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3 DESCRIPTION OF POPULATION OF PARTICLES

A population of particles is described by a particle size distribution. The particle size distribution may be expressed as frequency distribution curves or cumulative plots. Cumulative frequency distribution is a plot of the number of observations falling in or below an interval Calculations of The particle size distribution (average particle size, specific surface area, etc.), or particle population of a mixture may be based on either a differential or cumulative analysis. In principle, methods based on the cumulative analysis are more precise than those based on differential analysis, since when the cumulative analysis is used, the assumption that all particles in a single fraction are equal in size is not necessary. Examples showing calculations of cumulative distribution /frequency curves

Example 1.
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20 20 .30 30 .40 40 .70 70 .60 60 .10 10 .80 Frequency 2 8 12 18 28 22 6 4 Cumulative frequency calculations 2 .Draw an oversize frequency distribution curve for the following data Marks 0 .50 50 .

………(80.10).100) are the coordinates of the points.Marks 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Frequency 2 8 12 18 28 22 6 4 Cumulative oversize 2 10 22 40 68 90 96 100 frequency TO PLOT A DISTRIBUTION CURVE a. Join the points plotted by a smooth curve. (10.(30.2). We plot the points with coordinates having abscissae as actual limits and ordinates as the cumulative frequencies. b.(20. The distribution curve is connected to a point on the X-axis representing the actual lower limits of the first class.22). c. 3 .

4 .Example 2.

construct a undersize cumulative frequency table and draw the curve Cumulative frequency table Marks 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 Frequency 3 8 12 14 10 6 5 2 Cumulative undersize 60 57 49 37 23 13 7 2 frequency TO PLOT THE CURVE 5 .Using the data given.

(41. 2). 60) are the coordinates of the points. 7). Join the points by a smooth curve. (11. 49). 6 . 57). 13). yielding the following size and weight analysis. (21. Example 3. 37). (1. b. (51. (61. (71.a. Experiment performed in the laboratory. 23). (31.

e.56 4.02 1.44 13.180 180 . (median) Sieve size (µm) Sieve fractional weight (g) 250 .1 11. i.0 -45 0.45 45 .32 4. and find the size which splits the distributions in to two equal parts.Plot the cumulative distribution curves.90 90 .87 7 .63 63 .23 9.125 125 . cumulative % undersize and oversize.

50 21.04 3 12.19 29.48 66.54 8 .59 100 F 99.93 D 250 180 125 90 63 45 0 %Cumulat % Cumulative ive undersize oversize E 0.02 1.95 10.45 13.41 25.0 -45 Total 11.32 4.88 10.87 44.98 99.1 45 .29 36.5 33.94 96.44 %fractiona Nominal l weight aperture (%wt) size (µm) C B/Total 0.64 89.04 2.96 9.23 9.56 4.63 Fractio nal weight (g) B 0.93 63 .Sieve size(µ m) A 250 180 180 125 125 90 90 .69 63.98 87.

fS(x) etc for population having the same geometric shape but different size. the distribution by number (N). the fraction of particles in the size range is given by: x  x  dx  f N ( x)dx 9 (1) .Complete as homework. fN(x). spherical particles of the size range x to x +dx will have . if the population of particles is given by (N). the distribution by surface area(S). Distributions for a single particle a. by surface (S). E. 1. the distribution by mass (M) as well as the distribution by volume (V).4 CONVERSION BETWEEN DISTRIBUTIONS The conversion of distributions is done by relating the size distribution by number (N). Distribution by number (N).g.

the number of particles in the same size range is given by : x  x  dx  Nf N ( x)dx (4) 10 . the total number of particles in the population. Distribution by surface area.b. the fraction of particles in the size range is given by: x  x  dx  fV ( x)dx (3) For N. For volume distribution. the fraction of particles in the size range is given by: x  x  dx  f S ( x)dx (2) c.

the fraction of particles in the size range is given by: x  x  dx  Nx 2 S f N ( x)dx x  x  dx  Nx 3V f N ( x)dx 11 (5) e.RECALL: from definition Area  Nx 2 Volume  Nx 3 Mass    v  Nx 3 Where. Distribution by surface area. x is the diameter of the particle. the fraction of particles in the size range is given by: (6) . For volume distribution. Distributions for population of particles d.

we divide the population distribution by the total distribution.αv being the factors relating the linear dimension of the particle to its surface area and volume respectively.With αs. The fraction of the surface area the fraction of the surface area = Population distribution of surface area Total surface area (S) 12 . DERIVE THE MASS DISTRIBUTION Calculating the fractions of the distribution.

( N S ) x 2 f N ( x)dx f S ( x)dx  S ( N S ) 2 f S ( x)dx  x f N ( x)dx S  FS ( x)  k S x f N ( x) 2 The fraction of the volume ( NV ) x 3 f N ( x)dx fV ( x)dx  V fV ( x)dx  ( NV ) 3 x f N ( x)dx V 13 .

 FV ( x)  kV x 3 f N ( x) CLASS EXERCISE Derive an equation describing the fraction of mass distribution The volume-Surface ratio (fractional) distribution FV ( x) kV x 3 f N ( x)  FS ( x) k S x 2 f N ( x) FV ( x ) kV  x FS ( x ) k S  FV ( x)  kV x  FS ( x) kS 14 .

FS  1 x2 for x ≤ 45µm for x ˃ 45µm FS  2 15 .Homework 1. find the mathematical expression for surface distribution given ks=5. Convert the surface distribution described by the following equation to a cumulative volume distribution. FN  1 2 x 2 for x ≤ 45µm. For the function. 2.