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# University of Alberta

MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Fans
MINE 407 Mine Ventilation
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Theory and Design of Axial-Flow Fans
Lec17_2
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Design Variables of Centrifugal Fans
The principal action of an axial-flow fan in
producing pressure is to impart a tangential
l ti t th i it th h acceleration to the air as it passes through
the impeller of the fan.
Any centrifugal force generated is small and
practically negligible when the fan operates
at rated conditions.
The rotative energy must be converted into
linear-flow energy and static head as the air
leaves the impeller.
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Theory and Design of Axial-Flow Fans
The total head imparted to the air by an axial-flow
fan, theoretically, can be found from the following
equation: equation:
( )
5.2g
V - V V .
2 1 t
γ
=
t
H
where:
Vt: is the tangential velocity
(V1 - V2): is the change in
) ( .
2 1
V V V H
t t
− = ρ
( ) g
the rotational component of the
absolute velocity (whirl
velocity).
Lec17_4
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Typical Characteristic Curve for an axial fan
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Example of a set of characteristic curves for an axial
fan with variable blade angle
Lec17_6
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Theoretical pressure volume characteristic curves for
centrifugal fans
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Power-Volume theoretical characteristics
Lec17_8
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Departure of centrifugal fan
performance from the theoretical
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Departure of centrifugal fan
performance from the theoretical
Lec17_10
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Departure of centrifugal fan
performance from the theoretical
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characteristic curves
fan performance in
terms of the
principal operating
variables:
Quantity
Power
Efficiency
Lec17_12
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Example 1
Given an axial-flow fan operating under the
following conditions:
Hs = 3.84 in. (956 Pa)
D = 6 ft (1.83 m)
Q = 140,000 cfm (66.07 m3/s)
n = 1750 rpm
Pm = 140 bhp (104.4 kW)
g = 0 075 lb/ft3 (1 20 kg/m3) g = 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.20 kg/m3)
Calculate fan H
t
, η
s
, and η
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Fan Laws
The behavior of a fan under changing head-
quantity conditions is predictable from its
characteristic curves.
However, there are certain variables other
than the flow and resistance of the system
that exert a considerable effect on fan
performance p
as measured by fan head, quantity, power,
and efficiency
Lec17_14
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Fan Laws
Fan Size D (m)
Fan Speed N (revs per second) Fan Speed N (revs per second)
Air Density r (kg/m³)
Air Viscosity µ (N.s/m²)
Assign every physical property, its equivalent
fundamental units
Length = L
Time = T
Mass= M
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Fan Laws
By dimensional analysis it can be demonstrated
that for a series of geometrically similar fans
(homologous series) and for a particular point of (homologous series), and for a particular point of
operation on the head-quantity characteristic, the
following relationships are valid:
Quantity:
Q = k
q
nD
3
or Q ∝ nD
3
H k
2
D
2
H
2
D
2
H = k
h
n
2
D
2
r or H ∝ ρn
2
D
2
Power:
P
m
= k
p
n
3
D
5
r or P
m
∝ ρn
3
D
5
Lec17_16
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Fan Laws Summary
Variance in Law 1 Law 2 Law 3 Variance in
Performance
Characteristics
Law 1
With speed change, n
(D and ρ constant)
Law 2
With Size change, D
(ρ and D.n constant)
Law 3
With Density change, ρ
(n and D constant)
Quantity, Q
s
or H
t
Power, P
a
or P
m
Effi i
Directly
As square
As cube
C t t
As square
Constant
As square
C t t
Constant
Directly
Directly
C t t Efficiency, η Constant Constant Constant
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Example 2- Speed Change
Given the fan characteristic curves at
present speed n = 800 rpm, plot the
characteristic at new speed n
2
= 1600 rpm.
Lec17_18
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Example 2- Speed Change
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Example 3 – Size Change
Given the fan curves of for size D
1
= 48 in.
(1.22 m) at n
1
= 800 rpm, plot the
1
characteristics for a similar fan of size D
2
=
84 in. (2.13 m), and find n
2
if the tip speed
is constant.
Lec17_20
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Example 3 – Size Change
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Example 4- Density Change
Given the fan curves for density γ
1
= 0.050
lb/ft
3
(0.80 kg/m
3
), plot the characteristics
at new density γ
2
= 0.075 lb/ft
3
(1.20
kg/m
3
).
Lec17_22
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation
Example 4 – Density Change
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Example 5
Compare the head of two similar fans with
size D1 = 3.5m and fan speed of 250 rpm
and D2 = 5m and the fan speed of 200 rpm.
Lec17_24
University of Alberta
MINE 407 – Mine Ventilation