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Dynamic loading
More difficult to measure , analyze and estimate dynamic loading compared to static loading Loads can vary in time and space Load range (or more accurately stress range ) is the most important parameter in fatigue analysis This calls for a definition of a load cycle (or rather stress cycle) There can be large statistical scatter in the loading High frequency content of the loading is difficult to measure and/or analyze. This content may have an effect on the fatigue behaviour Standardized load spectra are often used as input to the fatigue models.

Solid Mechanics

Dynamic Loading

Anders Ekberg

2 (8) Varying amplitudes Residual stresses Overloads may introduce residual stresses due to plastic deformations. it is done by the use of a crack propagation law. Solid Mechanics Dynamic Loading Anders Ekberg . this is done by damage accumulation In crack propagation analysis. These stresses may supress the initiation of fatigue cracks and/or lead to closure of existing cracks during (parts of) the load cycle This is normally beneficial Add influence from different load cycles This is far from obvious In continuum approaches (initiation).

the load cycle • starts from a certain load magnitude • moves through a max-value and a min-value back to the start magnitude (or the other way around) The load cycle is then completely defined by the amplitude and mid value F t F t The problem in identifying a load cycle comes when we are not dealing with harmonic loadpaths Solid Mechanics Dynamic Loading Anders Ekberg .3 (8) Load cycles A load cycle is a closed loop in “load space” For harmonic loading.

For convenience • start with largest maximum or smallest minimum • use straight lines between (local) minima and maxima Start from the top and let a “drop” start from every maximum and minimum.4 (8) Rainflow counting σ t σ σ t Depict the loading sequence as a function of time. A drop stops if: • it starts from max and passes a larger or equal max • it starts from min and passes a larger or equal min • it reaches the run of another drop Identify closed loops by joining drops Solid Mechanics Dynamic Loading Anders Ekberg .

Dynamic Loading Anders Ekberg 1 t 8 7 6 Solid Mechanics .5 (8) Rainflow counting Ð example σ 1 passes an equally large maximum 2 passes a larger minimum 3 passes a larger maximum 4 reaches the run of drop 2 3 5 4 2 5 reaches the run of drop 1 6 “falls out” 7 “falls out” 8 reaches the run of drop 6 1 and 6. These couples are forming closed loops in “load space” and can thus be identified as stress cycles with minimum and maximum magnitudes and a mid value. 3 and 4. 2 and 5. 7 and 8 are running the same distances in the opposite directions.

you no longer know at what instant of time the “overloads” and (their pertinent residual stresses) occur More than one load component ð rainflow counting should be carried out on the stress The rainflow count method is only applicable for uniaxial loading. Several such codes exist and are in practical use Dynamic Loading Solid Mechanics Anders Ekberg . the chronological order of applied loads diminishes.6 (8) Rainflow counting Ð notes Rainflow counting is used to identify the most damaging stress cycles When applying the rainflow count method. There are theories for how to extend the method to multiaxial loading (however not generally accepted) The rainflow count method is fairly easy to implement in a computer code. In other words.

7 (8) A Uniaxial Stress Cycle Stress ratio σ min R= σ max Mid Stress 1 σ m = (σ max + σ min ) 2 Alternating tension/compression Stress amplitude 1 σ a = (σ max − σ min ) 2 (half the stress range) Pulsating compression σa σa R = −∞ σ min σm = 2 σ min σa = 2 Solid Mechanics σa σa R = −1 σm = 0 σ a = σ max Dynamic Loading σa σa Pulsating tension R=0 σ max σm = 2 σ max σa = 2 time Anders Ekberg .

8 (8) The R-ratio R-ratio 5 4 3 R=σmin/σmax 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5-20 -15 -10 σ max = σ max + 10 R = σ min σ max 1 σ a = (σ max − σ min ) 2 ⇒ 2 ⋅σ a σ max = 1− R 2 ⋅ R ⋅σ a σ max = 1− R The stress cycle is defined by the stress amplitude and the R -ratio σmin -5 0 5 10 Solid Mechanics Dynamic Loading Anders Ekberg .