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**MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
**

Hooman Askari

Fans

MINE 407 Mine Ventilation

Lec17

Theory and Design of Axial-Flow Fans

Lec17_2

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Design Variables of Centrifugal Fans

The principal action of an axial-flow fan in

producing pressure is to impart a tangential

l ti t th i it th h acceleration to the air as it passes through

the impeller of the fan.

Any centrifugal force generated is small and

practically negligible when the fan operates

at rated conditions.

The rotative energy must be converted into

linear-flow energy and static head as the air

leaves the impeller.

Lec17_3

Theory and Design of Axial-Flow Fans

The total head imparted to the air by an axial-flow

fan, theoretically, can be found from the following

equation: equation:

( )

5.2g

V - V V .

2 1 t

γ

=

t

H

where:

Vt: is the tangential velocity

of the blade

(V1 - V2): is the change in

) ( .

2 1

V V V H

t t

− = ρ

( ) g

the rotational component of the

absolute velocity (whirl

velocity).

Lec17_4

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Typical Characteristic Curve for an axial fan

Lec17_5

Example of a set of characteristic curves for an axial

fan with variable blade angle

Lec17_6

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Theoretical pressure volume characteristic curves for

centrifugal fans

Lec17_7

Power-Volume theoretical characteristics

Lec17_8

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Departure of centrifugal fan

performance from the theoretical

Lec17_9

Departure of centrifugal fan

performance from the theoretical

Lec17_10

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Departure of centrifugal fan

performance from the theoretical

Lec17_11

characteristic curves

fan performance in

terms of the

principal operating

variables:

Head

Quantity

Power

Efficiency

Lec17_12

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Example 1

Given an axial-flow fan operating under the

following conditions:

Hs = 3.84 in. (956 Pa)

D = 6 ft (1.83 m)

Q = 140,000 cfm (66.07 m3/s)

n = 1750 rpm

Pm = 140 bhp (104.4 kW)

g = 0 075 lb/ft3 (1 20 kg/m3) g = 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.20 kg/m3)

Calculate fan H

t

, η

s

, and η

Lec17_13

Fan Laws

The behavior of a fan under changing head-

quantity conditions is predictable from its

characteristic curves.

However, there are certain variables other

than the flow and resistance of the system

that exert a considerable effect on fan

performance p

as measured by fan head, quantity, power,

and efficiency

Lec17_14

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Fan Laws

Fan Size D (m)

Fan Speed N (revs per second) Fan Speed N (revs per second)

Air Density r (kg/m³)

Air Viscosity µ (N.s/m²)

Assign every physical property, its equivalent

fundamental units

Length = L

Time = T

Mass= M

Lec17_15

Fan Laws

By dimensional analysis it can be demonstrated

that for a series of geometrically similar fans

(homologous series) and for a particular point of (homologous series), and for a particular point of

operation on the head-quantity characteristic, the

following relationships are valid:

Quantity:

Q = k

q

nD

3

or Q ∝ nD

3

Head:

H k

2

D

2

H

2

D

2

H = k

h

n

2

D

2

r or H ∝ ρn

2

D

2

Power:

P

m

= k

p

n

3

D

5

r or P

m

∝ ρn

3

D

5

Lec17_16

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Fan Laws Summary

Variance in Law 1 Law 2 Law 3 Variance in

Performance

Characteristics

Law 1

With speed change, n

(D and ρ constant)

Law 2

With Size change, D

(ρ and D.n constant)

Law 3

With Density change, ρ

(n and D constant)

Quantity, Q

Head, H

s

or H

t

Power, P

a

or P

m

Effi i

Directly

As square

As cube

C t t

As square

Constant

As square

C t t

Constant

Directly

Directly

C t t Efficiency, η Constant Constant Constant

Lec17_17

Example 2- Speed Change

Given the fan characteristic curves at

present speed n = 800 rpm, plot the

characteristic at new speed n

2

= 1600 rpm.

Lec17_18

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Example 2- Speed Change

Lec17_19

Example 3 – Size Change

Given the fan curves of for size D

1

= 48 in.

(1.22 m) at n

1

= 800 rpm, plot the

1

characteristics for a similar fan of size D

2

=

84 in. (2.13 m), and find n

2

if the tip speed

is constant.

Lec17_20

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Example 3 – Size Change

Lec17_21

Example 4- Density Change

Given the fan curves for density γ

1

= 0.050

lb/ft

3

(0.80 kg/m

3

), plot the characteristics

at new density γ

2

= 0.075 lb/ft

3

(1.20

kg/m

3

).

Lec17_22

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Example 4 – Density Change

Lec17_23

Example 5

Compare the head of two similar fans with

size D1 = 3.5m and fan speed of 250 rpm

and D2 = 5m and the fan speed of 200 rpm.

Lec17_24

University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation

Hooman Askari

Example 6

Given the fan head of 75 mm water and the

fan speed of 100 rpm calculate the fan head

if the speed increases to 120 rpm?

Lec17_25

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