NAT. CROAT. VOL.

21 No 2 357¿372 ZAGREB December 31, 2012
original scientific paper / izvorni znanstveni rad

CONTRIBUTION TO THE URBAN FLORA OF ZAGREB (CROATIA)
TOMISLAV HUDINA1*, BEHIJA SALKI]1, ANJA RIMAC1, SANDRO BOGDANOVI]2 & TONI NIKOLI]1
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Division of Biology, Department of Botany and Botanical Garden, Maruli}ev trg 9a, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2 University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Botany, Sveto{imunska 25, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Hudina, T., Salki}, B., Rimac, A., Bogdanovi}, S. & Nikoli}, T.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb (Croatia). Vol. 21, No. 2., 357–372, 2012, Zagreb. The process of urbanization is one of the most extreme forms of anthropogenic habitat modification. Negative trends and their effects on the one hand, and concern for the preservation of biodiversity and quality of city life on the other, are the initiators of urban flora research. The flora of urban areas in Croatia has not been the subject of sustained research and therefore floristic records for most of the larger cities are unknown. The research area is located in northwest Croatia in the city of Zagreb, on the right bank of the Sava River. In the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo a total of 351 taxa of vascular plants belonging to 81 families were recorded. Seven of them (2%) were pteridophytes (Equisetidae), two of them (0.6%) gymnosperms (Pinidae), and others were angiosperms (Magnoliidae). Among angiosperms, 71 taxa (20.2%) belong to monocotyledons (superorder Lilianae) and the other 271 taxa (77.2%) from 65 families belong to other superorders of angiosperms. Families with the highest number of taxa are Poaceae (11.4%), Asteraceae (9.1%), Fabaceae (7.4%), Lamiaceae (5.7%) and Rosaceae (5.4%). Phytogeographical analysis showed that the Eurasian geoelement predominated (30.1%), followed by cosmopolites (27%). The most common life forms are hemicryptophytes (48.1%), therophytes (22.2%) and phanerophytes (11.4%). Among recorded taxa 22 are invasive alien species (6.3%), two taxa (0.57%) are threatened and 64 taxa (18.2%) are under legal protection. If we compare the number of species per unit area and proportion of protected and threatened species with the results of similar floristic researches in central and north Croatia we can conclude that it is a relatively rich floristic area. Key words: urban flora, invasive species, Konopljenka, Pi{korovo, Zagreb, Croatia Hudina, T., Salki}, B., Rimac, A., Bogdanovi}, S. & Nikoli}, T.: Prilog poznavanju urbane flore Zagreba (Hrvatska). Vol. 21, No. 2., 357–372, 2012, Zagreb. Proces urbanizacije jedan je od ekstremnih oblika preinake stani{ta koju ~ovjek mo`e poduzeti. Negativni trendovi i njihovi u~inci s jedne strane, te briga za o~uvanjem bioraznolikosti gradova i kvalitete `ivota s druge, pokreta~i su istra`ivanja urbanih flora. U hrvatskim razmjerima urbane flore nisu bile predmetom osobito intenzivnih istra`ivanja te za ve}inu ve}ih gradova nisu poznate. Prou~avano podru~je smje{teno je u sjeverozapadnom dijelu Hrvatske u gradu Zagrebu, na desnoj obali rijeke Save, desetak kilometara jugozapadno od centra grada. Na podru~ju Konopljenke i Pi{korova zabilje`ena je 351 svojta vaskularnih biljaka iz 81 porodice. Od toga su sedam svojti (2%) papratnja~e (Equisetidae), dvije svojte (0,6%) su golosjemenja~e (Pinidae), a ostalo su kritosjemenja~e (Magnoliidae). Me|u kritosjemenja~ama 71 svojta (20,2%) pripada jednosupnicama (nadred Lilianae), a ostale 271 svojte (77,2%) iz 65 porodica su pripadnici ostalih nadredova kritosjemenja~a. Vrstama najbogatije porodice su Poaceae (11,4%), Asteraceae (9,1%), Fabaceae (7,4%), Lamiaceae (5,7%) i
1

* corresponding author, e-mail: tomislav.hudina@gmail.com
Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, Zagreb, Croatia

Negative trends and their effects on one hand.1%). Zagreb. Reports of the flora and vegetation of Zagreb and its surroundings are more numerous than of other cities in Croatia. Hrvatska.. INTRODUCTION The process of urbanization is one of the most extreme forms of anthropogenic habitat modification. invazivne vrste. and have an important social value (WILLIAMS et al. SUKOPP (2003). At the same time. 2009). Savica) was conducted during 2006 within the project Countdown 2010 Zagreb (NIKOLI] et al. T. water content. the amount of available data for the world.. terofiti (22. (2004) report reduction of species number in cities and increase of species number in the surroundings. because there is little or no possibility of restoring the original habitat type (THOMPSON & MCCARTHY. In some cases urban areas are very well investigated and the data are systematically gathered virtually for centuries. VAN DER VEKEN et al. ZERBE et al. filtration and soil drainage. Od `ivotnih oblika najzastupljeniji su hemikriptofiti (48.000 residents) are unknown. 2009). and concern for the preservation of biodiversity and quality of city life on the other. 2008) and Omi{ (TAFRA.4%). PY[EK et al.3%). Fitogeografska analiza pokazala je da su najzastupljenije svojte euroazijskog flornog elementa (30. Konopljenka. negative with respect to biodiversity. are related to this anthropogenic influence – alterations that make habitats completely uninhabitable. Klju~ne rije~i: urbana flora. 2007). On the other hand floristic data of the urban part of Zagreb are almost non-existing. changes in ecological conditions..2%) su pod zakonskom za{titom. 2004a. temperature. both in size and population so the changes in urban flora are likely to be consistent with those observed in other European cities. Mapping of certain urban zones (Jarun. a 64 svojte (18. fragmentation.4%). modifications of the qualitative and quantitative species composition etc. In other cases the floristic data for a vast number of cities are unknown and therefore research is necessary (WILLIAMS et al. Maksimir. such as agriculture. are the main reasons behind urban flora research. Floristic data for Split (RU[^I].1%) te {iroko rasprostranjene svojte (27%). 2003). (2004a) and VAN DER VEKEN et al. 2010). Modifications due to urbanization are more permanent then those caused by other anthropogenic activities. as well as for Europe. Usporedimo li broj vrsta po jedinici povr{ine te udio za{ti}enih i ugro`enih svojti s rezultatima sli~nih floristi~kih istra`ivanja na podru~ju sredi{nje i sjeverozapadne Hrvatske. TRINAJSTI] (2000) recorded another new taxon for the Croatian flora in the city of Zagreb. Furthermore the city of Zagreb is growing rapidly. mo`emo zaklju~iti da se radi o relativno bogatom podru~ju. Zadar (MILOVI].. 2010). et al. The flora of the urban areas in Croatia has not been the subject of sustained research and therefore floristic records for most of the larger cities (>50. is very unequally distributed. 2009) are more an exception than the rule. Pi{korovo. 2007. Some authors like CHOCHOLOU[KOVÁ & PY[EK (2003)..: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb Rosaceae (5. dvije svojte (0. 2000.358 Hudina. . However.. PY[EK et al. (2003). A fairly large number of side effects. when a new invasive species was recorded (ALEGRO et al.2%) i fanerofiti (11. WITTIG & BECKER.57%) imaju status ugro`enosti. 2008). The expected negative effects on flora such as loss of diversity and homogenization of flora are reported in many cities (MORACZEWSKI & SUDNIK-WOJCIKOWSKA. vegetation and related flora in urban surroundings provide some of the elementary functions of ecosystems – the effect on air quality. which allows trend analysis (LANDOLT. 2004). Zabilje`ene su 22 invazivne svojte (6.

and the beginning of the 20th century (GJURA[IN 1923. the research sites are marked with black dots. relating to the studied area date from the second half of the 19th (SCHLOSSER & VUKOTINOVI]. Vol. (2007). MILOVI] (2004) and MITI] et al.000 scale topographic map. which is in the northeast bordered by the Sava River embankment and in the southeast by Jadranska avenija [street]. Fig.1 and 0261. 1978). ILIJANI] et al. HORVATI] 1931). The first floristic data. in the context of the previous remarks. mapping of the flora in the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo in the southwest part of the city on the right bank of the Sava River was conducted. 1973. NIKOLI] & FADLJEVI] (1999). 1975. 1. LUKA^ (1988). On the 1:25. greatly enriches the diversity of the flora of the City of Zagreb and represents a contribution to the overall knowledge of the urban flora. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study area The investigated area of Pi{korovo and Konopljenka (so-called area of »Sveu~ili{na bolnica«) is located in the city of Zagreb. MARKOVI] (1970. an only partially built-up area. Geographical position of the investigated area. 21(2). HORVATI] & GOSPODARI] (1959–60). It covers an area of about 8 km2. 2012 359 The area along the Sava River. on the right bank of the Sava River. HR[AK (2002). (1998). approximately 10 kilometers southwest of downtown. TOPI] & [EGULJA (1978). Croat. The researched area is located in the MTB square units 0261. which is the axis of the city plan.2 (Fig. In the last fifty years contributions to the knowledge of the flora of this area were provided by GOSPODARI] (1958). with elements of semi-natural habitats. SMITAL et al. however sparse. 1869). (1989). 1). .Nat. was partially investigated on several occasions. In order to make a contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb. This. MARKOVI]-GOSPODARI] (1965).

T. Seven of them (2%) are pteridophytes (Equisetidae). now showing different stages of succession. monographs and standard identification keys were used: TUTIN et al. 1938) (ANTONI] et al. Life forms were interpreted according to ELLENBERG et al.. The average monthly precipitation varies from 36. JAVORKA & CSAPODY (1991).1 mm (annual average is 838. The average annual temperature is 11.. The area investigated phytogeographically belongs to the lowland area of the Central European province in the Euro-Siberian-North American region of the Holarctic (HORVAT. HAEUPLER & MUER (2000). 4 – Southeast European floral element. loam and clay sediments.360 Hudina.1 mm to 1026. NIKOLI] & KOVA^I] (2008). two of them (0.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb The climate is continental. 2005). and marked with following abbreviations: P – phanerophyta. 9 – Widespread plants. ranging from 9. Within the researched area 32 localities were selected and geo-coded with GPS – a Garmin e-Trex receiver. PIGNATTI (1982). N – nanophanerophyta.7°C (HUSNJAK.9 mm (February) to 96. The area lies on the Holocene sediments that are characteristic of the Sava River valley. MITI] et al.6°C to 12. 3 – East European-Pontic floral element. 2008. 2008) was made. HORVATI] & TRINAJSTI] (1967–1981). He – hemicryptophyta. 1949). (2008). a total of 351 taxa of vascular plants from 81 families were found. Annual precipitation varies from 594. DOMAC (1994). et al. The broad valley of the Sava River that dominates the city of Zagreb is part of an alluvial plain formed from gravel. ROTHMALER (2000). MITI] et al.1°C. (2005).. The terrain is almost completely flat and lies at the altitude of about 120 m (HUSNJAK. 7 – Eurasian floral element. legal protection (ANONYMOUS. Genisto elatae-Quercetum roboris Horvat. sand. (2006). Potential natural vegetation in the study area is forest of pedunculate oak and dyer’s broom (Ass. 8 – Circum-Holarctic plants. BLAMELY & GREY (2004). 2009) and invasiveness (BOR[I] et al. 10 – Cultivated & Adventive plants. typical of the northwest part of Croatia. G – geophyta. However. Invasive alien species are marked with abbreviation IAS. JASPRICA et al. SPOHN et al. Analysis of conservation status according to On-Line Red book of vascular flora of Croatia (NIKOLI]. 2 – South European floral element.7 mm (September). (1964–1993). The floral element of each taxon was interpreted according to HORVATI] (1963). RESULTS Within the urban area of Zagreb (the areas of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo). (1991). each taxon is joined to adequate floral element and life form type. this area was first converted into arable land and then in recent years abandoned. 6 – European floral element.8 mm). 2008). STREETER (2010). (2007) and PAND@A (2010). For the identification of plant material following iconographies. and in the list is marked with following numbers: 1 – Mediterranean floral element. Methods Fieldwork was carried out in the period from April to September during 2010 and 2011. and .6%) gymnosperms (Pinidae). T – therophyta and Hy – hydrophyta. 5 – Central European floral element. 2012). Ch – chamaephyta. In the list of the recorded vascular plant taxa. The nomenclature is compatible with the Flora Croatica Database (NIKOLI]. 2008). 2012). PIGNATTI et al.

. 6. 9. He Daucus carota L.) Scop. 8. P Acer pseudoplatanus L. 7.. * Equisetum pratense L. 8.. 10. He Arctium minus Bernh.. He Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten... Hy. 7.) Moench.. He Inula salicina L. 7. P. T. G Equisetum hyemale L. IAS Acer platanoides L. He Leucanthemum ircutianum DC. IAS Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.... 8. He. * Senecio vernalis Waldst.. P APIACEAE Aegopodium podagraria L. 10. 7. He. 9. 8. He Oenanthe aquatica (L. IAS ANACARDIACEAE Rhus typhina L. He ARALIACEAE Hedera helix L. He.. 9. 10. 6. 10.) Gaertn. P PINACEAE Picea abies (L. * ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium L.. He Matricaria perforata Mérat. 71 taxa (20.. P Subclass Magnoliidae ACERACEAE Acer campestre L.. T... 21(2).. 7. G Cirsium palustre (L.. 9.. Ch Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte. G.) Pers. He Senecio vulgaris L. 4. 8. P .. 7. Croat. He Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. He. IAS Inula britannica L. He Centaurea scabiosa L... T.. 10. List of vascular plant taxa * plants protected by law ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Aristolochia clematitis L. IAS Cirsium arvense (L.... 10... He Carlina vulgaris L.2%) belong to monocotyledons (superorder Lilianae) and the remaining 271 taxa (77. G Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. G BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens parviflora DC... 7.) Scop.. He.. He ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias syriaca L. IAS Erigeron annuus (L. IAS Artemisia vulgaris L. 7. 2.) Bernh. He. T Petasites albus (L. 2. G Equisetum sylvaticum L. He Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.. 7. G Equisetum variegatum Schleich.) Cronquist. 7. * Pastinaca sativa L. 8. 9.. 6. He Centaurea jacea L... P AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus retroflexus L. 10. 10. He Helianthus tuberosus L. 6. 2. 5.2%) from 65 families belong to other superorders of angiosperms.) Poir.Nat... 2. T. He. He PTERIDOPHYTA Subclass Equisetidae EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense L. et Kit. He Ambrosia artemisiifolia L... 8.. 7. 9. Among angiosperms. He Artemisia alba Turra.. * SPERMATOPHYTA Subclass Pinidae CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. T Solidago gigantea Aiton.. * Tussilago farfara L. 10. IAS Tanacetum vulgare L. 6. IAS Eupatorium cannabinum L. 7. 7.. 6. 7. He Peucedanum oreoselinum (L. 7. G Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. 7. He. IAS Arctium lappa L. He Conyza canadensis (L. 2012 361 others are angiosperms (Magnoliidae).. He. 10. Vol.. P Acer negundo L. 1. G.. He Centaurea nigrescens Willd. 10.) Karsten. 6. 7. IAS BETULACEAE Betula pendula Roth. 6. 8. 8. G Pulicaria dysenterica (L. 7.. He Centaurea rhenana Boreau.. P BORAGINACEAE Echium vulgare L.

. T Chenopodium polyspermum L. T Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. 9. He Hypericum perforatum L. N. alba (Mill.) Koch. 9. ssp. T Convolvulus arvensis L.. N Sambucus nigra L. Br. He Knautia arvensis (L. 6... 9.. N.... He . 10.... He Calystegia sepium (L. 5. He CLUSIACEAE Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) Moench. T FABACEAE Anthyllis vulneraria L. 6. T. 9. 7. He Myosoton aquaticum (L. 2.) Greuter et Scabiosa triandra L.. He Symphytum officinale L... * Viburnum opulus L. 7. * Sedum ochroleucum Chaix.. P CAMPANULACEAE Campanula patula L. He Crepis biennis L.. He Alliaria petiolata (M. He Stellaria media (L.. 9.. Ch. 5. T BRASSICACEAE Lactuca serriola L.. T CANNABACEAE Humulus lupulus L. He Bourdet.. Ch CUCURBITACEAE Bryonia alba L. ssp. 5.. He Legousia speculum-veneris (L. 2. 2.. T Cardaria draba (L. 7. danubialis (Jacq..) Heynh. 7.. N Viburnum lantana L. 7. 6. * Erophila verna (L. orientalis (L.. He Knautia drymeia Heuff. T Dipsacus fullonum L. 9.) Hill. 7. He Cucubalus baccifer L. T CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium album L. * Leontodon hispidus L. He Saponaria officinalis L. T 7. 9. 7. 9.. 7.. 2. 2.) Hill... Petrorhagia saxifraga (L. 9. 7.. et al. * Scabiosa columbaria L. 7. He Sinapis arvensis L.) Besser.) Desv. 10. 2. He Crepis foetida L.) ^elak. 6. intermedia (Pernh.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb CICHORIACEAE Chondrilla juncea L. He et Wettst. Bieb. 5. * Astragalus glycyphyllos L.. 9.) SiArabidopsis thaliana (L. 2. He BUDDLEJACEAE Buddleja davidii Franch.. * CUSCUTACEAE Cuscuta europaea L. He Cardamine hirsuta L. T Euphorbia esula L. 9. Br.) Medik. 9.) Ehrend. 7. T Euonymus europaeus L. 9. 7. 7.. He Cichorium intybus L.) Guss.. 9. 7.. He Brassica nigra (L. 6... * Sonchus asper (L. 7. He Cardamine impatiens L.... 7... ssp. T Lepidium virginicum L. He. 2. He CAPRIFOLIACEAE Sambucus ebulus L. 9. 7..... 7. * Euphorbia platyphyllos L. He CELASTRACEAE Euphorbia helioscopia L. T. ssp. He. Ch Sedum sexangulare L. 9. IAS CONVOLVULACEAE Rorippa sylvestris (L.) DC. Lapsana communis L..) Vill. 7.. T monk. T Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. He. 3. P CORYLACEAE Corylus avellana L. 9..) Chaix. He Picris hieracioides L. 7. 7... 9. G Lithospermum arvense L. 7. He Silene latifolia Poir..362 Hudina. T Tragopogon pratensis L. 2. He Taraxacum officinale Weber. 9.) Cavara et Grande. T Myosotis arvensis (L.. 2. 9. 7.) Coult.. G. He Euphorbia cyparissias L. He EUPHORBIACEAE Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. N CRASSULACEAE Sedum acre L.) Chevall.. 7. T CARYOPHYLLACEAE DIPSACACEAE Arenaria leptoclados (Reichenb. 7. N CORNACEAE Cornus sanguinea L. He.) R.) Link.. He Barbarea vulgaris R. T.

He Plantago major L. Löve. 9.. 9.. 8.. 7..... 6. 9.Nat.. 2.. 9... He Stachys sylvatica L.. 9. 21(2).... 10. 7.) Lam. T Geranium dissectum L..) Vahl. T Geranium pusillum Burm. He Ajuga reptans L. T Lycopus europaeus L.) Bartal. T Papaver rhoeas L. * MALVACEAE Abutilon theophrasti Medik.. He Lamium maculatum L. 7. 9. 10.. 6.. 9. 7. 2. lapathifolium. * Geranium rotundifolium L. T GERANIACEAE Geranium columbinum L. He Galeopsis speciosa Mill.. 2. IAS Securigera cretica (L. Vol. Hy. He OXALIDACEAE Oxalis corniculata L. He Galega officinalis L. Croat. 2. 7. P HIPPURIDACEAE Hippuris vulgaris L. 9. * Lathyrus hirsutus L.. Ch Thymus pulegioides L. 4. He Teucrium chamaedrys L. 5. 2. 9.. He Robinia pseudoacacia L. He Stachys palustris L. 9. 9. 8. He.. T. * Mentha aquatica L. 2. Ch. T.) Huds. N ONAGRACEAE Epilobium dodonaei Vill... He Glechoma hirsuta Waldst.) Lassen. lamyi (F. 5. He. Ch Oxalis fontana Bunge. * PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago lanceolata L.. T Trifolium campestre Schreber.. He Ballota nigra L. 7. 7.. 7... 7. He Papaver dubium L.. T Geranium robertianum L. He Vicia cracca L. T Melilotus altissimus Thuill. 10.. 7. T Fallopia convolvulus (L.. 2. T HIPPOCASTANACEAE Aesculus hippocastanum L. T. f. * Genista tinctoria L. He Lamium purpureum L... 7.. He PAPAVERACEAE Chelidonium majus L. T Medicago minima (L. T Vicia villosa Roth. He. Ch Epilobium tetragonum L. 2. 9... P LAMIACEAE Ajuga genevensis L. 9. 9. P. He....... 10. 7.. T Medicago sativa L. * JUGLANDACEAE Juglans regia L. T Glechoma hederacea L. 7. * Clinopodium vulgare L. ssp... * Melilotus officinalis (L. He Lotus corniculatus L. He Medicago lupulina L. 10. P POLYGALACEAE Polygala vulgaris L. 9. 3.. 9. P OLEACEAE Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. 9. 9.. T Lathyrus latifolius L. 7. He Melilotus albus Medik. 7. T Polygonum aviculare L. 7. 10. T. 5.. 8. He Plantago media L. 2012 363 Coronilla varia L. ssp.. IAS Malva sylvestris L. He Stachys recta L. * Thymus praecox agg. He. Schultz) Nyman. N Fraxinus ornus L.. 9. 7. 9.) Á. 7. 2.... 9. 6. 7.. T . 7. He Vicia sativa L. 9.. * LYTHRACEAE Lythrum salicaria L. et Kit.. He Dorycnium germanicum (Gremli) Rikli. Ch LINACEAE Linum catharticum L. * Prunella vulgaris L. 6. 9.. T Polygonum lapathifolium L. G. 7.. 10. P Ligustrum vulgare L.. He Lathyrus tuberosus L. He POLYGONACEAE Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. 9. He Lathyrus pratensis L. He MORACEAE Morus nigra L.. He PLATANACEAE Platanus acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.. 6.. W. He Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. 10. 3.. He Salvia pratensis L. He Trifolium repens L. * Mentha longifolia (L. He.. Ch. T Trifolium pratense L.

9. 7. P URTICACEAE Urtica dioica L. He Galium verum L. * RESEDACEAE Reseda lutea L. P. 9. 6. P Populus tremula L. IAS SOLANACEAE Datura stramonium L. 7.. P Salix purpurea L. He Veronica persica Poir. 10. He Geum urbanum L. He. He. He. 2... He. He Verbascum nigrum L. P Populus nigra L.) Raeuschel. P Prunus persica (L. 10. P SAXIFRAGACEAE Saxifraga tridactylites L..) Batsch. 7... 9. T. 7. He Prunus avium L. Schneid.364 Hudina. He. He Primula vulgaris Huds. He Galium mollugo L. 7.. He . 9.. 9. 9. 7... T SCROPHULARIACEAE Antirrhinum majus L. 9.. 1. 6.. 9. 10.. 7... He VIOLACEAE Viola hirta L. IAS Veronica polita Fr. P. * Malus domestica Borkh. 9.. 2. 7. Ch Linaria vulgaris Mill. T SIMAROUBACEAE Ailanthus altissima (Mill. insititia (L. 9. 9. 6. P Prunus domestica L. He Scrophularia nodosa L. He. 7. He. He Potentilla reptans L.. He... 7. He PORTULACACEAE Portulaca oleracea L. He. et al.. 7. * RUBIACEAE Cruciata laevipes Opiz. P Pyrus communis L. 10.. N Sanguisorba minor Scop. N Rubus discolor Weihe et Ness. 9....... He Lysimachia vulgaris L. 7. * Salix alba L. 7. He.. T Lysimachia nummularia L. T Galium lucidum All. 9.. 8.. He VALERIANACEAE Valeriana officinalis L.. P Ranunculus acris L. 7. 7. * Rosa canina L.. P.. T Reynoutria japonica Houtt. P Potentilla erecta (L. IAS Rumex acetosa L. 9. 2. P ULMACEAE Ulmus minor Miller.. * Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. 7. * Verbascum thapsus L. He... ssp. 9. He Rumex crispus L. * VERBENACEAE Verbena officinalis L... 7.. 7.. 9. * ROSACEAE Agrimonia eupatoria L. 9.) C.. T. * Thalictrum minus L.. P Prunus spinosa L.. P Salix eleagnos Scop... muricata Briq. He Rumex patientia L. P. He Rumex pulcher L. 6. 6. * SALICACEAE Populus alba L. P Salix caprea L. He Potentilla recta L.. P Tilia platyphyllos Scop.. 9. 10. 6. * Crataegus monogyna Jacq.. 9.. He Galium palustre L.... He. 2. * Thalictrum lucidum L. K.. * Veronica arvensis L. G. 1. He RANUNCULACEAE Clematis vitalba L. T. * Thalictrum flavum L. * Ranunculus ficaria L... 6. * Rubus caesius L. He Galium aparine L.) Swingle. P. 5. * Odontites vulgaris Moench.... 8. 7. 6.. 9.. 7.. 5... T Veronica chamaedrys L. * Fragaria viridis Duchesne. T PRIMULACEAE Anagallis arvensis L.. 7. * Scrophularia umbrosa Dumort. 2. ssp.. G. N. P Salix cinerea L. He. T TILIACEAE Tilia cordata Mill.. 6. 10. 6. 7. He. * Potentilla heptaphylla L. T Scrophularia canina L. He. 7. He. 9. * Ranunculus repens L. 10.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb Polygonum persicaria L. 7. IAS Solanum nigrum L.. 3. 7.

Hordeum murinum L... 9.. IAS Carex spicata Huds. T. Vol. 6. Beauv. He Carex pendula Huds. G Poa annua L. He Carex hirta L.) Rich..) P.. 9. 9. 10.. 2. He CYPERACEAE Festuca pratensis Huds. G. He Allium carinatum L.. 7.. 8. Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. 9.) Roem. 8.. * TYPHACEAE Typha angustifolia L. IAS Juncus articulatus L..) Pers..) P. T. 2. 9. 7.. 6. 8.. 10. G. 1. 10. G Colchicum autumnale L.. 9.. 6. He Vitis vinifera L. 2012 365 VITACEAE POACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L. T Allium vineale L.. 8. 7.. 9.. 9. T Leucojum aestivum L. * Typha latifolia L. G Bromus sterilis L.. 9. He Cynodon dactylon (L. G. T Allium ursinum L. He Lolium perenne L. T Juncus tenuis Willd.. * AMARYLLIDACEAE Bromus erectus Huds. He Carex flacca Schreb.. G.) P. T Juncus inflexus L.. T COLCHICACEAE Elymus repens (L. He. 6. 7. G Bromus hordeaceus L. G Carex flacca Schreb. He Poa angustifolia L. 8.. * Calamagrostis epigejos (L..) Greu. He Asparagus officinalis L.) Gould... 6. 9.) P. 10. 21(2). T Arrhenatherum elatius (L. * Setaria pumila (Poir.) Mill... Croat. G. 9. 10. 7.. 7.. P Apera spica-venti (L. He IAS Alopecurus pratensis L.. 6. He Carex sylvatica Huds... T Poa compressa L. G Bromus racemosus L. G. * ORCHIDACEAE Anacamptis pyramidalis (L. G Phragmites australis (Cav... T ALISMATACEAE Briza media L.. 9. Hy Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 9.... He Avena sativa L.. * . 7. 9.. Hy Bromus commutatus Schrad. He DIOSCOREACEAE Poa nemoralis L. 8. 9.. G. 9. He Iris pseudacorus L. ex Steud.) Trin.. T Hordeum vulgare L. 9.) Planchon.. He Tamus communis L. 9. G Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.. T Setaria viridis (L. T Carex otrubae Podp. * Eragrostis minor Host. G ASPARAGACEAE Dactylis glomerata L.. 2.. 10. 7. G..) Pers. 7. 5. T JUNCACEAE Sorghum halepense (L.Nat. 7.. He Phleum pratense L. G Potamogeton natans L. Presl. He Carex pseudocyperus L. 9. 7.. 7.. P. 9... * Echinochloa crus-galli (L. He Vulpia ciliata Dumort. 6. He Phalaris arundinacea L. 10. 8... 10. serrulata (Biv. 7. IAS Zea mays L. 6. et Schult. 6. He Holcus lanatus L. Beauv. 7.. He Panicum capillare L. Beauv...) P. He Eleocharis palustris (L..) Roth. G Lolium multiflorum Lam. 6. T LILIACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE Muscari comosum (L... 9. 2. * Orchis morio L.) Schult. 6. He Carex tomentosa L. Presl Superorder Lilianae et C. He Carex caryophyllea Latourr. 7. He IRIDACEAE Poa trivialis L.. 9. 8. Beauv. G. He Alisma plantago-aquatica L. * Poa pratensis L. G. T Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. T ter... 9. He Triticum aestivum L.. 1. 7. ex J. 9.. G.. Beauv. G Carex vulpina L.

a more homogeneous habitat under management. it seems that Pi{korovo and Konopljenka have relatively low floristic diversity. Fabaceae. hence the difference between them is present.2%) from 13 families are monocotyledons (superorder Lilianae) and the remaining 271 taxa (77.6%) from families Cuppresaceae and Pinaceae. Gymnosperms (subclass Pinidae) are represented with two taxa (0. Eurasian floral element is predominant. On average there are ca 44 taxa per square kilometer. 2007). with the highest diversity is a semi-natural area with a high degree of conservation and large habitat heterogeneity. Maksimir has approximately 121 taxa per square kilometer and Jarun has approximately 43 taxa per square kilometer (NIKOLI]. that none of these areas has complete list of flora and that these figures are still relative. T. 2. 2). Other taxa belong to the subclass Magnoliidae among which 71 taxa (20. Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (Fig. This is as expected considering the geographical position Fig. Maksimir and Jarun.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb DISCUSSION In the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo a total of 351 taxa of vascular plants belonging to 81 families were found.. Although the number of taxa per unit area recorded in other parts of Zagreb is very diverse. Asteraceae.2%) from 65 families are members of other superorders of angiosperms. the area of Savica. it is necessary to stress. are more species-poor than heterogeneous parts. For example area of Savica has approximately 618 taxa per square kilometer. The recorded taxa belong to a total of 10 floral elements (Fig. MITI] et al. Namely. uniform habitat areas. with 30. Even though. et al. followed by cosmopolites with 27%. The families with the highest number of taxa are Poaceae. 2006. 3). which are represented with a slightly larger number of taxa than the national average. the large influence of the European floral element is evident. and together with the Eurasian floral element it dominates with over 55%. with the exception of the families Rosaceae and Lamiaceae. Families with the highest number of taxa in the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo.366 Hudina. 2012). Maksimir is a Forest Park. This order of families with the highest number of taxa is almost identical to the order for the entire national flora according to NIKOLI] (2012). . Furthermore.. Seven of them (2%) were pteridophytes (subclass Equisetidae) while 344 taxa (98%) are spermatophytes. These areas are under the different types of management. while Jarun is sporting and recreational area with the highest proportion of surfaces under anthropogenic influence. The proportions of floral elements are consistent with other areas of the continental part of Croatia (ALEGRO et al.1%.

Vol. 6. 2007. with 48. Datura stramonium.. 2010). – floral element). Erigeron annuus. Phytogeographical analysis of the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo (pl. Impatiens parviflora.Nat. 3. though even there with small number of taxa.1%. Helianthus tuberosus. f. Parthenocissus quinquefolia. 2012 367 Fig. PAND@A.. 1975. Croat. According to HORVAT (1949). Amaranthus retroflexus. Panicum capillare. 2007. According to BOR{I} et al. Sorghum halepense and Ve- . 2007). 21(2). (2008) and MITI] et al. MILOVI]. The percentage of therophytes (22. Ailanthus altissima.3% of the total number of reported taxa. Acer negundo. This indicates a higher presence of taxa directly related to anthropogenic-influence habitats (MITI] et al.2%) is slightly higher than expected for this type of climate. – plants. 4. (2008) these are: Abutilon theophrasti. Artemisia verlotiorum. Solidago gigantea. that corresponds to areas with temperate climates where hemicryptophytes dominate. Lepidium virginicum. 2008). 4) are represented with typical proportions characteristic of the continental part of Croatia (MARKOVI]. A certain difference is observed due to the absence of plants that belong to the Illyrian-Balkan and Atlantic floral element that usually appear in the surrounding area (MITI] et al. Fig. life forms (Fig. Chamomilla suaveolens. Reynoutria japonica. Robinia pseudoacacia.e. As expected. of the researched area. Conyza canadensis. Asclepias syriaca. MITI] et al. Juncus tenuis. Life form spectrum of the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo. 1970. In this area we report 22 invasive alien species (IAS). 1978. Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

which contains more different habitat types. J. Kerner. MARKOVI]-GOSPODARI] (1965).g. M. A considerable contribution to the knowledge of neophytes and ruderal vegetation along the Sava River banks was made by MARKOVI] (1970.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb ronica persica. In the course of research it was noticed that some of the arable land was completely overgrown with Solidago gigantea. M. Pru{a for help in field work and data analysis. 2004b). is evident. 2005) its presence is not a problem. 2012). Ailanthus altissima and Reynoutria japonica are expanding rapidly in habitats that were exposed to devastation during construction works. Masla} and M. The gathered data may indicate the need for coordination of the development plans with the need for biodiversity preservation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank to our colleagues I. 2009). So far several authors investigated invasive flora in this area. Broz. which have a tendency to increase in numbers and occupy greater areas. Changes in the investigated area after the beginning of urbanization were the cause for the desertion of the former agricultural production. also we extend our thanks to our colleague M. so LUKA^ (1988) reported Solidago gigantea and Helianthus tuberosus. newcomers for the Croatian flora being reported. and MILOVI] (2004) Conyza canadensis. in progress. which is. This is illustrated by the fact that we found 88 new plant taxa for MTB 0261 where the area of Konopljenka and Pi{korovo are located. T. though slowly. 1975. probably because agricultural production has been almost totally abandoned. The urban flora in Zagreb has been insufficiently researched. There are 610 taxa previously reported for this MTB square (NIKOLI]. The problem of IAS in urban areas is increasing along with expansion of such areas. two of them are threatened according to NIKOLI] (2012): Hippuris vulgaris is endangered (EN) and Equisetum hyemale is vulnerable (VU).368 Hudina. Likewise some of the IAS. Our findings suggest that the city of Zagreb is no exception in this trend. Therefore indigenous flora is being suppressed and biodiversity decreased (PY[EK. According to the Ordinance on the proclamation of protected and strictly protected wild taxa (ANONYMUS. B. 1973. mainly because our study area was 32 times smaller than total area of MTB field. In order to prevent further spreading of IAS. Abandoned arable land was ideal ground for IAS. et al. but we have not confirmed the presence of 349 of them. Acer negundo. S. Ad`i}. The dominance of IAS. 1978) and GOSPODARI] (1958). The condition found in situ proves that the area is not appropriately managed. University of Zagreb. Received February 17. Gori{ek. is just occasional and although it has very allergenic pollen (PETERNEL et al. This high percentage of IAS is not surprising because this area is ruderal and abandoned and has a few illegal construction waste disposal sites suitable for neophytes. This paper was made as part of course of lectures »Flora of Croatia« (code 45065) in the biology graduate program at the Faculty of Science. e.2%) are protected and seven of them (2%) strictly protected. Process of rebalancing and natural vegetation restoration is visible in different stages of succession. as well as of newcomers. 2012 . 57 taxa found (16. it is essential to create a management plan for this area with a recommendation for further monitoring. From a total of 351 recorded taxa. The presence of the species Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Maji}. Zadravec for providing topographic map.

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6%) su golosjemenja~e (Pinidae). poljoprivredom. (Fumariaceae) – in the Croatian flora. HEYWOOD. provedeno je kartiranje flore na podru~ju Konopljenke i Pi{korova.. Rimac. 516–523. Hudina. M. Izuzetak su samo porodice Rosaceae i Lamiaceae koje su ovdje zastupljene s ne{to ve}im brojem vrsta od nacionalnog prosjeka. NORTON.. D. Negativni trendovi i njihovi u~inci s jedne strane. R. [umarski fakultet Sveu~ili{ta u Zagrebu. Journal of Ecology 96. (eds. A. S A @ E TA K Prilog poznavanju urbane flore Zagreba (Hrvatska) T. VERHEYEN. U svrhu davanja priloga poznavanju urbane flore grada Zagreba. too. A. 4–9. M. U.. VAN DER VEKEN. V. 853–859 TOPI].4%). Zagreb. Biljke euroazijskog i europskih flornih elemenata dominiraju s vi{e od 55% .) Gaertn.. Flora 199. 61–65.. S. 2003: Biodiversity in Berlin and its potential for nature conservation. HAHS... A. MCCARTHY... M. CORLETT. u Hrvatskoj. Landscape and Urban Planning 62(3). 2000: Pseudofumaria lutea (L. Preinake nastale urbanizacijom trajnije su od onih uzrokovanih drugim antropogenim djelovanjima. WALTERS. Cambridge University Press. Me|u kritosjemenja~ama 71 svojta (20.. Croat. B. {to gotovo u potpunosti odgovara slijedu zastupljenosti porodica za cijelu nacionalnu floru. dvije svojte (0.. Lamiaceae (5. K.Nat. P. Acta Botanica Croatica 37. a ostalo su kritosjemenja~e (Magnoliidae). A. 2008: Traits of British alien and native urban plants. jer su mogu}nosti obnavljanja primarnih tipova stani{ta male ili ih uop}e nema. Na podru~ju Konopljenke i Pi{korova zabilje`ena je 351 svojta vaskularnih biljaka iz 81 porodice. 2004: Plant species loss in an urban area (Turnhout. J.. WILLIAMS. Najzastupljeniji florni element je euroazijski (30.. & MCDONNELL. 2009: A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras.. N. K. Salki}. D.7%) i Rosaceae (5. S..4%). TUTIN.. 2009: Vaskularna flora Omi{a. R. U hrvatskim razmjerima urbane flore nisu bile predmetom osobito intenzivnih istra`ivanja te za ve}inu ve}ih gradova nisu poznate. A. I. THOMPSON. THOMPSON.1%). pokreta~i su istra`ivanja urbanih flora. Nikoli} Jedan od najekstremnijih oblika preinake stani{ta koju ~ovjek mo`e poduzeti je proces urbanizacije. A. M. Vol. Bogdanovi} & T. 139–148. 229–230. Cambridge.. VALENTINE. N. Natura Croatica 9(1). MAURER. W. J. & BECKER.4%). CLEMANTS.) Borkh. G. H.). 1978: Novo nalazi{te vrste Eleusine indica (L.. K. 1964–1993: Flora Europaea 1–5. H.2%) pripada jednosupnicama (nadred Lilianae) a 271 svojta (77. Vrstama najbogatije porodice su Poaceae (11. S. SCHWARTZ. P. TRINAJSTI]. R. 704–709.1%). Od toga su sedam svojti (2%) papratnja~e (Equisetidae). BURGES. T. VESK. Fabaceae (7. T.. U. Flora 205(10). 21(2). S. DUNCAN.2%) iz 65 porodica pripada ostalim nadredovima kritosjemenja~a. S. N. E. Magistarski rad. a u kontekstu re~enog. M. & SUKOPP. npr. A striking example for the worldwide homogenization of the flora of urban habitats. A... Ovo. Asteraceae (9. D. ZERBE. S. K. 2012 371 TAFRA. M. & MCCARTHY. & [EGULJA. & HERMY. G. te briga za o~uvanjem bioraznolikosti gradova i kvalitete `ivota s druge. 2010: The spontaneous flora around street trees in cities. WITTIG.. Belgium) from 1880 to 1999 and its environmental determinants. & WEBB. B. A. samo djelomice izgra|eno podru~je s elementima poluprirodnih stani{ta u velikoj mjeri oboga}uje raznolikost flore Zagreba. S.. SCHMITZ. Journal of Ecology 97. H. a za njim slijede {iroko rasprostranjene biljke (27%)..

2%) i fanerofiti (11. .372 Hudina. et al.1%). Na istra`ivanom podru~ju zabilje`ene su 22 invazivne svojte (6.3%). Broj vrsta po jedinici povr{ine te udio za{ti}enih i ugro`enih svojti ukazuje da se radi o floristi~ki relativno bogatom podru~ju.: Contribution to the urban flora of Zagreb {to je i o~ekivano s obzirom na geografski polo`aj podru~ja. terofiti (22. U istra`ivanju je zabilje`eno i 88 novih svojti za ovo MTB polje.2%) je pod zakonskom za{titom. Od ugro`enih svojti zabilje`ene su Hippuris vulgaris i Equisetum hyemale. T. a 64 svojte (18. Od `ivotnih oblika najzastupljeniji su hemikriptofiti (48.4%).