities vA & vB.
If vA>vB the particle A strikes B.
Under the impact, they deform and at the end of period of deformation they will move with the
same velocity u.
After the impact the particles may gain their original shape or are permanently deformed,
depending upon the magnitude of impact and material involved which is called restitution.

After the impact and separation the particles move with vA' and vB' velocities.

The duration of time of impact when the particles comes under the deformation and restitution
during impact is called deformation period and restitution period respectively.
A

VA

B

A

U

B

A

B

VB

VA

VB

Considering that only impulsive forces are acting, the total momentum of the system is conserved.
i.e. mA vA + mB vB = mA vA' + mB vB'
In scalar form,

− (i )

− (ii)
mAvA + mB vB = mAvA' + mB vB'
+ve value is for +ve axis and –ve value is for –ve axis.
Analysis during Impact
Following phenomena will occur for the particle A.
A A

mAvA −

pdt = mAu

mAu − Rdt = mAvA

'

mv

− (iii )
− (iv)

pdt

+

mv

Rdt

A

mv

A

=

A A
mv

+

where,

=

pdt and Rdt are the impulses during the period of deformation and restitution respectively.

Then the co-efficient of restitution is defined as:
e=

Rdt

− (v )

Pdt
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -46

Value of e depends upon

Materials of particles

Impact velocity

• Shape & size of colliding
bodies Generally, 0<e<1
For perfectly elastic collision, e = 1
For perfectly plastic collision, e = 0
From equ(iii), Pdt = mAvA − mAu
From equ(iv), Rdt = mAu − mAvA'
Rdt

Qe =

=

'

=

mAvA − mAu

Pdt

u − vA

m A u − m A vA

u − vA

'

vA − u

'

e = vA − u
Similarly for particle B,

¡

e=

vB' − u

−(vii)

u − vB

n

Adding respectively the numerators and denominators of equ (vi) and (vii), we get:
u − v ' + v' −u v' − v'
e=
=
vA − u + u − vB vA − vB
A

B

B

A

vB' − vA' − e(v A − vB ) − (viii)
i.e. Relative velocity after impact = e × Relative velocity before impact

g

For Perfectly Plastic Impact:
e=0, i.e. there is no period of restitution.
from equ(viii),
'
'
'
vB = vA = v
Then from equ(ii)

(common velocity)

mAvA + mB vB = (mA + mB )v'
Common velocity (v

'

)= mAvA + mB vB

− (ix )

mA + mB
For Perfectly Elastic Impact:
'

'

from equ (viii), vB − vA = vA − vB

Since e=1,

− (x)

from equ (ii), mA (vA − vA' )= mB (vB' − vB ) − (xi)
− (xii)
from equ (x) vA + vA' = vB + vB'
Multiplying LHS and RHS of equ(xi) & (xii) respectively and dividing both sides by 2 we
get:
or,

1
2

[m A (v A − vA' )(v A + vA' )]−

1
1
2
' 2
2 mAvA − 2 mAv A

=

1
2

[m B (vB' − vB )(vB' + vB )]

1
1
'2
2
2 mB vB − 2 mB vB

or,

1

2 mAvA

2

+

1

2

2 mB vB

=

1
1
'2
'2
2 mA (v A )+ 2 mB (vB )

i.e. Initial KE of system = Final KE of system

Hence, for perfectly elastic condition, KE of the system is conserved.

When e , there is loss of KE and this lost energy is converted into heat, sound and other forms of
energy.

5.10 Oblique Central Impact:
When the velocities of the two colliding bodies are not directed along the line of impact, then it
is called oblique impact as shown in the figure.
1

1

1

m

V

m
1

1

V1

Line of contact
X
2

2

1

m

2

m

V2
V

2

Here, line of impact is along y-axis and line of contact is along x-axis. Then the following
phenomena occur.
st
(a) x-component of the momentum of the particle 1 is conserved
'
− (i)
vx=v x
i.e. m v = m v '
f

1 1x

1 1x

1

1

(b) x-component of the momentum of 2
x

f

i.e. m2 v2 x = m2 v2

'

v2 x = v2

[

'

x

nd

particle is conserved

− (ii)

'

'

From (a) and (b) [v1 x − v2 x]= v1 x − v2

x

]

(c) From (a) and (b), the total momentum of the particles in x-direction is also conserved
'
− (iii)
i.e. m v + m v = m v ' + m v
1 1x

2 2x

1 1x

2

2x

(d) y-component of total momentum of the particle is conserved.
'
− (iv)
i.e. − m v + m v = m v − m v '
1 1y

2 2y

1 1y

2

2y

(e) y-component of relative velocity after impact is obtained by multiplying y-component of relative
velocity before impact by co-efficient of restitution.

(− v2' y −v1'y )= e(− v1y −v2 y )

g

i.e.

(v 2' y + v1'y )= e(v1 y + v2 y )

− (v )

The above five equation are applied for the analysis of the problems related to oblique
impact. Remember:
(a) Along the line of contact, momentum of each particle is conserved.
(b) Along the line of impact, the total momentum of particles is conserved.
Tutorials:
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -48

(a) A 10 kg collar slides without friction along a vertical rod. The spring attached to the collar has an
undeformed length of 100 mm and a constant of 500 N/m. If the collar is released from rest in
position 1, determine its velocity after it has moved 150mm to position2.
Solution:
200mm

i.e. T1 +V1 = T2 +V2
T1 = 0 [V1 = 0]

V

Datum

1

Given, K = 500 N/m
Undeformed length of spring = 100mm = 0.1m
We have from conservation of energy, KE + PE at 1 =
PE at 2

150mm

KE +

2

−(i)
x = elongation of spring at 1

x1

2
1 =Ve
+Vg = 1 kx1
1
1
2
1 ×500 ×(0.1)2
V=
1
2
V1 = 2.5Nm

2

= 0.2 − 0.1 = 0.1
at datum
vg = 0
1

1

g
Again,

2

2

Y = 1 ×10 ×v = 5v
2
2
2
2

At point 2, the total length of spring is
(0.2) 2 + (0.15)2 = 0.25

=v + v
e2

=
=

g2

1

2

1

2 kx2

g

v2

x2 = 0.25 − 0.1 = 0.15

+ wy

2 ×500 ×(0.15)

2

+10 ×9.81(− 0.15)

v2 = −9.09Nm
Putting all the values in equ(1), we get
2

f

0 + 2.5 = 5v2 − 9.09

v2 =1.52m / s

2) A particle having mass 0.5 kg is released from rest and strikes. The stationary particle of mass 0.4
kg as shown in the figure. Assume the impact is direct and elastic. If the horizontal surface has a
dynamic co-efficient of friction µ = 0.3 , locate the final position of each mass from the origin of the
axis.
Solution:
Applying conservation of energy at Pt. A & B
V

Lost of energy = work done against friction
Now for mass m1,
KE at A (TA1) = 0
[vA=0]
PE at A (VA1) = mghA = 0.5×9.81×(0.25-0.25sin30°)
(VA1) = 0.613 J
2
2
2
KE at B (TB1) = 1 mvB 1 = 1 ×0.25vB 1 = 0.25vB 1
2
2
PE at B (VB1) = 0
[B is datum]
Now, from conservation of energy,

30

o

M1
0.5kg
M2
A

0.4kg
B

TA +VA = TB +VB
1

1

1

1

2

or, 0 + 0.613 = 0.25vB + 0

f

Velocity at M1 at pt. B(vB1

vB =1.56m / s
1

)=1.56m / s

Now, at the point of impact
Velocity of m1 before impact (v1) = vB = 1.56 m/s
1

Velocity of m1 after impact (v1 )= v1
'

'

Velocity of m2 before impact (v2) = 0
'

Velocity of m2 after impact (v2 ) = v2
Now, for direct impact
'
m v + m v = m v + m v'
1

1

2

2

1

1

2 2

'

'

1

'

2

or, 0.5 ×1.56 + 0 = 0.5 ×v + 0.4 ×v
'

or, 0.51v + 0.4v = 0.78

− (i )

2

1

Again, we have:
'
'
'
v −v'
v −v
e=
=1 =
v −v
1.56 − 0
2

'

1

1

'

2

1

2

− (ii )

v − v =1.56
2

1

g

Solving equ(i) and (ii), we
'

get: v1 = 0.173m / s
'

v2 =1.733m / s
Now, using work energy relation to find the distance travelled by the particle
For M1:
− (iii)

Work done due to friction = T + V
(Energy lost due to friction)
T1 = Final KE - Initial KE
= 0 − 1 ×0.5 ×(0.173)2 = −0.00748J
2
[h = 0]
V1 = 0

work done due to friction for mass m1 = T + V = −0.00748J
For M2:

g

T2 = 0 −

1
2
2 ×0.4 ×(1.733)

= −0.60065J

V2 = 0
T + V = −0.60065J

g

Now,
Work done due to friction = − µmg ×distance travelled
distance travelled (x) = -

work done due to friction
µmg

g

For mass 1,
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -50

x1 =

− (− 0.00748)

=
0.00508m 0.3×0.5 ×9.81
x1 = 0.00508m

x2 = − (− 0.6065)
0.3 ×0.4 ×9.81
x 2 = 0.510m

3. The magnitude and direction of the velocities of two identical frictionless balls before they strike
each other as shown. Assuming e=0.90 determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of each
ball after the impact.
Solution:
line of contact
VAx = VA cos 30° = 7.8m / s
VAy = VA sin 30° = 4.5m / s

A

VBx = −VB cos 60° = − 6.1m /

B
m

o

30

s VBy = VB sin 60° = 10.6m / s

Now, in oblique impact
For motion along the line of contact,
'

VAy =VAy = 4.5m / s
'

And,VBy = VBy =10.6m / s
For motion along the line of impact,
'

'

'

[mA

= mB

]

'

VAx +VBx = VAx +VBx
'

7.8 − 6.1 = VAx +VBx
'

'

'

VAx +VBx =1.7 − (i)

V

'

g

Again, e = V

'

−V

Bx

Ax

Bx

−VAx

'

'

QVBx −VAx = 0.90(7.8 − (−6.1))=12.5
'

'

VBx −VAx =12.5
Solving (1) and (2), we get:

− (2 )

g

'

VBx = 7.1
&
V = −5.4
Resultant Motion:
Adding components of velocities after impact, we get:
'

VA =

=

o

60

VA = 9m/s

mAVAx + mBVBx = mAVAx + mBVBx

m

(V Ax' )2 + (VAy' )2 = 7m / s VB'

(V Ax' )2 + (V Ay' )2 =12.8m / s

VB = 9m/s

Chapter – 6
System of Particles
6.0 System of Particles:
From Newton’s law, equation of motion for each particle is
Fx = max ,

f

F = ma

Fy = may &

− (i )

Fz = maz

And for Dynamic Equilibrium,
− (ii)
But, for the system involving a large no. of particles, and if the system as a whole is considered, then
each particle of system is subjected to two types of forces:
(a) External Forces:
Forces exerted by the body outside the system and weight of particle.
(b) Internal Forces: [Vanderwaal’s Molecular Attraction]
Forces exerted by the other particle of the same system.
Fx = 0 ,

F

= 0&

y

Fz = 0

y

y
Fi

Pi

Pj

fij

fik

Pi

fjk

miai

Pk

Fi

Pj

x

o

o

x

z
z

If P1 be a particle in a system of particles Pj, Pk, etc and Fi be the resultant of external forces on
th

th

th

th

i particle and Fij , Fik be the internal forces on i particle from j and k particle. Then,
th

The sum total of forces on i particle sum of external and internal forces acting the particle.
nd

th

Now, from Newton’s 2 law, the resultant of forces acting on the i particle is equal to miai.
When all the particles are considered simultaneously the internal forces cancel out and the only
external forces acts on the system. Hence, for the whole system

Q

F

(

x

F

)ext

=

ma

x

( )ext

=

may

(

=

mat

y

F

z

)ext

- (iii)
o

6.1 Newton’s Law and System of Particles:
Applying Newton’s 2

nd

th

law for the i particle, we have:

mi d vi = External force + Internal force
dt
2
n
m d r =F + F
i
i
i
ij
−(i )
2
dt

o

fjk

fij

Fi

o

fik

o

j= 1
i j

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -52

For all n particles the equation (i) can be written as:
2

n

n

m d ri
i
=
dt 2
i=1

n n

Fi +

Fij

i=1

− (ii )

i=1 j=1
i j

For considering all particles the summation of internal forces is zero. Hence, equ(ii) modifies as :
2

n

F=

d ri
2
dt

mi
i= 1

or, F =

n

Q F =F
i

i=1

d2

n

ri dt

2

− (iii )

mi

i=1

If, rc be position vector of mass centre of system of particles and M is the total mass of particles,
then from principle of first moment of inertia (moment due to entire mass = sum of moments due to
individual mass),
M rc =

− (iv )

M i ri

From (iii) and (iv), we get
F = dt

d2

(M r )

2

c

d2r
c

2

− (v )
F = M dt
6.2 Linear and Angular Momentum for a system of particles
(1) Linear Momentum for a system of particles:
¤

For a system of particles, applying Newton’s 2
n

F=

dvj
dt

Mj
j=1

nd

th

law to any j particle, we have:

− (i )

Multiplying (i) by dt and integrating from t1 to t2, we get:
n
t2
t1

n

Fdt = I ext

=

M V
j

j

j=1
t2

j=1

− (ii )

M V

j

j

t
1

This shows, “The impulse of the total external force on the system of particles during a time interval
equals to the sum of the changes of the linear momentum vector of the particles during the same time
interval.”
From the concept of mass center,
n

M rc =

M j rj

− (iii )

j=1

Differentiating with respect to time, we get
n

MVc =

MjVj

− (iv )

j=1

From (ii) and (iv),
I ext =

t 2
t1

Fdt = M (Vc )2 − M (Vc )1 − (v )

Thus, the total external impulse of a system particles is equal to the change in linear momentum of
the particles, moving with the mass center velocity.

2. Angular Momentum For a system of particles:
th

Angular Momentum of i particle,
d
= mi vi × ri = dt (ri Pi )
d
&
= mi vi × ri
=
dt (ri Pi )= ri ×mai
For system of particles the angular momentum equation for the
th
i particle about origin ‘O’ is given by:

y
o
fij

¤

n
r ×F +r × F
i

i

i

ij

=

[

]

d r × P
i
i

M

o

r1

rc

o

o

x
o

− (i )

o
z

dt
where, Pi = Linear momentum of particle
j=1

n

For the system of n particles, equ (i) becomes:
r ×F +

i 

i 

i=1

(i

)= d

n n

r ×F

ij

dt

i=1 j=1
j 1

n

&

r ×F =µ

n

i=1

i

i

o

Since, internal force vanishes for all particles, the moment also become zero for all particles. Hence,
n

&

ri × Fi = M o

¤

& 

µo =

i=1

[M o = µo ] − (ii )

Similarly for any other fixed point ‘A’,
&
− (iii)
M A = µA
Thus, the total moment of external forces acting on an aggregate of particles about a fixed point ‘A’
in an inertial reference equals the rate of change of the angular momentum relative to the same point
A and same inertial reference.
Again, considering center of mass of the aggregate of particles
th

For i particle,

[

position of i w.r.t. CG ]

ci

ri = rc + ci − (iv)
Now, the angular momentum for aggregate particle about ‘O’ is then,
n

o

=

[Q p

r i × pi

i

=linear momentum

]

i=1

o

[(v

=

c+

&

ci

& )}]

)×{m (v
i

i

+

¦

n

or,

ci

&

− (v

p i = mi v i − mi v i

)

&r

&

&

&

= rc + ci
Carrying out the cross-product and extracting rc from the summation we get:
i

i=1

o

[r ×m r + r ×m & +
& ]
n
=rc ×
(mi r&c )+ rc × n (mi
n
( ci ×mi &ci )

=

n

c

ci

i

c

c

i

ci

ci

×mi r&c +

ci

×mi

i=1

)

&ci +

n

(mi ci )×r&c +

i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1

We know that the sum of the first moment of mass about the centroid is zero i.e.
mi

ci

= 0 and hence

mi &ci = 0, Then

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -54

n
(

¦

µo = rc × M rc

&
ci

×mi

¦

&+

ci

) [

mi = M

]

i=1

&

[µo

= rc × M rc + µc

] − (v )

[Qµc

&
=

cu

× mi

ci

]

where, µc be the sum of the angular momentum about the center of mass .Similarly for any point ‘A’,
we get:
&

[ µA

]

− (vi)
where, r&AC is the velocity of center of mass relative to fixed point A = V
g

AC

= rAC × M rAC + µc

n

Now, differentiating equ (vi) with respect to time, we get:
&
&
&
µA = rAC × MVAC + µc
&

[

&

]

or, M A = rAC × M aAC + µc − (vii)
[µA = M A ;VAC = aAC ]
6.3 Motion of mass center of a system of particle:
Center of mass for particles is not the center of mass of
system. We know that (from 6.0) for system of particles

F
x )ext =
(max )
F )
( y ext = (may )
F)
( z ext = (maz )
(

(i)

If mass center of the system of particles is considered with co-ordinates G( x , y, z ), Then we have:

(
(

)
(mx)
m)y =
(my)
m x =

i.e. component of moment due to entire mass
= component of sum of the moment due to
( m)z = (mz)
individual mass
Differentiating equ(ii) twice with respect to time, we get:
&&

(mz)

(mx ) 

(my )  

(

f 

m)y =

&&

m)z =

(

&&

&&

m)x =

&&

&&

(

(ii)

(
(
(

)
m)ay

m ax =

(max )

=

(may )

- (iii)

)

m az =
(maz )
where, ax , ay & az are the components of acceleration a of G (i.e. center of mass) of the
system, From equ(i) & equ(iii), we have:

(

F
x )ext = (
F )

(

y

F

)

ext

=(

m)ax
m ) ay

- (iv)

= ( m)az
which defines the motion of center of mass of system. It shows that the center of a system of particles

(

z

ext

move as if the entire mass of the system and all the external forces were concentrated at that point G.
6.4

Conservation of Momentum:
We know that the final momentum of the particle is obtained by adding vectorically its initial

momentum and the impulse of the force F during the time interval considered i.e.

mv1 + I mp(1−2) = mv2 −(i)

Considering system of particles,
mv1 +

I

=

mp(1−2)

−(ii)

mv2

since the internal forces vanish considering the all particles only impulse due to external force exists
i.e.

mv +

I

(

1

=

)ext

mp(1−2)

− iii
( )

mv
2

When the impulse of external forces is zero, then equ(iii) becomes,
mv1 =

−(iv)

mv2

Thus, “when the sum of the impulses of the external forces acting on a system of particles is zero, the
total momentum of the system remains constant.”
Again, considering mass center G( x , y)of the system, we have,

(
(

m)x =

(
(

m)vx =

(mx)

- (v)
m)y =
(my)
Differentiating equ(v) with respect to time, we get:

(mvx )

f

v=v

f

m)vy =
We have [from 6.3]

(mvy )

(

(mv) − (vi)

m)v =

v1 = v1 & v2 = v2

Now from equ(iv) we get:
v1 = v2 − (vii)
Thus, “When the sum of impulses of the external forces acting on a system of particles is zero, then
mass center of the system moves with a constant velocity v.
6.4 Kinetic Energy of a system of particles:
Considering a system of particles, the total K.E. relative to xyz axes of system of n particles
can be obtained as
n

y

1

KE =
i=1

Again, ri = rc +

2

− (i )

2 mi v i

o

− (ii )

ci

o

ci

Vc

o

− (iii)

Vi

¦ 

(

mi v c +

&
ci

).(v

&
+

c

m

i

i=1

vc .

¦ 

i c

&

n

+

ci

1

n

&

2

m

+

2
v

i

¦ 

g

2 i=1

=

2 i=1
m

KE =

)

ci

(

n
¦

&

2
n
1

1

2

mi v c +

i=1

o
X
o

1

¦

KE =

o
o

From (i) & (iii)
n

o

ciC.ci

Vni

Differentiating equ(ii) with respect to time, we get,
vi = vc +

o

ci

)

o
z

[Q(a + b).(a + b)= a 2 + 2a.b + b2 ]

ci

2 i=1

But,
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -56

m

n

=M

and

m

¦ 

i

i ci

= 0

&

i=1

So, we get,
1

2
Mvc

+

&

n
m

¡

1
KE =

i

2

ci

2 i=1
2
Hence, KE of the system of particles = KE of the total mass moving with the mass center velocity +
sum of the KE of individual particles having velocity relative to the center of mass.
6.5 Work-Energy Principle: Conservation of energy for a system of particles:
Work of the force F exerted on the particle during the displacement = change in KE
i.e. u1−2 = t2 − t1 −(i)
For the entire system,
U1−2 = T2 −T1 −(ii)
Similarly work of the conservative force is independent of path followed and is equal to minus of the
change in potential energy.
u1−2 = −(v 2 − v1 )
i.e.
For the entire system,

− (iii )

U1−2 = −(V 2 −V1 )= V1 −V2

− (iv)

From (i) & (iv), we get
V1 −V2 = T2 −T1
−(v )
T1 +V1 = T2 +V2
Thus for the particle moving under the conservative force, “the sum of KE and PE remains
constant.” KE + PE = Total Energy (E) = constant
g

E1 = E2 Hence, Energy is conserved.

g

6.7 Principle of Impulse and Momentum for a system of particles:
The angular momentum of particle about origin ‘O’ = moment of the first momentum of
particle about the origin.

Y

Qho = mvy×x − mvx×y (+ )
Then for the total system of particle

y

mv

mv

H o = m(xvy − yvx )
Differentiating with respect to time, we get,

&
H

o

=

(M ) [Pr oved in 6.22 equ
o

ext

mvy
y
n

(iii )]

o

x

x

where, M o ext is the moment of external force acting on the system.
This external force can be categorized into Y
two types:
(a) Forces exerting at origin These

Y

B
C

(Fext)dt

mv

A

provide linear impulse

t1

A A

t1

+
mBvB

mCvC

x x t1
(Mo)ext.dt
t1

i.e.

t1

t2

(Fext )dt = (m v)

2

=

(mv)

1

(b) Forces which are away from the origin
These provide angular impulse.
i.e.

t1

t2

( Fext )dt =

t1

t2

(M )
o

ext

dt

[Note: - External Impulse changes the linear momentum of system
External Moment changes the angular momentum of system.
Now, from linear impulse momentum principle, we have

+

(mv)

(

1

I
1−2

)ext

=

(mv)

2

− (i)

Again, from angular momentum principle

(H )
o

1

+

t

t2

(

)

M

o ext

( )

dt = H

o

2

− (ii )

1

n

Comparing these two equ it shows that sum of momenta (linear momentum or angular momentum)
of particles at time t1 and the impulse of the external forces are equipollent (Not actually equivalent
for particles but equivalent for rigid body).
When there is no external forces,
(System momenta)1 = (System momenta)2
Types of system of particles:
(a) Constant System of Particles:
The system which neither gain nor lose particles during their motion are called the constant
system of particles. e.g. Rigid bodies
(b) Variable System of Particles:
The system which are continuously gaining or losing particles or doing both at the same time
are called variable system of particles. e.g. Hydraulic turbines, Rockets, etc.
6.8

Steady Stream of Particles with variable mass
In steady stream of particles the flow of particles at any point remains constant. [All the above
n

equ derived so far are for steady streams].
`
Let us consider a steady stream of particle(s) such as stream of water diverted by a fixed vane
or a flow of air through blower.
B
( m)V

B

B
S

i

B

S

i

i

i

mv

m

v

F t
A

A

A

( m)VA

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -58

In this system it continuously gains particles flowing in and looses an equal no. of particles
flowing out, so this type of variable system of particles is reduced to auxiliary constant system of
particles, which remains constant for a short time t
If m amount of mass enters the system ‘s’, at time t . Then,
The momentum of the particles entering the system = ( m)vA
The momentum of the particles leaving the system = ( m)vB
And, the impulses of the forces exerted on s =

F.dt and

mi vi (momentum for each particles)

cancels from both sides. Hence, we may conclude that,
The system formed by the momentum ( m)vA of the
particles entering the system ‘s in the time t and impulses of the forces exerted on ‘s’ during that
time is equipollent to momentum of

(

m)vB of the particles leaving ‘s’ in the same time
t . i.e. ( m)vA +

F t = ( m)vB − (i)

Dividing both sides by t and taking limit, we get

m

F = lim
t 0

¡£

F =

(v

R

− vA

)

− vA

)− (ii )

t

dm
dt

(v

B

g

This equation gives the resultant of the forces exerted by the vane on the stream. This principle is
applicable to the following mass as:
(a) Fluid diverted by a vane/ hydro-turbines/ properties
(b) Fluid flowing through a pipe
(c) Jet engine
(d) Fan
6.9 System with variable mass:
A system which gains mass by continuously absorbing particles or looses mass by continuously
expelling particles is the system with variable mass. Consider at time t, the system ‘s’ absorbs the
particles of mass m during the time interval t.

V

− (i)

m m
S ( m)Va

S

m+ m

Here, velocity at time t = v
velocity at time (t + t)= v + v
Absolute velocity of the absorbing mass = va
From the principle of impulse and momentum,
m v + ( m)va +
or,

(

)
m(v − va )+ m( v)

F t = (m + m) v + v

F t=m v+

Relative velocity with respect to s of the particle

(u )= v

a

− v,sin ce vo < v

(
v

t

0

− lim

t

t

¡£

F = m lim

or,

[neglecting(

m)u

F t = m v −

m

m

)

u due to being very very small

]

u

t

0

¡£

or,

d v dm
F = m dt −
dt u

or,

F+

dm
d v
dt u = m dt

dm
dt

u = ma

n

F+

dm

¤

In the above equ

− (ii )

dt u is the thrust which tends to slow down the motion of ‘s’. This is in case of

gaining mass. If system ‘s’ looses mass (as propulsion of rocket) the thrust generated would increase
the motion of ‘s’.
Tutorials:
(1) Two particles shown in fig oscillate on the smooth plane in the r-direction.
(a) Write the differential equation of motion for each mass.
(b) Find equation of motion for the center of mass
(c) Write the expression for KE & PE of the system of particles.
1g

2g

m

m

X

K2 (X2-X1)
2
F2 F

1 1

F

2

K

1

X2

1

K2

KX

F2
R2

R1

(a) Differential equation of motion for mass m1:
Fx = m1 &x&1
− k1 x1 + k2 ( x 2 − x1 )= m1 &x&1

¤

Differential equation of motion for mass m2:
Fx = m2 &x&2
F2 − k2 ( x 2 − x1 )= m2 &x&2
(b) Equation of motion for the center of mass

Here the resultant internal forces due to K2 cancles out so effect is due to external forces
only. If xc is the c.m. of the entire system then
&&
&&
Fx =

(

m)xc

[x c

= acceleration of c.m.]

F2 − k1 x1 = (m1 + m2 )&x&c

, Taking m1+m2 = M = Total mass

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -60

&&
F2 − k1 x1 = Mxc
(c) K.E./P.E. of the system of particles:
1

&

2

KE (T) = 2 m1 x1

1
+ m x
2 2 2

&

PE(V ) = Vg +Ve = O +Ve

2

[Vg

]

= 0, being at datum

1
1
2
2
2 k1 x1 + 2 k2 ( x 2 − x1 )
1
1
(V )= 2 k1 x12 + 2 k2 ( x 2 − x1 )2
=

2

(2) A nozzle discharges a stream of water of cross-sectional area A=100 mm with a speed of
v=50m/s, and the stream is deflected by a fixed vane as shown in the figure. The density of water is
3

3

10 kg/m . Determine the resultant force F exerted on the stream by the fixed vane.
Solution:
We’ve from the principle of Impulse-Momentum for particles
Here,
VA = VB = 50 m/s
Area, A = 100 mm
mass flow-rate =

60
50m/s

2

dm

= AV = 5 kg / s

dt
Now, Cancelling

mi vi from both sides, we have

Solving for x-axis,
B

mVB

− ( m)vA + Fx t = ( m)vB cos 60°
F =

dm

x

(1 − cos 60°)

B

B

s

F t

dt

s

f

Fx t

Fx =125
Again, solving for y-axis

¡

mivi

A

A

( m)vA
Fy t

mivi

Fy t = ( m)vB sin 60°
Fy =

dm
dt v sin 60° =
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ

216.5

ˆ

F = Fx i + Fy j =125i + 216.5 j
F = 250N = 60°

g

(3) A system consists of three particles A, B and C as shown in the figure and have velocity,
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
VA = (5i −8k )m / s, VB = (4i +Vy j +Vz k )m / s and Vc = (6i
+ 3 j − 2k )m / s respectively. If the masses
of these particles are mA = 3 kg, mB = 1 kg and mc = 2 kg respectively and the resultant angular
momentum µo of the system about origin ‘O’ is parallel to the z-axis, determine the value of µo .

Y

Solution:
We have,

4m

Resultant angular momentum

VC
C
3m

A
V

X

A
5m
B
B

Z

µo = ri ×

mi vi

= rA ×mA vA + rB ×mB vB + rc ×mc vc
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
= (3 j

V

+ 5k )× 3(5i −

8k ) +

(4i + 5k )× 1(4i

ˆ

ˆ

+Vy j+Vz k ) + (4i

ˆ

ˆ

+ 3k ) × 2 (6i

ˆ

ˆ

+3j

ˆ

− 2k )

ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
= − (5Vy + 84)i + (111 − 4Vz )j + (4Vy − 57)k
Since, µo is parallel to the z-axis,
µx = 0

&

µy = 0

− (5Vy + 84)= 0

− (ii )

(111 − 4Vz ) = 0

− (iii )

g

Solving these two equations, we get:
Vy = −16.8

Vz = 27.75
&
ˆ
ˆ
Then, µo = (4Vy − 57)k = −124.2k
2

µo =124.2 kgm / s in direction − ve z − axis

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -62

Chapter – 7
Kinematics of Rigid Bodies
7.1 Introduction:
Particle:
• It is a material body which is so small that its dimension can be treated as negligible in
comparison to other dimensions involved.
Rigid bodies:
• It is combination of two or more particles, which are connected in such a way that they do not
change their relative positions due to application of external forces.
• The various points or particles in rigid bodies may have different motions but their motion are
so related such that their relative position remains unchanged.
• In reality all the rigid bodies deform in application of external forces but in negligible amount.
7.2

Translation:
A motion is said to be translation if any straight line drawn on the body obeys the same
direction. If all the particles move parallely along straight line, it is said to be rectilinear translation
and if the path are curved, the motion is said to be curvilinear translation.
A

A’

B

B’

A

B

A’

B’

If rA and rB be the displacement vectors of the particle A & B during t , then for translation

rB
t

=

f

rA
t

vA = vB − (i )

Similarly,
vA
vB
− (ii )
aA = aB
=
t
t
Thus, for any body in translation, all the points have the same velocity and acceleration at any given
instant.
For curvilinear translation, there is change in direction and magnitude of velocity and acceleration at
every instant. For rectilinear translation velocity and acceleration follow same direction during entire
motion.
7.2 Rotation:
A motion is said to be rotation when the particles in the rigid bodies (slab) moves in concentric
circles, with common fixed center ‘O’.
f

If the particle in the slab moves ‘d ’ at time dt, then the angular velocity is given by:

A
A1

1

1

A1

B1

A

B1

B1

B1

o
d
o

=

d
dt

− (i )

And, the angular acceleration is given by:
2

d
d
=
2
dt
dt
d

=
dt =

From (i)

d

=

− (ii )

d

=

d

d

g

d
− (iii )
d
Anti-clockwise direction is taken +ve and clockwise direction is taken –ve.
(1) For Uniform Rotation:

= 0,

=

=

is constant, and

0

+ t......

(2) For Uniformly Acceleration Rotation:
= o+ t
=

= cons tan t

2

o

=

t2
2
2
o +2 ( −

+

ot

+

From the equation of linear motion
o

)

Linear and Angular Velocity, Linear and Angular Acceleration
v=

ds
dt ;

=

d
dt

;v=r

Tangential component of acceleration, at =

dv
d
dt = r dt

And Normal component of acceleration, ar =

(r )2
r

=r

=r
2

7.3

General Plane Motion:
Any plane motion which is sum of a translational and rotational motion is called plane motion.
A part of motion is translation and another part is rotational.
B
B’

B

B’

B1

B2

B1

d
A
A

A’

A1

A2

A2
B2

A’

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -64

B1

B’2
B2

B1

B’

2

A1

A2

A1

B2

A2

A

2

7.4

Absolute and Relative velocity in plane motion
Absolute motion means motion with respect to fixed axes and relative motion means motion of
one with respect to other axes in motion.
For any plane motion of rigid body, when replaced by sum of translation and rotation about A,
then absolute velocity of particle B is given by:
VB = VA +VB

− (i )

A

where, VA = absolute velocity of A is translation of slab with A
VB/A = relative velocity ‘B’ with respect to ‘A’ i.e. rotation of slab measured with respect to
‘A’
VA

VA

VA
A

A

x’

A

VB/A

r
VB

B

B

V B/A

B

VB
Plane motion translation with A

VB

VB = VA +VB/A

Rotation of B about A

The plane motion of Rod can be explained as:
(a) choosing A as reference \A
Translation with ‘A’ & rotation about ‘A’
A

From figure ‘d’

=V

V
VB = VA tan

V

=

BA

&

[lv =

B/A

A cos

¦

i.e. VB = VA +VB

r]

l
VA
[same result can be obtained by choosing 'B' as reference point]
− (ii )
l
cos
Hence, Angular velocity of Rigid body in plane motion is independent of the reference point.

7.5

=

Instantaneous Center of Rotation
For any general plane motion, there exist a center with reference to which the velocities of all
the particles in the rigid body are same at any instant of time. This center is called as instantaneous
center of rotation and the axis is called instantaneous axis of rotation.

W

W
A

UA

A

A

UA
plane motion

Rotation

=0

But, If VA

f

If 

If VA = 0

0&

translation

’A’ will be the instantaneous center of rotation
No instantaneous center of rotation
0, Then

If the slab is rotated with angular velocity ' ' about a point ‘c’ located on the perpendicular to VA at
distance r = VA

from ‘A’ then all the particles will appear to rotate about ‘c’ with same velocity

' '.
W
A

VA

plane motion

VA

in stantarems of rotation

Methods to locate instantaneous center of rotation
If direction of velocity of particles ‘A’ & ‘B’ are known but are not parallel, then ‘c’ is the
intersection of perpendicular drawn on VA & VB

B
C

C
W

VB
B
A

VA

VB

A

VA

C

If magnitude and direction of velocity of particles ‘A’ & ‘B’
are known and are perpendicular to line AB, then ‘c’ is located
as

W

B

VB

A

(c) If magnitude VA = VB , then ‘c’ would be at infinite and the body would translate.
Note:
Instantaneous center of rotation may be located either on the slab or outside.
• If ‘c’ is located on the slab then Vc = and VB = VB C .
The point ‘c’ is different at different time interval t
Acceleration of various particle on the slab cannot be determined by this method. Hence, it is
used to compute only the velocity of particles at any instant of time.
7.7 Absolute and Relative Frame: Coriolis Acceleration in plane motion
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -66

Definition:
A particle with in a system of rigid body may have motion with respect to a moving frame
inside the body. In such case an additional comp. of acceleration of the particle with respect to the
moving frame comes into the existence, this complementary acceleration in case of moving frame is
called coriolis acceleration, 'ac ' which is perpendicular to the direction of relative velocity of particle
with respect to frame.
x
w
Y

u

B

Y’

x’

Y

A
r

Absolute frame
Stationary frame

Relatix frame
or moving frame
Axis x’ay rotates
With avg. velocity w

Bel.Velocity

Wr

bs. velocity

u

ac

A

Calculation:
Consider the motion of particle P, which moves along a path on a slab ‘s’. The slab rotates
along a fixed point O. Motion of P is given by r & with respect to fixed axis (XOY axis) and by r
& , with respect to axis attached to slab ‘s’ and rotating with it. It is required to determine the
absolute motion of ‘P’ and relative motion of ‘P’ with respect to ‘S’.
We know from radial and transverse component of velocity
&
& &
&
& ( Vp ) = r = r ( o + 1 )
− (i) [ =
( Vp ) r = r
Here, p is position with respect to x-y axis
Y
p' is position with respect to x'y' axis.

o

+

1

]

¤

Y’

Case I:
When P is fixed on slab ‘s’ and the slab allowed to rotate with

p’
p

respect to XOY, then P coincides with P'
&

g
g

r=0 &

So from equation (i)

(Vp' ) = 0
r

r = cons tan t
&
1 =0
&

(Vp' ) = r

1

= cons tan t

1

s
o

&
o

− (ii)

¦

Vp = Vp' ,

X’

r

Case-II:
When slab is fixed and P is allowed to move, then

&

Vp = Vp s
o =0
o = cons tan t
Then from equation (i)
&
&
(Vp s )r = r & (Vp s ) = r 1 − (iii)

o

X
X

g

Now, the total velocity is given by:
from the vector components, we have:
Vp = Vp' +Vp s
− (iv )
The Radial and Transverse components of velocity

(Vp )r = (Vp' )r + (Vp / s )r & (Vp )

=

(Vp' )

+

(Vp / s )

[also for

acceleration] Again for acceleration, we have:

&2

&&
( a p )r

&&

−r =r
&& & &

= r

&
− r(

+

1

)

&2

&&

− r(

=r

&& &&

= r + 2r = r(

(a p )

o

2

&

&

& & &2
+2

o

o 1

+

1

) −(v )

&

)+ 2r ( o + 1 )

− (vi)
Calculating the acceleration of point ‘p’ when the slab is rotates as ‘P’ also moves with respect to
slab it is observed that, instead of being
o

+

1

¤

ap = ap' + ap / s , we get
a p = a p' + a p / s + ac ,

= 2r

o

¨ 

(a c )r

where ac has the vector component as
&
&&
− (vii)

= −2

and, (a c ) = 2

(Vp s )

(Vp / s )r

(a c )r

− (viii)

90° to the rotation of slab

(a )

along the rotation of slab

c

The coriolis acceleration

ac is thus a vector

perpendicular to the relative velocity V p / s

and of

magnitude to z . Vp / s and direction of ac is perpendicular to the vector V p / s .
7.10 General Motion:
Considering two particles A & B of the rigid body, then, we have

V = V +V

− (i )
If the body rotates with angular velocity ' '
‘A’, then
B

A

VB =

Y

B/A

[

− (ii ) V B / A =

× rB / A

× rB A

B

]

rB/A

A

Further, we have

x’

a =a +a
B

A

B/A

rA

or, aB = aA + ×r B / A +

[Q a

B / A

(

×rB/A+

×r B / A +
a B / A = r ×r B / A +

)

×r B / A

]= dtd (V
d

dt

×

− (iii )

d
)= dt
d
× dt r B / A

B / A

x

o

(

× r

B / A

)

×rB/A
×

(

×

×r B / A

)

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -68

where is the angular acceleration of the body at instant considered. The equ (ii) and (iii) show that
the most general motion of a rigid body is equivalent to the sum of a translation (in which all
particles of the body have the same velocity and acceleration) and of a motion in which particle ‘A’
is assumed to be fixed.
i.e. The motion of any particle ‘B’ with respect to ‘A’ would be characterized by the same vectors
&

. Thus

are independent of the choice of reference point but the moving frame should

&

remain parallel to the fixed frame of reference.
Tutorials:
1. The end ‘B’ of the rod AB as shown in the figure moves with constant velocity, VB = 0.9 m/s (
Determine:
(a) Angular velocity and angular acceleration of the
rod
(b) Velocity and acceleration of end ‘A’
Solution:

Y

A

Here,

5

3m

YA = 3m & X B = 4m
−1
= tan (3
4)

¤

B

Again,

o

&

&

=

)

&

= 0.9

= 0.3rad / sec
2
&
&&

¢

££

Again, aB = x = −5[(cos ) +

&&

¦

−0.12
=

= xB = 0

&

= −0.3

&&

4

¥¥

= −5(sin

B

aB

¡

QX

4m

&&

[taking + ve for clockwise direction]

X B = 5cos

&

VB = X B = 0.9m / s

(a) Now from AOB,

(sin ) ]= −5

3 &&

2

×

(0.3) +

× = .0

5

5

=

&&

= 0.12rad / sec

§

(b) We have

&

&

&&

[

&&

& aA = Y A = 5 (cos )
− (sin
A = 5(cos )
3
4
2
or, aA = 5 −
×(− 0.3)
+
×(− 0.12) = −0.75
5
5
4
or, VA = YA = 5 × × −0.13 = −1.2m / s
5
VA =1.2m /
2
aA = 0.75 m / s
s
&

¨

YA = 5sin

Y

)

)

&2

]

¤

(2) In the engine system shown, the crank AB has a constant clockwise angular velocity of 2000rpm. For the crank
position indicated, determine:
the angular velocity of the connecting rod BD
the velocity of position P.
Solution:
Here, the crank AB rotates about point A,

VB=0.1m/s
X

AB

= 2000rpm =

2 N

rad / sec = 2 × × 2000 = 209.4rad / sec

60

VB = ( AB)×

60

= 209.4 ×75 =15.68m / s

AB

Using sine law,
sin 90° = sin B
sin 40° = sin B
B =13.94°
BD
AB
3
8
Now, for the motion of connection rod BD, which is a plane

f

40

0

P
D

f

A

motion:
the velocity VD is horizontal and VB is as obtained above. Resolving motion of BD into a translation
with B and rotation about B, we get:
B

B

BD

W

B

50
50

VB

VB

VD/B
D

D
VD
VB

Plane motion =

Translation

+

Rotation
VD/B

50

B

Now, we have

V

VD = VB +V D / B
Again, using sine law,
VD

V

D/B
VB
15.68
=
=
sin
sin
sin
sin 53.9°
76.1
50°
76.1°
Solving the equation separately, we have,
VD / B =12.37m / s

=

− (i )

VD = Vp =13.05m / s
Again,

= 61.9rad / s

× BD

g

BD

f

VD / B =

BD

BD

=

V
BD

D/B

=

12 . 37
0. 2

= 61.9rad / s

(3) A double gear rolls on the stationary lower rack. The velocity of its center ‘A’ is 1.2 m/s directed
to the right. Determine:
R
(a) the angular velocity of the gear
B
(b) the velocities of the upper rack ‘R’ and of point ‘D’ of
Solution:
(a) Angular velocity of the gear:
Distance moved by the center of gear for each
revolution = 2 r1

gear.
D

VA = 12mm/s

C
R2 =100mm

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -70

=2 r
A

x A = r1
Differentiating,

1

f

[x

xA =
Then, 2 r1 2

]

=2

− (i)

g

x&A = VA = r1
or, 1.2 = 0.15

g

= 8rad / sec

Analyzing the plane motion:
VD/A
B
A

D

VB/A

VA
VA

VD/A
VD

A
VA

VB

A
VA

VA

C

VC/A

VC

Now, velocity of upper rack
VR = VB = VA +V B / A =1.2 + r2

=1.2 + 0.1×8 = 2m / s

VB = 2m / s

¡

Velocity of point D,

VD = VA +VD / A =1.2 + r1

=1.2 + 0.15 ×8

VD =1.69 m / s
= tan

−1

1.2

1.2

= 45°

¢

Chapter – 8
Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies
Forces, Moments & Acceleration
8.1 Considering a rigid body acted upon by several external forces, F1 , F2 , F3 , etc.Let, the rigid
body be made of a large number of particles of mass mig = (i =1,2.....n)and G be the mass center of
the rigid body whose motion can be considered with respect to xyz
axis. Then, from Newton’s 2
F = ma

nd

law:

- (i)

where, m = Total mass of the body
a = Acceleration of the CG ‘G’
F = Sum of applied force on the body
Again from Angular-Momentum Theorem,

M

G

= H

&

− (ii

G

)

M G = Sum of the moment of forces about ‘G’

where,

&

H G = Rate of change of angular momentum about G.
The equations of motion (i) and (ii) express that the system of external forces is equivalent to the

&

system consisting of vector m a attached at G and couple of moment H

G

.

Angular Momentum of Rigid body in plane motion:
Considering a rigid slab consisting of a large number of particles P1 of mass mi be in plane
motion. The angular momentum H G of the slab about its mass center G may be computed as:
n

'

HG =

− (i )

'
× m i vi

ri

i= 1

'

'

where, ri and mivi be the position vector and linear momentum of Pi about the ‘G’ with respect to
x'y' frame.
Again,
'

vi =

× ri

'
n

HG =

'

ri ×

(

×ri

)

mi

i=1
n

¢

ri

'2

mi

=1

HG = I

− (ii )

n

r

i

'2

mi = I ; motion about G perpendicualr to slab

i =1

Differentiating equ(ii) with respect to time, we get:
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -72

&

&

HG =I

&

− (iii )

=I

H G =I
Thus the rate of change of the angular momentum of the slab is equal to I and in perpendicular to

the direction of the slab.
8.3 Plane motion of a Rigid body : D’Alembat’s Principle:
Statement:
“For a rigid body of mass ‘m’ moving under the action of several forces F1 , F2 , F3 , etc , the
external forces acting on the rigid body are equivalent to the effective forces of the various particles
forming the body.”
Considering mass center ‘G’ of the slab as reference point, we have:

F

(

)eff

x

( m)ax

=

F

(i)

( )eff

= ( m)ay
Again, we have:
y

(
(

m)a

(
(

=

x

m)ax

(ii)
m)a y =
m)ay
where, ax and ay are components of a at ‘G’.
m = Total mass of the slab = M

Then from equations (i) and (ii), we have:

F
( x )eff = Max
F )

(

(iii)

)eff

= May
The total acceleration a of any given particle ‘P’ of the slab is equal to
y

()

Total acceleration a = Linear acceleration of ‘G’ (a )+ Angular acceleration of P w.r.t. x'y' a'
a = a + a'
'

'

a = a + an eˆn + at eˆt − (iv )

Thus, effective force is also resolved into two parts:
F

eff

=

ma =

ma +

man eˆn +

mat eˆt

i.e. effective force = force due to translation about G + Force due to rotation about G
Considering the case of Translation:
During translation, all the particles in the body moves along ‘G’ such that total moment of force
about the ‘G’ is zero [because mat and max = 0]
For Translation,

=0
M
( G )eff
&

or,

H

eff

=0

F eff = ma −(v )

Considering the case of rotation:

For rotation

'
max

and mat are associated with the slab, Now
'

[

'

]

'

Moment of max about G = 0 and ax is along G
Moment of

'
mat

'

r'( m)at Again, we have
'

at = r' ,
Now considering all the particles of slab under rotation
(M G )eff =

r'( m)r' =

r'

2

m=I

For rotation motion,

( M G )eff

µ&G =

=I

For plane motion:
For General Plane Motion, the system of effective forces can be replaced by an equivalent force
coupe system consisting of m a force at ‘G’ and couple of I in the directon of

along ‘G’

Then The D’Alembert’s Principle becomes,
“ The external forces acting on the body are equivalent to a force-couple system consisting of a
vector m a attached to the mass center ‘G’ of the body and a couple I .”
Then equation of motion becomes,
Fx = Max
Fy = May
M

(x)

= I

G

Note:
For translation, effective force reduces to m a . For rotation, effective force reduces to I and for the
plane motion effective force is the sum of the both.
Application of Rigid body motion in plane:

( )
acting on the body, the acceleration of its mass center (a) and the angular acceleration ( ) of the
For a rigid body in plane motion, there exists a fundamental relation between the forces F

body.
F = ma x + ma y + I
This relation may be used to determine the acceleration

(a) and angular acceleration ( )

produced by a given system of forces acting on a rigid body, or to determine the forces which
produce a given motion of the rigid body.
The equation may be separated as:
Fx = max

;

Fy = may

;

M

c

= I

The equation is solved to get the unknown quantity of motion.
It gives the better understanding of problem, easy to draw free body diagrams, develop and
solve equations for the 3-D and 2-D motions.
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -74

Constrained Motion in the Plane:
The plane motion, where each bodies move with definite relation with the other bodies is called
constraint motion. For example: rotation of crank is related with translation of piston and oscillation
of connecting rod in an engine.
In such cases, the definite relationship exists between mass center, acceleration a and angular
acceleration between the several bodies, under constrained motion.
Solution for such motion is obtained in two steps:

(

)

Kinetic Analysis a, , I , M of the problem
Use of D’Alembert’s Principle or Dynamic Equilibrium Method to solve the unknown
quantity.
When a mechanism consists of several moving parts, each moving part is considered separately
and the problem is solved.
Two particular cases of constrained motion are:
Non-centroidal rotation:
Rigid body is constrained to rotate about a fixed axis which does not pass through main
center.
The mass center ‘G’ of the body moves along a circle of radius r centered at the point ‘O’.
= const
i.e. = .0

If

at = r = 0, then a = ax i.e. normal component only and the force generated thus is called

centrifugal force.
Rolling Motion:
If the disk is constrained to roll without sliding the acceleration of its mass center ‘G’ and its
angular acceleration ‘ ’ are dependent.
Here,
x=r

− (i )

Differentiating w.r.t time, we get

&&
x

=a=r

− (ii )

If the mass center ‘G’ does not coincide with its geometric center ‘O’ , the relation (ii) does not hold
true.
Then, the relation becomes
ao = r − (iii ), where ao = acceleration of the geometric center
Then,

(

a = aG = ao + aG / O = ao + aG / O
where,
a = r , (a
o

) = (OG)
G/O t

and

) + (a )
G / O

t

(a

)

G

= (OG)

2

G /O n

Tutorials:
1. A cord is wrapped around a homogenous disk of radius r = 0.5 m and mass = 15 kg. If the cord is
pulled upwards with a force T of magnitude 180N, determine
Acceleration of center of disc
Acceleration of the
cord Solution:
From (b) and (c), system of external forces = system of effective forces

F =

F

)eff

x

F

( )eff

0 = max

f

(

x

f

F =

ax = 0

T − = may
T−
ay =
m
−2
ay = 180 −15 ×9.81 = 2.19ms
15
y

ay = 2.19ms

f

y

−2
−2

Q a = aG = 2.19ms

Again,
Moment of external forces = Moment of effective turns

i.e.

=

M

M

(

G

G

1
−Tr = I =

2
mr

¢

2

=−

¢

=−

2T

)eff

2 180
×

= −48.0 rad / s 2

mr 15 ×0.5
2

= 48 rad / s

g
g

Acceleration of Cord

( )

acord = aA

t

(

=aG+ aA/G

)

t

aG + .AG
2.19 + 48 ×0.5
acord =26.2 ms

−2

Tutorials 2 contd .....
Resolving a into two components:
ax = a cos 60° = 1.339
ay = a sin 60° = − 0.520
Now, equating system of external forces to a system of equivalent forces, we get
Now,

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -76

I=

1

2 ml

2

= 12

25

(1.2)2

= 3kgm

2

I =3
w = mg = 25 ×9.81 = 245N

max = 25 × 1.339 = 33.5
may = −(25 )(0.52) = −13

Now, we have:

(M E )eff w ×0.52 = max ×1.339 + may
or, 245 ×0.52 = (33.5 )(1.339) + (13 )×0.52 + 3
E

=

f

M

+ I
or, = 2.33rad / s

×0.52

Again,

(

F
x

)

=

(

F
x

)eff

or, RB sin 45° = max = 33.5 = 33.5 ×
2.33 RB =110.5N
F = (F )

y

y

eff

or, RA + RB cos 45° − 245 = (− 13)×

2.33

RA =136.6N (

)

Chapter –9
Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies
Energy and Momentum Method
Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body
For a rigid body of mass ‘m’, ‘P’ be a particle of the body with mass ‘ m ’ moving with
velocity ‘v’. Then,
2

KE of the particle = ½ ( m )v

If the particle moves from position P1 to P2, then from the principle of work and energy, the
work done is calculated as:
U1−2 = Change in KE = T2 − T1
T1 + U1−2 = T2
T − KE at P

where,

1

1

T2 − KE at P2

Considering all the particles in a system, we have:
T1 +U1−2 = T2
Work of Force acting on the Rigid Body
The work of force F during the displacement from its position s1 to s2 is:

U =
1−2

s2

( F cos )ds −(i )

s1

where, F is magnitude of force F and

is the angle between the force and the direction of motion.

If F and F' are two forces turning a couple, then moment of couple is:
M = F.r
Under the application of external forces (F & F'), the displacement of points A & B to A'B", the
motion may be divided into two parts:
Point A & B undergo equal displacement dr1 to point A' & B'.
Point A' remains fixed and B' moves to B" with the displacement dr2 equal to rd .
During the first part of motion, work due to force F = Work due to F' and cancels out due to opposite
in sign.
During the second part of motion, work done is given by:
du = F.dr2 = Frd
du = Md

[Q M = rd ]

Total work done is U1−2 =

2
1

Md

9.3 Kinetic Energy for a system:
(A) Kinetic Energy in Translation:
For a rigid body in translation, all the particles have the same velocity as of
CG. i.e. v = v
-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -78

KE of the entire body in Translation is given as:
n

1
(

T=
i=1

T=

1

2

mi )v

=

2

n
2

( mi ) v

2 i=1

1
2
2 Mv

¢

Kinetic Energy in Rotation:
Considering a rigid body rotating about fixed axis and point ‘O’, then
1 ( m)v2 = 1 ( m)(r )2 = 1 2 r 2 m
2
2
2
1
2
2
Q r
m = M.O.I. of the body about the axis of rotation = Io
KE = 2 Io
This formula is valid for any axis of rotation.
KE =

[

]

¢

(C) Kinetic Energy in Plane Motion:
For a body in plane motion, at any given instant, the velocities of all the particles of the body are
same as if the body were rotating about the instantaneous axis of rotation, and about the
instantaneous center of rotation. Then the kinetic energy is
1
T = 2 Ic
where,

2

− (i )

Ic = M.O.I. of the body about the instantaneous axis
= Angular velocity at the instant considered.

Now, from Parallel axis Theorem
IC = I + mr

2

where,
I = M.O.I. of the body about a centroidal axis perpendicular to the reference
plane r = Distance from 'C' to mass center 'G'
Then,
1
2
T = 2 (m r + I )

2

1
= 2 m( r

1

)2 + 2 I

2

1
2 1
2
− (ii) [Q r = v = velocity of G]
or, T = 2 mv + 2 I
So, the total KE of rigid body in plane motion is the sum of KE of body due to Translation about CG
1 mv 2
1
I 2.
and KE of body due Rotation about CG
2
2
Conservative and Non-Conservative System:
A system is said to be conservative if the work done by the system is independent of the path
followed but depends upon the initial and final position of it. Examples are KE, PE, gravity, etc.
In the non-conservative system, work done depends upon the path followed by the system.
Examples are friction, elastic, etc.

The principle of conservation of energy is valid for the conservative force only. When a rigid
body or a system of rigid bodies move under the action of conservative forces, then the principle of
work and energy may be expressed as:
T1 +V1 = T2 +V2
i.e. The sum of the KE and PE of the system remains constant.
Work-Energy Applications:
Considering a rod AB of length ‘L’ and mass ‘m’ whose extremities are connected to blocks of
negligible mass sliding along horizontal and vertical tracks as shown in figure.
If the initial velocity of the rod is zero and datum as shown is considered, then
Q Initial KE (T1) = 0
Initial PE (V1) = 0
If the rod moves by an angle ‘ ’, the CG of the rod moves by
initial position.
V2 =
−mg

¢

1 sin

L sin
vertically downwards from its
2

1

= mgL sin
2 2 2
Now, for the final position, the instantaneous center of rotation is located at ‘C’ and also we have that
CG =

1

2L
r

Then, V

2

=

1

¤

T2 =

2

mV2 +

I

2

1
1
L= 2L
2

=

1

2

=

T2

CG

2

2

1 mL2

1
=

m( L

2

)2

11
+

2

1

2

mL

2 12

I=

2

mL

for rod

12

2

2 3

Applying Principle of Conservation of Energy, we get:

T1 +V1 = T2 +V2
1
2

2
mL

3

2

¨

0+0=

1

mgL sin

2
1

3g
sin

¢

=

2

¡

L
Note: D’Alembert’s Principle should be used to find the reactions at the sliders.
Impulse and Momentum for System of Rigid Bodies
The principle of Impulse and Momentum can be applied to the system of rigid bodies as well.
We know that,
System Momentum-1 + System External Impulse 1 2 = System Momentum-2

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -80

n

IF

L=

mi vi = sum of momentum of all particles
i=1

or, L = mv
n

'

And, H G =

ri × mi vi = sum of moment of momentum of all particles
i=1

or, H G = I
Then,

Then, we have :

The fig(iii) gives three equation of motion, as

(mv1 ) x +

2
1

( Fdt)x = (mv2 ) x

2
(mv1 ) y + 1 ( Fdt)y = (mv2 ) y
2
2
I +
Fdt

− (i )
− (ii )

1 Fdt y xx + 1
− (iii )
x y=I z
where, x & y are perpendicular distances of impulse from x and y axis

1

Conservation of Angular and Linear Momentum:
When no external forces acts on a rigid body, the impulses of the external forces are zero and
the system of momentum at time t1 is equal to system of momentum at time t2.
Thus, total linear momentum is conserved in any direction and angular momentum is conserved
i.e. if

Fext = 0

mv1 = mv2 &

( H o )1 = ( H o )2
In some cases as when the line of action of all external forces pass through ‘G’ or when sum of the
angular impulses of the external forces about ‘G’ is zero, then
Impulsive Motion and Eccentric Impact:
Remember : The definition of Impulsive Force and Impulsive motion . Eccentric impact Considering
two bodies which collide under the eccentric impact. Let VA and VB be the
velocities before impact of the points of contact A and B. Under the impact, the two bodies will
deform and at the end of period of deformation,
component of UA = Component of UB, along the line of
impact. [During deformation both bodies move with same velocity.]
At the end of period of restitution, VA' and VB' be the velocities of A and B as shown,
Assuming the bodies are frictionless. Then, component of restitution is given by:

where,
Rdt

e=

− (i )

Pdt

= magnitude of impulse during the period of deformation

Pdt

Rdt
= magnitude of impulse after the period of deformation
The relative velocities of two particles before and after impact along the line of impact is related as:
(V ' ) − (V ' ) = e[(V A ) n − (V B ) n ] − (ii)
B

n

A

n

(V ' ) − (V ' )
B n

Relative velocity along the line of action after collision

A n

or, e = (V A ) n − (V B )n = Relative velocity along the line of action before collision
Applying Impulse-Momentum Equation for the particle ‘A’
Let v and u be the velocities of mass center at the beginning and at the end of the period of
deformation.

and

be the angular velocities at the same instant.

1

Then along the line of impact the component of momentum and impulse becomes:
n

− (iii )

¤
¤

mvn − Pdt = mu

And,

Pdt = mvn − mu

Pdt = I
− (iv )
−I
I − r Pdt = I 1
where r is the perpendicular distance from ‘G’ to line of impact.
Similarly, considering for the period of restitution:

mvx − Rdt = mvx'

−(v )

n

1

Rdt = mvx − mvx'

¤
¤

Rdt = I 1 − Iw'
I 1 − r Rdt = I '
− (vii)
where, v ' and ' represent the velocity of mass center and angular velocity of body after impact.

From (i), (iii) & (v), we get:
mu n − mv'
e=
mvn − mu n
n

'

− (vii)
e = u n − vn
vn − u n
Similarly, from equ(i), (iv) and (vi), we get:

=

−I '

I

1

−I

I
e=

1

1

− '

− (viii)

1

Again,
Multiplying the numerator and denominator of equ(viii) and adding respectively to the numerator
and denominator of (vii), we get:
e = u n + r 1 − (v n + r ')
v n + r − ( un + r )
'

(u ) − (v ' )
A n

− (ix )

1

A n

e = (v A ) n − (u A )n
nd
Similarly for 2 body,

−(x)

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -82

( v ' ) − (u )
B n

B n

− ( xi )
e = (u B ) n − (v B )n
Adding the numerator and denominator of (x) and (xi) respectively, we get:
(u ) − ( v' ) + ( v' ) − ( u )
A

n

A

n

B

B n

n

e = (v A ) n − (u A ) n + (u B ) n − (v B )n
'
(v ' ) − ( v )
B n

A n

− ( xii)
e = (v A ) n − (v B )n
e Relative velocity of colliding body along the line of impact after collision
=
Relative velocity of colliding body along the line of impact before collision

¢

Tutorials:
1. Gear A has a mass of 10 kg and a radius of gyration of 200mm, while gear B has a mass of 3 kg
and a radius of gyration of 80mm. The system is at rest when a couple M of magnitude 6 Nm is
applied to gear B. Neglecting friction, determine:
The number of revolutions executed by gear B before its angular velocity reaches 600 r/min.
The tangential force which gear B exerts on gear A.
Solution:
(a) Considering the peripheral speed of gears be equal, we
have rA wA = rB wB
w =w
A

rB
Br

= wB

100
250

= 0.4w

B

A

¢

We have, wB = 600r / min = 62.8rad

/s w=

dN
60

wA = 0.4wB = 25.1rad / s
2

2
IA = mA k A2 =10 ×(0.2) = 0.4kgm

I B = mB k 2 = 3×(0.08)2 = 0.0192kgm2
Applying work-energy principle to the system,
Since, system is initially at rest, T1 = 0
B

¤

And,
T2 =

1

2 I A wA

2

+

1

1

2 I B wB

2

2
+
2 (0.4)(25.1)
(0.0192)(62.8)2 T2 =163.9J

1
2

¢

Let B be the angular displacement of gear B,
Then,
Work U1−2 = M B = 6 × B = 6 B J
By the principle of work and energy:

T1 +U1−2 = T2
0+6

¢

or,

B
B

=163.9

B

Re v =

= 4.35 rev

B

2
(b) Considering the motion of gear ‘A’
KE of gear A at rest T1=0
When w=600 rpm
KE of gear A, ‘T2’ =

1
1
I A wA2 = (0 .4)(25.1)2 =126J
2
2

Work:
We have,
Angular Arc covered by both gears is same i.e. s = rA A = rB
Then, work done by gear A during the motion,
U1−2 = F ( A rA ) = F ( B rB )= F (27.3)(0.1)= F

B

[s = r ]

(2.73) Principle of Work-Energy: Applying for Gear ‘A’
T1 +U1−2 = T2
0 + F ×2.73 =126 J
= 46.2N
A 2 kg sphere moving horizontally to the right with an initial velocity of 5 m/s strikes the lower
end of an 8 kg rigid rod AB. The rod is suspended from a hinge at A and is initially at rest. Knowing
that the co-efficient of restitution between the rod and sphere is 0.80, determine the angular velocity
of the rod and the velocity of the sphere immediately after the impact.
Solution:
We have from Impulse-Momentum Theorem,
(System Momentum)1 + (System External Impulse)1-2 = (System Momentum)2
Let, VR and VR' be the initial and final velocity of Rod ‘CG’, and ' be the angular velocities of
'
the rod and Vs and Vs be the velocities of sphere.

Now,
Taking moment about A,
'

'

msVs ×1.2 = msVs ×1.2 + mR vR ×0.6 + I ' − (i)
Here,
VR' = r ' = 0.6 '

1

2

1

2

I = 12 ml = 12 ×8 ×(1.2) =
2

0.96kgm Substituting these values in equ(i) ,

2 ×5 ×1.2 = 2 ×Vs' ×1.2 + 8 ×0.6 × '×0.6 + 0.96
× ' 2.4Vs' + 3.84 '=12 − (ii )
Now, we have coefficient of restitution, = 0.8

¢

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -84

or, =

Relative velocity after collision
Relative velocity before collision
'

or, =
'

VR −Vs

'

[V s

Vs −VR

= 5m / s,

= 0.8]

VR = 0,

'

or, VR −Vs = 0.8 ×5
− (iii )
or, VR' −Vs' = 4
When the rod rotates about A, then
VR' = 0.6 ' − (iv)
From (iii) and (iv),
'

1.2 '−vs = 4 − (v)
Solving (ii) and (v), we
get: '= 3.21 rad / s
Vc' = 0.143m / s
3. A 20 gm bullet ‘B’ is fired with a horizontal velocity of 450 m/s into the side of a 10 kg square
panel suspended from a hinge at ‘A’. Knowing that the panel is initially at rest, determine:
The angular velocity of the panel immediately after the bullet becomes embedded.
The impulsive reaction at ‘A’ assuming that the bullet becomes embedded in 0.0006
sec. Solution:
Applying Impulse-Momentum Equation:
(System Momentum)1 + (System External Impulse)1-2 = (System Momentum)2
Taking moments about A:
mB vB ×(0 .35)= mp v2 (0.225)+ I p w2 −

(1) x-components:
mB vB + Ax t = mp v2 − (2

) y-components:
0 + A y t = 0 − ( 3)
M.O.I. for square panel I =

1

2
6 mb =

1

2

6 (10 )(0.45)

= 0.3375kgm2

Putting values in equ(i), we get:
v2 = (0 .225)w 2 − (4 )
Again, putting value of v2 in equ(i)
2

(0.020) (450) (0.350) = (10) (0.225w2) (0.225) + 0.3375 w w2
v2 = 0.225 × w2 = 0.839m / s

¡

Putting v2 and t = 0.0006s into equ(2)
(0.020) (450)+Ax (0.0006) = 10 (0.839) Ax
= -1017N
Ax = 1017 (

¢

¡

From equ(3)

)
Ay = 0

Chapter – 10
Mechanical Vibrations
10.1.1 Introduction
A mechanical vibration is the motion of a particle or a body which oscillates about a position of
equilibrium. When a system is displaced from a position of stable equilibrium, it tends to return
to its initial position under the action of restoring force or elastic force.
The time interval required for the system to complete a full cycle of motion is called period of
vibration (

).

The number of cycles per unit time is called frequency(f).
The maximum displacement from mean position is called as amplitude of the vibration (A).
Types of Vibrations:
Free Vibration
: Vibration only due to restoring force like elastic force.
Forced Vibration
: Vibration due to external periodic force.
Undamped Vibration : Effect of friction may be neglected
Damped Vibration : Effect of friction is considered ; the vibration slowly decreases and comes to
halt.
10.1.2 Undamped Free Vibration of
Particles:
Let us consider a mass ‘m’ attached to a
spring having constant K.
At equilibrium condition,
W = T = K st − (i)
where,

W = Weight of particle
T = Force exerted by spring
st

T = K et

st
unstretened
position

(no wt)

= Elongation of the spring

equilibrium
position

The particle is displaced through a
distance ‘x’
m
from
its
equilibrium
position
and
released
with no initial velocity. Then it will
move back and
forth through its
equilibrium.
At any position of displacement x, the

Q’

-Xm

T=K( st +x)

o

x
equlibrium

P
w
Q
+Xm

ma

magnitude of the resultant force ( F ) is given by:

F=W−K(
=W − K

+ x)

st

− Kx

st

− (ii ) [sin ce K

F = −Kx

st

=W]

¢

The negative sign indicates that the force is towards the equilibrium position.
From (ii)
&&
F + Kx = 0 mx + kx = 0

[

]

¤

x + Kx = 0
2
dt
2
K
or, d x +
x=0
dt2 m

n
− (iii ) which is linear dist. equ of 2nd order

2
2
or, d x + P x = 0

− (iv ) Putting

or, m d

2

K

2

= P , where P =

K

is circular frequency

2

dt
m
m
The motion defined by equ(iv) is called as Simple Harmonic Motion. Particular solution of the above
differential equation i.e. x1 = sin pt

x2 = cos pt

x = Ax1 + Bx2
x = Asin pt + B cos pt

¢

And, the general solution :

&

−(iv )

Differentiating above equation with respect to time, we get:
&
v = x = AP cos pt − BP sin pt −(vi)
Again, differentiating w.r.t. time, we get:
a = &x&= −AP2 sin pt − BP2 cos pt − (vii)
The value of arbitrary constant A and B depends upon the initial conditions of motion.
At time t=0, position x = xo , then from equ(v)
− (ix)

B = xo

Again, at time t=0, Velocity v = vo then from equ(vi)
A=

v o
P

−(x)

The vibration also can be represented in circular motion of point Q with angular velocity P and
radius of rotation x m which form a simple harmonic motion.
From the equation of simple harmonic motion in circular motion, we have:
-Xm

o

Xm

x
+Xm

t

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -88

x = xm sin( pt +

)

v = x& = xm P cos( pt +

)

g

a = &x&= −xm P2 sin( pt +

Period, =

2
P

)

and

Frequency of Vibration, f =1 e = 2

P

Again,
Maximum Velocity (v m )= xm P
Maximum Acceleration(a m )= xm P2
10.1.3 Free Vibration of Rigid Bodies:
Analysis of vibration of rigid bodies is done as that of particle and the D’Alembert’s Principle is
applied to solve the unknown parameters and calculate t & p.
We have differential equations for free vibration as
dt2 x
+ P2 x = 0
dt2
d

and For angular displacement

+ P2 = 0 − (i )

2

dt2

Let us consider a square plate of ‘2b’ sides, which is suspended from the mid-points ‘O’ on one of its
sides.
If the plate is tilted such that ‘OG’ makes angle ‘ ’ then we have,
'=

&

&

mat = mb

&&
&&
=

[Q at

&2

=r =b

&&

& an = r

'2

=b

&2

]

max = mb
Now, Applying D’Alembert’ Principle,
mext about O =

or, − wsin .b = ma t b + I or, −

&&

wb sin = m(b

)b + I

&&

Now for Square Plate,
2
I = mb2
3

& Putting w = mg, we get :
2

- mgb sin = mb

&& 2

+ 3 mb

5

2

or, − mgb sin = 3 mb

&&

= − 3 g sin
5b

&&

&&

&&

f

or,

2

+ 3g sin = 0
5b

− (ii )

www.bhawesh.com.np
&&+ 3g

− (iii ) [sin =

=0

for

= small]

5b
which is the equation of simple harmonic motion comparing with equ(i), we get:

= 3g
5b

1 2

− (vi )
Then, = 2 = 2
5b
P
3g
Comparing this equation with that of pendulum,
p

l

=2

g

we get effective length, l =
effective length

5 b
3 , This shows that the square plate will oscillate as a pendulum with

5 b
3 with ‘O’ as its center.

Steady Harmonic Force Undamped Vibration
These vibrations occur when a system is subjected to a periodic force or when it is elastically
connected to a support.
Consider a body of mass ‘m’ suspended from a spring and subjected to period force P of
magnitude = Pm sn t undergoing damped vibration.
At any displacement x from equilibrium position, then the equation of motion will be given by:
+

F = ma

or, Pm sin

t + w − k(

&&
st

+ x) = ma = mx 

¨

or, Pm sin t − w − k
&&

&&

st

− kx = mx

− (i ) [Q k st = w]
or, mx + kx = Pm sin t
This is homogenous differential equation.
Its general solution = Particular solution + Complementary Solution
Particular solution of (i) can be obtained by trail method of
t − (ii)

x = xm sin
&&

2

− (iii )
sin t
x = −xm
Putting values of (ii) & (iii) in (i), we get:
2
− mw xm sin t + kxm sin t = Pm sin

t

Solving,
Amplitude ( X m) = − m 2

P

k mw

¢
=

Xm

Pm k
1− w p

− (iv )

[Putting k / m = P2 , P is circular frequency]

The general solution is given by
x = Asin pt + B cos pt + xm sin

t

−(v)

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -90

The first two terms of equ(v) represent a free vibration of the system and the third part represents
forced vibration and the frequency involved is forced frequency.
xm

Magnification Factor =

P
m

1

=
k

− (v )

1 − (w P)2

Tutorial
1. A 50 kg block moves between vertical guides as shown. The block is pulled 40 mm down from its
equilibrium position and released. Determine the period of vibration, the maximum velocity and
maximum acceleration of the block.
Solution:
=

Here,

1

+

=

2

P

+

P

k1 k2
For equivalent single spring with ‘k’
=

1

g

k

P P P
= +
k k1 k2

= 1+ 1
k
k
1

k=

2

k +k
1

2

= 4 + 6 = 10
4 ×6

k1.k2

24

¡

P= k
m

Now,

Time Period ( ) =

2
P

=

vm = xm P = 0.04x
am = xm P 2 = 0.04x
2. A cylinder of mass ‘m’ and radius ‘r’ is suspended from a looped cord. One end of the cord is
attached directly to a rigid support, while the other end is attached to a spring of constant ‘k’.
Determine the period and frequency of vibration of the cylinder.
Solution:
Taking positive sense as clockwise and measuring the displacement from the equilibrium position:

&&

g

Here,
x=r

= 2x = 2r

&&

=
a=r =r
( ) − (i )
Applying D’Alembert’s principle

Taking Moments
m

ext

meff about ' A'

mgr −T2 (2 r )= mar + I
− (2 )
For the unstretched condition, the tension in each cord is

To =

1

=

2

1
2 mg

When the cylinder is rotated by ‘ ’ the tension T2 becomes
T2 = To + k = mgr + k.2r
− (3)

¢

From (1) and (3), putting in (2), we get:
1
mg + k( 2 r ) (2 r )= m(r

&&

¤

mgr −

)r +

¤

+

2

k
3m

2 &&
mr

2
Solving, we get:

&& 8

1

¤

T2 = mgr + 2kr

I=

1

mr

2

2

=0

The motion is S.H.M. where,

P2 =

8k

3m
P= 8k
3m

¢

f= P
2

¢

¢

= 2
P

=2
f=
2

3m
8k
1 8k
3m

-By Er. Biraj Singh Thapa (Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering, Biratnagar)/ -92