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1.0 Introduction
‗Education is the backbone of a country‘- a very ancient and prominent saying to inspire the entire nation for education. The statement is cent percent true at all time. Education is of course the vehicle to move the nation through the path of development. The question comes, who will be the passenger of this vehicle? In other words, who will get this education, either only male or only female or both? Education equality is one of the major dimensions of gender discrimination argument. The development concern is working on this for a long ago throughout the world. Thus, the success is also very visible especially in case of developing countries like Bangladesh Since it‘s born in 1971, Bangladesh is still striving to move to the developed level from the developing level. Consequently, the country has achieved a remarkable success in various fields of development, which has uplifted the overall development of the country. Education equality is one of those successful fields where Bangladesh has ensured a satisfactory percentage of female students compare to the male students. Even in the rural aspect, the country has almost equal percentage of both male and female students. The success is surely marked with the contribution of government and nongovernment participation.

The first step of development is done by ensuring education equality. Now, the question comes how these educated females will contribute to the society as like males? The first and foremost reply to this question is ‗through her job‘, but for this she needs to get a job or a space where she can apply her education and skill. She needs a position which would enhance her knowledge and qualification. Thus, the society will be able to grab the contribution from her. Here emerges the question of employment equality which is another dimension of gender discrimination. Unfortunately, Bangladesh is still behind to ensure this equality in terms of gender discrimination.

In most of the developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, females is fortunately getting proper education. Even if they get an education due to the development process, their education is not properly valued. The situation in Bangladesh depicts that, most of the organizations expected and recruited females for only secretariat or receptionists or public relation posts. No matter, how much qualified or skill that the

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female has or no matter whether that female employee is efficient for some other complicated job.

Interestingly, females are asked to have a BBA/graduation or even MBA/masters to apply for secretariat or front desk job or public relation jobs. Accomplishing a BBA/graduation for 4 years or MBA/Masters for 2 years is not an easy task. A student gathers knowledge of various aspects and put her honest effort to turn that knowledge into skill. Thus a graduate or masters passed female becomes eligible for any impactful job. Unfortunately, their skills are not valued above their gender and thus they are encouraged to apply for secretariat or front desk job or public relation jobs. Sometimes, the situation also forces the females to be encouraged and apply to these jobs ignoring their qualifications.

It is not argued that, the secretariat or front desk jobs are insignificant or indecent. In fact these jobs very much challenge where employees have to work on nerve in most of the time. The argument is that, these jobs don‘t need any involvement of conceptual skill or logical reasoning skill. Thus, the employer can ask for a bit low level of education like SSC or HSC and should ask applications from male as well. Why only females are encouraged to apply for these jobs? Why only females are expected to go for public relation or front desk or secretariat activities? Why the employers‘ websites erase the statement ―only Females are Encouraged to Apply‖ and take applications in these jobs irrespective of gender?

The research aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis on the discussed issue. This will lead it to go through the observation of the employers‘ activities and trends. The research will also go through some real stories which will open up the real practice of discrimination. In this way, the research will be able to find out the answers of the above questions.

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2.0 Background
There are certain hurdles over the idea of equal opportunities for male and female employment. The thoughts given by a woman while choosing a suitable employment for herself are mainly the consequence of their socioeconomic status in a country. One of the formidable challenges for women in this respect is their restricted access to productive resources. From their childhood, the girls are made to feel inferior to the boys leading them to believe in inequality and discrimination which last even up to their professional life. In industrial and other works women are mostly found doing the entry-level jobs. It happens seldom that they can be marked out in any managerial or even mid-level positions. Even if a woman is highly educated and efficient enough to run the organization, she is deprived of an opportunity to prove that. Employment opportunity bias is a general trend to be noticed in most of the employers‘ attitude. Sex segregation in employment opportunities is much observed in corporations. Women are perceived as too emotional, gentle, illogical and sensitive to succeed in the corporate environment. Sometimes in public service this gap is highly observed. Even in countries like the USA, government has been guilty of unlawful denial of promotion of women. Raymond F. Gregory writes in Women and Workplace Discrimination: Overcoming Barriers to Gender Equality that Angie Gobert, a woman employed in a government department could not prosper in a higher position when her competitor left the said position. The position was declared closed for any fill in rather than employing a woman there. Private industries have also acted with equal boldness in denying promotions to female workers.

Barrister Harun ur Rashid, former Bangladesh Ambassador to the UN, Geneva, is written in the law page of the Daily Star on 13th March, 2010, that out of 4,419 civil servants only 673 are women, according to the establishment ministry. There is only one woman DIG of police and four female additional DIGs in the police force. Faruq Hasan writes in My Friend the Misogynist published in the Star magazine on March 5, 2010, that one of his friends who own a garment factory has no women in the management. He professes that women aren‘t smart enough to lead yet.

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Even with improvements in labor statistics, the latest (1989) Labor Force Survey still excludes housework from the definition of economic activity. On this definition, women carry out fewer hours of unpaid family labor on average than men. Although highly educated women in Bangladesh expect to achieve gender equality, compared to highly educated men, but women are under-represented in managerial and executive position. There is a generous quota system for women's representation in official public bodies. But quotas are not generally met and where they are, the women are regarded as token appointees and adopt a passive role in the bodies concerned.

From existing data, there are two clearly discernible gender differentials in unemployment and underemployment. Firstly, the unemployment rates of female graduates are strikingly high (17 percent) compared to those of male graduates (2.3 percent) (BBS, 1993). The high level of unemployment of female graduates requires further investigation. The Secondly, the overall level of under utilization of the labor force is 83 percent for women compared to only 15.4 percent for men, indicating much higher female than male underemployment.

Even after achieving significant success against gender discrimination, still the job circulars of different organization force a female to be discriminated. It has become a common practice in almost every organization have a female in the front desk position. So that, the customers can get an attraction to communicate with that particular organization. Surprisingly, these organizations ask graduation/BBA qualification for these sorts of positions. Where as a female, with a graduation/BBA certificate, is able doing much more sophisticated and managerial task.

Gender discrimination is blocking female prospects in banking. Bangladesh Bank study finds women trailing males in this sector. The news published in Financial Express on Sunday, 23 September 2012 by Rezaul Karim reveals this scenario.

The gender discrimination in the banking sector appears to be standing in the way of next-generation banking in the country, a latest study conducted by Bangladesh Bank (BB) said. "The batch of younger, entry level female employees need to be groomed to become part of the next-generation bank management," it mentioned.

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It also said the female participation in the country's banking sector is still very low due to the absence of appropriate steps. According to a BB data, around 13.08 per cent of women work at entry level in the banking industry, but less at mid-level --- 8.58 per cent, and 4.44 percent work at senior management level. In the banking sector, about 15.57 percent of women employees are there in the below-thirty age group. The percentage of female Board Members totalled came to only 9.73 per cent in 2011, the data shows. It also pointed out that the 'female attrition' levels need to fall further despite the 'turnover ratio' of departing males is higher than that of females, with SCBs showing the higher ability to retain the female staff.

However, the gender discrimination remains a core problem in many countries and is a key constraint to economic growth and improvements in social indicators. One key sphere where gender issues directly impact productivity and growth relates to the low levels of female participation in the labor force. In the PCB (private commercial banks) sector, there is a new hope that more employment transparency and purely merit-based job opportunities are getting boost day by day. This change is already becoming visible in the some foreign banks.

The foreign banks believe female workers are sincere to put in great efforts in their work, and many times are better qualified to perform the job than their male counterparts. The general perception of the banking sector recruiting authorities appears to be that women are more diligent in their duty, and show a much smaller incidence of being involved in corrupt and fraudulent activities against the interests of the bank.

Although the situation is quite different in NGOs and other foreign organizations, but some local organizations and government organizations are still practicing this approach. It is not like that, women are completely ignored in any respective position. In fact nowadays many organizations recruit females in many crucial positions. Surprisingly, there are many cases in Bangladesh, where one organization has recruited a female in a higher level position with sophisticated responsibility and at the same time same organization has circulated its preference for a female in a secretariat or front desk job.

women have broken out the common social problems like illiteracy. However. Moreover. the employer also looks for an above average level of education for these sorts of positions not to utilize her education just to maintain the standard of HR. However. and gain more respect in family life. the organizations publish their official circular with a written statement ―females are encouraged to apply‖ for the position of secretary or receptionist or front desk job. etc. the local companies are still far away from this concept. achieve higher education. a huge number of highly educated women are not positioned according to their educational qualification.Page |6 3. Subsequently. . Despite of the progress in gender discrimination.0 Research Problem Various educational and motivational programs have been successfully working in Bangladesh. On the basis of the background of the study. The secretariat or front desk jobs are not considered inferior but it should not be confined to females only to welcome clients with their beauty. Many women are getting proper family support. For example. the research problem of this study is “Why the employer prefers females with above average education rather than males for Front Desk/ Secretariat/ Customer Service jobs in Bangladesh?” This would entitle the name of the research as. The reason can be many including lacking from both employers and female employees. still now females are encouraged to apply for any secretariat rather than males. If welcome of a client needs a humble approach then it can be done by a male as well. early marriage. The NGOs and other foreign organizations are showing a different approach with the concept of ―equal opportunity employer‖. Bangladesh has already achieved gender parity in education levels. in case of working life.Gender Preference in Jobs-Employers‟ and Employees‟ Perspectives. Throughout the analysis the research will dig into the particulars of the issue. Unfortunately.

economic. facilities and benefits Determining the role of Government Organization (GOs). In addition to this broad purpose.Page |7 4. workload. These are as follows Reviewing the existing literature on both gender discrimination in Bangladesh summarizing the comparative situation of women in Bangladesh. The research aims to find out the trend or pattern of the employer in our country who do not prefer a male for the secretariat or front desk position and demand only females with graduation/BBA. income. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). political and legal status     Depicting the present scenario of gender discrimination in employment opportunity in Bangladesh Specifying the loopholes from the aspect of female employees Identify the particular needs of women in relation to employment. the research aims to find out some specific purposes too. with particular reference to their social. work preference.0 Purpose The purpose of this study is to highlight the situation and the reason of preferring highly educated females for secretariat or front desk position in our country. and International Non-Government Organizations .

Basically. This is why. this research is intended to indicate another dimension of gender discrimination. To this purpose. the research deals with the gender discrimination in employment opportunity. To be more specific. the research has limited its perimeter within a specific and defined scope.0 Scope This research aims to identify the reason behind the female preference for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ position even with a higher education degree. enlarges this wideness a bit more. the research has decided to confine the discussion within the mentioned perimeter. gender discrimination itself is a wide concept indeed and reflection of employment concepts in it.Page |8 5. . It will only search the reason for which employers preferred only female to ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ positions instead of the male even with a higher education. However.

aspirations and needs of women and men are considered. Gender relations are generally experienced as ―natural‖ rather than as something created by cultural and social processes. valued and favored equally. Gender equality or equality between men and women entails the concept that all human beings.Page |9 6. In the sociological use of the term. This distinction raises a fundamental question in sociological theory about what it means to say that something is ―natural‖. At the core of the sociological analysis of gender is the distinction between biological sex and gender: sex is a property of the biological characteristics of an organism. only people living within socially constructed relations are gendered. and limits the policies designed for women. brain structure.1 Gender Discrimination or Gender Inequality Gender inequality means disparity among human beings on the basis of gender. gender is socially constructed. Gender equality means that the different behavior. After all. are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotype. Hathaway. This is a powerful and totally revolutionary idea: we have the potential capacity to change the social relations in which we live. both men and women. including the social relations between biologically defined men and women. and hormonal differences of the human body. Wilson Lee ©2004. firstly social perception about the status of gender secondly on the basis of biological aspects through body differences as human chromosomes. socially created. Today gender roles are knitted by culture and tradition but it seems that Islam influences the status of women conservatively in society and this influence slows down the progress of women. Gender is differentiated basically in two ways generally. Gender inequality means differentiation. It does not mean that women and men to become the same. Sometimes in the media one hears a discussion in which someone talks about the gender of a dog. it is a biological fact that women get pregnant and give birth to babies and have the capacities to breastfeed them. responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female (ILO. Men cannot do this. Throughout most of history for most people the roles performed by men and women seem to be derived from inherent biological properties. rigid gender roles and prejudices. dogs don‘t have gender. It is biological fact that all women . 2000).0 Literature Review 6. but that their rights. whether pragmatic grounded or social. This influence narrows the economic opportunities for women claimed by Robert M.

whereas men know that they are the fathers of particular children only when they have confidence that they know the sexual behavior of the mother. cleaning. This is what could be termed ―egalitarian gender relations. 1992). 6. From an egalitarian point of view. is a typical developing country with a high level of illiteracy and over –population. It is a small step from these biological facts to the view that it is also a fact of nature that women are best suited to have primary responsibility for rearing children as well.P a g e | 10 know that they are the mothers of the babies they bear.2 Gender Discrimination in Bangladesh. and because of this they should be responsible for other domestic chores. but it does mean that gender relations do not generate unequal opportunities and choices for men and women (Gerson. get transformed into the social relations we call ―gender‖. . Men generally own and manage family land and income and women contribute a great deal to the economy and to the family. gender relations are fair if. through a specific process of social production. Not only do they participate in agriculture and industrial labor but also they are entirely charged with cooking. This is a critical question if one holds to a broadly egalitarian conception of social justice and fairness. Now. however. The household is the primary production and consumption unit. This does not imply. The central thesis of sociological accounts of gender relations is that these biological facts by themselves do not determine the specific form that social relations between men and women talk. this way of thinking about sex and gender leaves entirely open the very difficult question of what range of variation in gender relations is stably possible. Bangladesh. an even stronger view. within those relations. 2009). that gender relations have nothing to do with biology. males and females have equal power and equal autonomy.Social. especially in rural Bangladesh (The Daily Star. economic and religious aspect A study by ICDDRB (International Centre for Diarrhea Disease Research.‖ This does not imply that all men and all women do exactly the same things. 2008). Gender relations are the result of the way social processes act on a specific biological categories and form social relations between them. is not free from the problem of gender disparity. The various elements of the social system thus interact to make women dependent on men or at risk when deserted and to produce a rigid division of labor and highly segregated labor market by gender (World Bank. One way of thinking about this is with a metaphor of production: biological differences rooted in sex constitute the raw materials which. Bangladesh has found gender inequality to exist every sphere.

According to the convention of the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the constitution of our country. hence most of them are confined to the domestic chores. every man and women have equal rights to get equal opportunities in their family. In the family. they assume full responsibility for rearing children and caring for the old and infirm (Gita. Women‘s have less opportunity to visit health center. and visit friends and relatives. a daughter receives only the ―whisper of Quranic prayer‖. 1985). they have less scope to go out home for employment. Men mostly own the lands owned by the households and women are deprived of this right.P a g e | 11 collecting firewood and water and washing. traditions and customs of the country. 2001). But a good number of studies have shown that discrimination against the girl child women starts within the family. Gender inequality prevails in all countries of the world. as women are responsible for child bearing and rearing. Most of the women are discriminated by their parents at first and then by their husband in the family. Gender inequality in Family Differential treatment of female begins at birth. Although it is a common phenomenon all over the world. this kind of response regarding the sex of a newborn baby influences the roles and behavior patterns that she or he will learn and ―act out later in life‖. visit outside the village. there is a clear discrimination with family affairs . In addition. Kabeer. While a son is welcomed to the world with a loud audible prayer of ―God is Great‖ in the presence of members. 1999. Mahmud and Mahmud. Bertocci (1974) notes that. Women are disadvantaged in Bangladesh in terms of all well-being indicators (Khondkar. which are not counted in the accounting procedure of the country. go to a movie. its position is somewhat acute in Bangladesh. Different forms of inequalities In the following sections briefly describe various factors that influence women‘s lives and are interrelated with their status through prevailing culture. Usually parents expose different attitude between their boys and girls after birth. Women in our family have always been considered subservient to men. Women get a smaller share of household expenditures on education and health care relative to men. 1989. however.

The significance of Mahrs has been gradually reducing more of a ritualistic custom than to actual practice (Kabeer. 2010). 2007). however. The total fertility rate in Bangladesh was 4.8 in 2010 (Population Development and Evaluation unit. Women and Marriage Marriage is a near universal phenomenon in Bangladesh. Rearing children and cooking for all members of the family is one of the major roles of a woman. 1988). Moreover. 1992). protect a woman partially through the custom of Mahr (money. the effect on fertility. By the age of 15 to 19 about 70 percent of the females in Bangladesh are married (Population Crisis Committee. but some of its practices lead to sexual segregation. as manifested in purdah. the overriding cultural emphasis on lineage maintenance. To ―have shame‖ means a wife will not behave in ways which can jeopardize her husband‘s family prestige. Women and Fertility A woman becomes well integrated into her husband‘s family only with the birth of children. Because of the fear of litigation. Smock. 1977). As Fedman and McCarhy (1983) point out. Some local belief that ‗haven lies at the feet of the husband‘ (Hartman and Boyce. Women and Religion A local religious practices in Bangladesh have a significant influence on a woman‘s status. It is popularly known that Islam does not directly advocate the lower status of women.P a g e | 12 falling under personal laws governed by religion. may not have a written kabin name. Muslim marriage laws. Most women. which ties women mainly to unpaid household work. especially those from the lower socioeconomic classes. jewelry or clothing to be given to the bride) to which the wife is entitled upon divorce. especially among Muslims (Miah. and economic benefits of having children translate primarily into high fertility for women. 1983) has gained wide acceptance among most Muslim rural . Thus. 1992). where the state is reluctant to become involved (Mamun AA. 1977). early marriage. but barrenness may become grounds for polygamy and divorce (Miah. the Islamic dictum for women to the elders by being quiet and keeping one‘s head covered in their presence. religious justifications lead to behavioral restrictions. even women who do know the details of the contract may forego the right of enforcement (Alamgir. 1985. property. Furthermore.

less affectionate and disobedient also acts a contributory factor against female education (Salam. 1998).P a g e | 13 women. 1977). The discrepancy starts from the family itself where parents are to be seen more concerned about the safety of their daughters than the sons. Whatever income may be earned by rural women by investing in poultry or livestock is usually spent for subsistence purposes (Alamgir. A very small percentage of women are engaged in paid work and the possibility of accumulating capital for buying is seriously limited for them. The daily per capital calorie intake of women . Table 01: Male and Female Literacy Rate in Bangladesh Source: UNDP: Human Development Report (HDR) 2002 Health and Nutrition Women‘s low social status and poverty are in turn lead to their poor health. high fertility and lack of access to essential health care. Women and Property Rights The civil and personal laws of Bangladesh guarantee a woman‘s right to income and property. The ultimate outcome of these latter three factors is a high maternal mortality rate. The common belief among many villagers that educated girls are rude. Girls are often discriminated against in getting access to school and support to continue into secondary school. Access to Education Education is a social phenomenon that strongly influences on women‘s control of their own future but low level of female education have been frequently cited in Bangladesh. Such belief result in complete allegiance to the husband‘s wishes and decision without challenge. Daughters are restricted to their houses and given marriage at an early age.

Although in recent years two women have emerged as important political leaders in the country through their personal connections with deceased male political leaders of their respective parties. Currently very few Bangladeshi women can be found in positions of political leadership in both central and local government structures.5) is lower than that of males (60. the lowest tier of the Local Government. This does not however preclude women from contesting any of the 300 general seats – which is. Political participation of women is low because of illiteracy and little involvement of women in public life and politics. management and implementation of policies. portrayed as morally lax and the cause of disintegration of the family. In the legislature to have a fair representation of women. education and benevolent organizations etc. judiciary. out of 345 seats. Patriarchy still controls all institutions of the society. more a matter of theory than practice. thereby rendering them more vulnerable to diarrhea and communicable diseases. the working woman. The average weight of a Bangladeshi woman is about 40.P a g e | 14 is lower than that of a man (1927k.9 kg. military establishments. 45 seats are reserved for women. the parliament. 2002). The low weight is a reflection of food deprivation. though elected in a direct election. which cause the highest mortality and morbidity in this country. which is less than the mean weight of women in most third world countries. As a result of this lack of opportunities to intervene in the policy and decision making level. Poor environmental sanitation and lower food intake of female give them lower resistance capacity. On the other side. . of social values and of society in general. women have a minimal impact on the planning.7 years) (Ara. and even in the administrative hierarchy. literally they have fewer powers. The female members of the Union Parishad (lowest part of the local unit). The life expectancy of females (60. Economic activities A woman in Bangladesh enjoys lesser importance. (Ahmed. lots of women's votes at villages and women in the hill tracts are deprived of their voting rights also. Whereas. 2001). of course. Politics and Administration Women‘s participation in the political and national movement has been very negligible.‖ The ―good‖ women stayed at home and looked after her husband and her participation of women in political decision-making and administration remains very slim. ―She is little more than a free servant and a child bearing machine. Women usually do not participate in the political process (Table 3). Women in Decision -making.

These thoughts make a woman‘s choice of occupation complicated from the very beginning. nature of activity and place of residence. 6. Dhaka: Government of People‘s Republic Bangladesh. comprising less than 10 percent of the workforce at each of these levels (World Bank. uncounted and invisible (Salam. Women‘s household work remains unrecognized. Most of the working ladies or women willing to enter the job market make the same complaints about these threats (Cahuc. Page-65. women are under-represented not just in managerial and executive positions. Bangladesh Public Service Commission. We can get a comprehensive idea about the participation of women in government services from the following table. In Bangladesh. 1998). 2008. the nature of work and workload are the main pondering issues here. 2009. women‘s participation in economic activities shows great variation by gender. In manufacturing industries. women tend to be concentrated in labor intensive.2003. The interesting fact about this is that the causes of gender discrimination at the workplace start to operate even from the time a woman makes her choice to work. et al. Table 02: Selected Candidates for the Civil Services in Different BCS Examinations by Gender Source: Annual Report. heavy . light work requiring manual dexterity. Among manual workers. 2002). 1990a). bargaining power.P a g e | 15 Women‘s participation in economic activities remains unvalued at the national level because of patriarchal social structure. but also in clerical occupations. Employment capabilities. More skill-intensive. tradition and norms.3 Gender Differences in Employment There are several factors creating a discriminatory environment for women around the office. they are rarely employed to operate heavy machinery.

mainly as unskilled day laborers. emotional.P a g e | 16 industries. By associating feminine characteristics with women and masculine characteristics with men (and successful leaders). Baroudi and Truman.4 Gender Discrimination in Managerial Position According to the stereotyping theory. dependent. 4-5). skill) or variable. women‘s advancement into managerial positi ons is interrupted or limited by the discrepancies perceived between women‘s characteristics and those characteristics – usually men‘s characteristics – traditionally correlated with managerial success (Terborg and Ilgen. when the performance of individuals meets the employer‘s expectations. such as plastics and metals. In both developed and developing countries. In general. female-owned firms tend to operate in a restricted number of sectors. pp. the unexpected result (positive or negative) i s attributed to . and sewing) (Udry et al. not competitive. conversely. A very small but growing number of female workers are engaged in the construction industry. intuitive. 1992. p. Baroudi and Truman. pp. 1975. 5). workplace success or failure is due to stable. Naripokkho (1991) suggest that women's involvement in the sector is considerably underestimated because of a narrow interpretation of which jobs constitute construction work. it is attributed to stable factors. 1992). 352-376. professionalism. subjective factors (chance or luck) (Terborg and Ilgen. when the performances do not meet or exceed the employer‘s expectations. Women in urban areas also work in domestic service and in a range of unregulated informal sector enterprises. oriented towards group. 1975. Industry segregation patterns are similar when looking at firms rather than workers. objective factors (intelligence. but these employees tend to be women with a secondary education. According to the attribution theory. 352-376. Women are generally perceived as empathic. 1992. (Paul-Majumdar and Chaudhuri-Zohir. 1995). 6. less ambitious. women‘s opportunities to climb the organizational ladder are limited. Women entrepreneurs are heavily concentrated in the service sector and in businesses that conform more to female roles (such as beauty parlors food vending. populated by smaller firms and characterized by low value added and lower growth potential. pp. employ a smaller proportion of women than light industries. devoid of entrepreneurial spirit and as lacking the desire to be in a leadership position. devoid of aggression.

1995a. These positions do not improve the status of women or eliminate the preconceptions about women in management. Because of this discriminatory interpretation of success and failure. The discriminatory treatment arises when the results obtained by female managers exceed the expectations and are explained by variable factors (it is assumed that the favorable external context and not skills or ambition allowed her to do more). 1995b. The concept of glass ceiling can refer to the invisible. The illusion of breaking the glass ceiling. and (3) the glass escalator which refers to the greater opportunities for promotion enjoyed by men in female dominated professions. The glass ceiling (the underrepresentation of women in management): Historically. failure is explained by stable factors (it is assumed that the female manager lacks professionalism or skills. On the contrary. while his performances that do not meet the expectations are attributed to either external factors (it is assumed that although the male manager is very well trained and did his best. whereas when their performance does not meet the expectations.the glass cliff: The glass cliff is a concept used to describe the phenomenon whereby most women overcoming the glass ceiling are appointed in risky positions (Haslam and Ryan. is described in the relevant literature with the help of several concepts: (1) the glass ceiling referring to the underrepresentation of women in management positions. p. p. and that is why she could not achieve the goal – external factors. . (2) the glass cliff referring to the overrepresentation of women in precarious management positions. Gender discrimination in management. 2008. iii. they contribute to the perpetuation of negative stereotypes and discrimination. but on the contrary. outside her area of influence are disregarded). the goals were not reached due to external elements outside his area of influence. 4). 531). the first identified form of gender discrimination in management has been the glass ceiling. exceeding the expectations in the case of a male manager is explained by stable factors (it is assumed that his abilities have been underestimated and that the better results are due exclusively to his work and actions and not to chance or favorable developments in the external environment). p.P a g e | 17 variable factors. but impenetrable barrier preventing women from reaching managerial positions irrespective of their achievements or merits (The Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. female managers are denied career promotions or downgraded more often than their male counterparts that obtain similar results. thus he is not to be blamed or sanctioned).

and market) activities are taken into account. while in other places women may not open or operate an individual bank account. In Bangladesh. However. 6. or women engaged in potentially hazardous jobs. Gary S. Second. p. Third. but the two often coexist (Bates. women bear the brunt of housework and care while men are mostly responsible for market work. women work more than men once all productive (housework.P a g e | 18 When men are the minority. care. a high concentration of women in these lower-paying jobs weakens the incentives to participate in market work and thus reinforces the specialization in nonmarket (including care) and market work along gender lines within the household (Correll.the glass elevator: Most studies about gender discrimination in management have focused on the experiences of women in male dominated environments.5 Women‟s Preference Due to Obstacle Significant and systematic gender differences in time use can be characterized by three stylized facts. there is another side of the coin and researchers should also pay attention to the case of men trying to integrate and adapt to environments dominated by women (Williams. The social structure of Bangladesh imposes restrictions on women‘s access to market work and on the kind of work that women may do. In addition. Our country require by law that a woman acquire her father‘s or husband‘s permission to work outside the home. restrictions on work hours and industry of work are often introduced as protective measures to take into account the health of pregnant women. Marriage significantly increases the time devoted to housework for women but not for men (Becker. gender differences in time use patterns are primarily driven by family formation. Timothy. . 1995). nursing mothers. First. 2007). 1957). 1992. women devote more time than men to housework and child care. Unlike men. et al. 253) and this situation is known as glass elevator. Industry restrictions are more common than work hour restrictions. However. part-time and in-formal jobs often pay lower (hourly) wages than full-time and formal managerial jobs. women prefer to work in jobs that offer flexible working arrangements (such as part-time or informal jobs) so that they can combine work with care responsibilities.

women might not be attracted to be employed as airline baggage handlers though it is a good-paying job. Entrepreneurial women. . 2.P a g e | 19 Workplace choices made by many of the females often perpetuate the disparity in income between them and males. In most cases women make the gender workplace choice to avoid physical jobs. Earning power is much more a cultural goal for men than for women. on the average. 3. These are six choices of women that contribute to their gender‘s lower incomes: 1. For instance. 6. 4. The workaholic behaviour of an executive to rise to the top is less often chosen by a woman than by a man. choose to charge less than their male counterparts. Women have more often chosen advanced degrees that result in lower-paid social welfare jobs 5. mothering experience also changes many women so that they often do not rejoin the job track. Moreover. The frequent choice to drop out for a few years to raise children lowers women‘s income statistics for those dropped-out years.

This has been done to get the most meaningful and accurate finding of the analysis. This research will signify the discriminated situation of the females in recruitment process of many organizations in Bangladesh. This is because. 1. The entire research has been encompassed by both quantitative and qualitative aspects. and describes the data collection.P a g e | 20 7. This was gathered to understand what the female employee demands and also to understand problems from their part.1 Research Design This research project is entirely concerned in the development seeking problem and it will be conducted keeping that concern in mind. This has . The primary data was also collected from some employers to understand why they prefer only female and educated female for receptionists or secretariat position. a) Types of Data: The research has gathered data from two types of data sources. The research will be conducted under the category of descriptive research. The research plan has started out from the review of the literature to draw the research questions. With the aim to find out the discriminated situation for the females in the recruitment process. the idea has also been gathered from the employers who are equal opportunity employers. Primary Data: This data has been collected from the various female employees working in different organization. Besides. descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes. Secondary data from an observation method has been analyzed by quantitative approach and the primary data from interviews and case study method has been analyzed by qualitative approach. Secondary Data: Secondary data have been collected from different job sites and also from the websites of different companies and NGOs and INGOs. the descriptive research approach will be an appropriate approach to it. 2. fixing up the analysis method and applying on the sample and finally analyzing the collected data.0 Research Methodology 7. figuring out the whole research population and designing the sample. depicts. tabulates.

the case study method helped to understand the problems from a female employee‘s part to deploy her in the more challenging job.  Sample Size: The research conducted the observation method on the job sources on different job sites on their last 4 month record. personal interview and case study methods are some useful techniques. b) Survey Method: This research will not follow the survey method among a certain sample from a population.P a g e | 21 been done to understand the frequency of the preference of female employees in secretariat position and the categories of those companies. According to CR Kothari (1990) the research has many different standard methods of analysis among which Non-Participantdirect observation. In order to collect both the primary data and secondary data the research has applied three forms of research analysis.This method was applied to get the opinion of some female employees on the research problem issue. c) Sample Design:  Population: Although the research didn‘t follow the usual survey method but still it has fixed up a population to limit the data collection perimeter.  Case Study Method. Moreover. the sample size was 5 job websites and the 4 months counting starts from 1st April 2013 . These are Non Participant Observation Method-This was applied by observing the last 4 month record of different job searches. This research analyzed the situation from both employer and the female employees‘ perspective. Here. Thus the population of this research is both employer and female employees.  Personal Interview Method. The method has also been applied to get the real case situation where an employer preferred female form ‘Front Desk/Receptionist‘ position. By this the research got the idea about the pattern of job in which females are preferred and with what level of qualification. This has also helped to identify the companies who follow this practice.This method was applied to portray the real life situation where females have been trapped into this employment preference and where females have been privileged by equal opportunity employment.

After that the ratio figure has been expressed through percentage which helped to show the status by graphical representation.3 Research Hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Employer prefers females with above average education rather than males to attract the clients by influencing welcome and to maintain the organization‘s HR standard as well. The number of sample size was supposed to be increased or decreased based on the availability.  Data Analysis: The research has first gathered the trend data of 5 Jobsites about the female preferred jobs. The research has first considered 9 categories of jobs under which the number of total jobs and female preference counts for each category. 7.P a g e | 22 to 30th July 2013. Besides.  Sampling Method: The research has conducted the research by using a random sampling method so that the sample has represented the total population. . the research has conducted case study method where the sample size was 20 with 10 female employees and 10 employers.2 Research Question: Question 1: What are the motives of the employer for preferring only females and with above average education instead of males for secretariat or front desk jobs? Question 2: What are the reasons that the employer utilize the only feminine beauty of the female employees for secretariat or front desk jobs and ignores their education for any complicated jobs? 7. Then the research has applied the ratio analysis method to understand the weight of female preference in the total number of jobs in each category for last 4 months. Hypothesis 2: Employer believes females are not dependable for management or complicated task in fact they are suitable for only client welcome because of their feminine beauty.

com counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th July 2013 .com Bdjobs. it is necessary to the present face of the problem or the present condition of the problem. 8. In order to know the reason behind this problem.0 Data Analysis The research aims to identify the reason for which employers prefer female for the secretariat or front desk position even with a higher degree and capability. The data analysis will dig into this chronologically.P a g e | 23 8.1 Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Job Sites  Table 03: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Bdjobs. The data analysis of this research is completely based on the researcher‘s observation on the job sites and also the data gathered from an interview of different employers. It will first present the present condition of the problem and then it will identify the reason behind m Female preferred Total Job Ratio Ad min 7 35 1:5 Accou nts 8 39 8:39 21% Custo mer Service 28 50 14:25 56% Front Desk/Rece ptionist 22 30 11:15 73% HR Field Market ing 5 37 5:37 14% Cleani ng 13 25 13:25 52% Defenc e Service 1 7 1:7 14% 10 28 5:14 36% Percentage 20% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of Bdjobs.

Interestingly. the market representative declares that females are expressively preferred in ‗Front Desk/ Receptionist‘ position with highest weighted ratio 11:15. Bdjobs. After that Cleaning comes in third position with the ratio of 13:25 which is 52% of total circular in this category. Customer service and Cleaning comes in the second with the ratio of 14:25 which is 56% of total circular in this category. This explains that among 15 circulars of ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ category 11 circulars preferred female which is 73% of total circulated jobs.P a g e | 24 Figure 01: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Bdjobs. Field marketing and Accounts with lowest percentage and the lowest weighted 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 73% 56% 36% 20% 21% 14% 14% Percentage 52% Bdjobs. can be considered as the representative face of the employers‘ demand as well as the present job Thus. Almost all the renowned companies including the smallest one post their job circulars in Bdjobs. the lowest female preference has been counted in defense service. .com is the largest website in Bangladesh for job search purpose.

P a g e | 25  Table 04: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Jobsbd. 4 circulars are found with female preference which is 80% of total has also presented the same scenario of female preferred counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th July 2013 Figure 02: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Jobs Custom er Service 23 36 23:36 64% Front Desk/Rec eptionist 32 40 4:5 80% Field Cleani Market ng ing 6 23 6:23 26% 13 23 13:23 57% Jobsbd. Then in ‗Customer Service‘ position comes with the ratio weight of 23:36 . 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 80% 64% 33% 20% 33% 57% 26% 20% Percentage Jobsbd. With different figure numbers. com Female preferred Total Job Ratio Percent age Adm in 6 30 1:5 20% Accoun ts 9 27 1:3 33% HR Defence Service 1 5 1:5 20% 9 27 1:3 33% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of is another renowned job site in Bangladesh where many reputed organizations give their job circular for various positions. This expresses that among 5 total circulars of ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ jobs. This job site also got the highest female preference in ‗Front Desk/ Receptionist‘ position with the ratio weight of 4:5.

P a g e | 26 which is 64% of total jobs in this 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 78% 85% 81% 32% 38% 28% 29% 0% Percentage .com has also lowest percentage and ratio weightage of female preference in ‗Defense Service‘ and ‗HR‘ and ‗Field Marketing‘. Like Bdjobs. After that ‗Cleaning‘ with 13:23 which is 57% of total jobs in this category. Female preferred Total Job Ratio Percentage July 2013 Admi n 12 37 12:37 32% Accou nts 8 29 8:29 28% Custo mer Service 35 45 7:9 78% Front Desk/Rece ptionist 28 33 28:33 85% HR Field Mark eting 8 28 2:7 29% Clean ing 22 27 22:27 81% Defenc e Service 0 3 0:1 0% 9 24 3:8 38% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of Prothom Alo counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th Figure 03: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The ProthomAlo.  Table 05: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Prothom Alojobs.

The site supports the status of previous two sites. Square. Prothom Jobs for their job counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th July 2013 . This explains that among 33 circulars 28 circulars have a female preference which is 85% of total jobs in this Female preferred Total Job Ad min Acco unts Custo mer Servic e 18 30 3:5 60% Front Desk/Rec eptionist 20 25 4:5 80% HR Field Mark eting 4 22 2:11 18% Clea ning Defence Service 9 27 8 19 8:19 42% 6 17 6:17 35% 8 15 8:15 53% 0 1 0:1 0% Ratio 1:3 Percentage 33% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of JobsA1.  Table 06: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The also gets female preference in ‗Front Desk/ receptionist‘ category. is as popular as its mother organization newspaper The Daily Prothom Alo. Pran. Action Aid. ‗Defense Service‘ has 0 circulars for female preference and ‗Field Marketing‘has got the consecutive lowest position after defense service category. Then comes to cleaning with the ratio of 22:27 and 81%.P a g e | 27 Prothom Alojobs. After that customer service comes to the ratio of 7:9 which is 78% of total circulars in this category. With the highest weighted ratio of 28:33. United Group such big names with many others are regular clients of Prothom Alojobs.

the core fact is unchanged even in this less popular job site. Despite of this.P a g e | 28 Figure 04: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The JobsA1. Whereas. . The second highest preference is in ‗Customer Service‘ with the ratio of 3:5 which is 60% of total circulars. Moreover. The third preference went with ‗Cleaning‘ with 8:15 ratio which is 53% of total circulars. the research also found the site with the job circular of many popular companies. It also presented the highest female preference in ‗Front Desk/ receptionist‘ position with the highest weighted ratio of 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 80% 60% 33% 42% 35% 18% 0% Percentage 53% Although JobsA1. ‗Field Marketing‘ and ‗HR‘ has got least preference as like is not that a much popular or familiar job site but still it is working side by side with the popular job site brands. 4 circulars are found with female preference which is 80% of total jobs. This explains that among 5 total circulars of ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ jobs.

com Female preferred Total Job Ad min Acco unts Custo mer Service 20 29 20:29 69% Front Desk/Re ceptionis t 14 20 7:10 70% HR Field Marketin g 6 22 3:11 27% Cleani ng Defen ce Servic e 0 1 0:1 0% 7 21 6 19 6:19 32% 6 17 6:17 35% 14 18 7:9 78% Ratio 1:3 Percentag e 33% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of Aiminlife. the site is not known to Moses. Nonetheless. This explains that among 10 total circulars of ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ Aim in life. counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th July 2013 Figure 05: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Aiminlife. 7 circulars are found with female preference which is 70% of total is also not that much familiar to the job seekers.P a g e | 29  Table 07: Status of Female Preferred Jobs According to The Aiminlife. the site contains the job circulars of many popular companies. Then comes the name of ‗Customer Service‘ position with the ratio of 20:29 which is 69% of total circulars in this . Except very keen and intense job seekers. female preference is highest in ‗Front Desk/ Receptionist‘ position with the highest weighted ratio of 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 69% 70% 56% 33% 32% 35% 27% 0% Percentage Similar to JobsA1. the research could not get any exceptional scenario even from this site. Aiminlife.

8.P a g e | 30 category.2 Summarized Picture of The Job Sites For Female Preferance For Front desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position Table 08: Summarized Picture of The Job Sites For Female Preferance Front desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position Job Sites Female Total Job Percentage Percentage Preferred Varied in Job Range Admin Accounts Customer Service Front Desk/Receptionist HR Field Marketing Cleaning Defense Service 41 31 124 116 40 29 66 2 150 133 190 148 89 132 108 17 27% 23% 65% 78% 45% 22% 61% 12% 14%-73% 28%-42% 60%-78% 70%-85% 22%-38% 18%-29% 52%-81% 5%-20% Source: Observation of last 4 month record of 5 Jobsites counted from 1st April 2013 to 30th July 2013 .com also states the lowest female preference in ‗Field Marketing‘ and in ‗HR‘. Aiminlife.

The research took 8 categories of jobs and judged those in 5 prominent job sites. However. the ‗Admin‘ or ‗Accounts‘ has reported with 27% and 23% female preference respectively in all 5 job sites. The percentage of female preference in this job category varies within 70%-85% of all 5 job sites which is indeed very high. The immediate lowest response is 65% female preference and this is for ‗Customer Service‘ Jobs and the preference varies within 60%78% of all 5 job sites. Standing on individual ground. the research has summarized all these individual analyses to present a clearer picture. The 5 Jobsites has preference variation in this category by 14%-73% and 28%-42% respectively which are in low scales. . Similar to individual analysis. 78% female preference has been counted for the ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ Position.P a g e | 31 Figure 05: Summarized Picture of The Job Sites For Female Preferance For Front desk/Recptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate’ position 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 78% 65% 45% 27% 23% 22% 12% Percentage 61% The research individually analyzes each of 5 job sites to understand the female preference in their job circular list of different categories of jobs. Even. in case of summarized picture. the summarized picture shows that. each analysis has presented the same fact that the employers do have a female preference for the ‗Front Desk/Receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‘ Position. in all 5 job sites. The ‗Cleaning‘ jobs come just after that with 61% preference.

3 Reasons Behind Female Preferences „Front desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position for „Front Table 09: Reasons Behind Female Preference desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position Responses Females are more polite than males to manage front desk customer service Feminine beauty is effective to attract customer Female s are less likely to take reliable strategi c decisio ns 4 10 40% in Lack of qualified female candidates for managerial jobs Particular Response Total Respondent Percentage 6 10 60% 9 10 90% Females are reluctant to pay enough attention and time due to their family tension 7 8 10 80% 10 70% Source: Data gathered through the interview of the employers Figure 06: Reasons Behind Female Preferance for ‘Front desk/Recptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate’ position 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 90% 60% 40% Responses 70% 80% Females are Feminine Females are Lack of more polite beauty are less likely to qualified than males to effecetive to take reliable female manage front attract strategic candidates for desk customer customer decisions managerial service jobs Females are reluctant to pay enough attention and time due to their family tention .P a g e | 32 8.

the immediate lowest reply is with 60% which explains that females are more polite than males for which employers prefer females for front desk or receptionist position. This explains that few but still some employers think that female employees are not reliable for important decision. The final and least vote has been counted with 40% which explains that females are less likely to take reliable decisions. it's hopeful that most of the employees do not think in this way. Another fact has also been supported by the employers that there is a lack of qualified female candidates for managerial position as the employers have put 70% vote on this. the first portion of data analysis has confirmed the fact that only females are encouraged for the ‗Front desk/Receptionist or Secretariate position. the research has got its obvious result. . At first glance. where the highest votes with 90% admits that feminine beauty are effective to attract the customer for which employers prefer a female employee in front desk or receptionist position.P a g e | 33 The objective of this research was to identify the reason for which employers prefer females for front desk/receptionist or secretariat jobs. This is undoubtedly a twist situation for the entire analysis and the hypothesis as well. However. On the basis of last 4 month job circular record of prominent job sites. Based on this ground the analysis moved ahead to find out the reason behind it. a deeper look into the result reveals the second highest reply with 80% which states that females are reluctant to pay enough time attention to the job. The analysis has fixed up the ideas about the reason so that the analysis can be done without any complicacy. After that. At the same time. Where. the analysis fixed up some ideas and asked 10 employers of different arena for their opinion on that. Thus the research has first confirmed the fact that whether only females are really encouraged for front desk/receptionist or secretariat jobs or not.

P a g e | 34 8.4 preference for higher level education for „Front desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position Table 10: preference for higher level education for desk/receptionist/Customer Service/Secretariate‟ position To To manage To keep a To provide Responses maintain visitors of chance of job quality HR both national rotation or service Standard and promotion international levels „Front To ensure professio nal dedicatio n and contributi on 5 10 50% Particular Response Total Respondent Percentage 9 10 90% 6 10 60% 3 10 30% 8 10 80% Source: Data gathered through the interview of the female employees Figure 07 :Preferance for higher level education for front desk or secretariate position 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 90% 60% 30% 80% 50% Responses from Employers The problem of this research has two related dimensions. One is why employers prefer female for front desk/ receptionist or secretariat position and another dimension is why the employers demand for higher level education for these positions. Following a .

the research has got its predicted findings through the reply towards each option. the lowest two responses are in the interest of the female employees‘ part. The findings presents the fact that employers demand higher level of education for these positions just to maintain their HR standard as this option got the highest response with 90% vote. Here. These highest three responses indicate a clear interest of benefit from the employer's part. In this dimension. . The rest two highest votes with 80% and 60% respectively explain that employers demand higher level education to give them the best quality service and to manage both national and international customers from the beginning.P a g e | 35 sequential process towards the objective. employers demand higher education to ensure professional dedication and also to keep a chance of promotion or job rotation respectively with 50% and 30%. At the third step. the research has dug into the reason behind the preference for higher level education for these positions. the research has first confirmed the problem fact and then identify the reason behind of it. As an opposite case.

the research has studied some prominent job sites and took an interview of few employers. Besides. and Females are reluctant to Secretariate‟ pay enough attention and time due to their family tension „Front provide quality service preference Desk/Receptionist positions The reason behind for preference of To maintain HR Standard and To higher level education for Desk/Receptionist positions Source: Summerized findings from the analysis and Secretariate‟ The research observed the very recent 6 months job circulars of 5 prominent job sites. the 4 month record of these sites can be considered as the representative status of the present market. All 5 job sites have been counted by many different job categories and it has been seen that. Table 11: Findings Analysis Finding „Front Desk/Receptionist/Customer Job sites to know the jobs with Female Females prefer more than males for preference Service and Secretariate‟ positions The reason for behind female and employers' Feminine beauty is effective to attract in „Front customer. With this aim and objective. Thus.0 Finding The research has a very specific aim to identify the reason of female preference in front desk/ receptionist or secretariat positions. This has been done because most of the renowned companies of present days publish their job circulars through these web sites.P a g e | 36 9. These observations confirmed a portion of the hypothesis that truly. Hence. The research conducted an open interview of the employers to get their detail opinion about the problem situation. The gathered detail has been analyzed through a sequential process which led the research towards its objective. females are preferred in ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ positions. all of the job sites have the highest ratio . the finding has focused on the responses which are reflecting the condition with the highest percentage of votes. the research has incorporated another dimension where the reason for the higher education requirement for these positions has been revealed.

This is indeed a big responsibility which requires sufficient time and presence of a female. maids. a female is expected to take care of the cooking. The research didn‘t intend to find out the reason behind this preference or didn‘t intend to justify the females‘ capability on this. One logic behind this can be that Defence service by default has very limited circulars in job sites. By nature. The research cannot deny to this statement completely if it judges the real practice and behavior of the females. the fact is a strong truth indeed that a female fails to pay enough attention and time to their work place. Rather. Therefore. The common fact of these two category is both of these jobs require an intense physical strength with masculine effect in which males are mostly preferred here. The interview was an open interview thus the research got a detail overview of the employee's opinion. In this case. child. Eventually a female has to divide her 24 hours time proportionately to manage cooking.P a g e | 37 percentage of female preference in the mentioned job category. The employers stated that females are also reluctant to pay more attention and time to their work place. The investigation of the reason behind the problem scenario also revealed a surprising fact. rather it is used by the employer to be benefited. On the way through a sequential method of analysis the research has looked for this reason at the second step. Thus. The analysis depicts the finding that employers consider feminine beauty are effective to attract customer. The research has interviewed 10 different employers to find out the reason behind the female preference for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ positions. Interestingly. the finding showed significantly a lowest ratio percentage in any particular category like Field marketing. this Pleasance should not contain any hidden purpose specially any profit oriented business purpose. child. Therefore. The finding is clearly disgracing to feminism but factually it is the mind set of the employers of our country. defense service. those few published ones and field marketing category do not have female preference. the beauty is not at all appraised for the beauty itself. a male can contribute most of his working time and concentration in his workplace. household responsibilities and office as well. maid and other household responsibilities. the research intended to find out the reason behind the preference of female for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ positions. Where as. As a result both . Any kind of beauty is pleasing to the mind and there is no harm to signify feminine beauty to be pleasant.

Besides. employers demand for a higher level of education even for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ positions. energy and time for their family works. While the research was searching the job sites for the jobs where ―Females Are Encouraged to Apply‖. these females can also get a chance to compensate their low level of education by their feminine beauty and earn their livelihood. Refer to this saying. wisdom and expertisim in many different fields.P a g e | 38 employers and female employees prefer these sort of jobs where females can save their concentration. Over these 4 years. This has lead the research to its third portion of the analysis. Ultimately both of these reasons are in favor of the employers of the cost of the dignity and quality of a female employee. the research also noticed that. why the employers need for a high level of education for these positions? If the employers need to utilize the feminine beauty for their business profit purpose then do consider a female candidate with average or below average education level. the preference for females for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ position makes a logical sense. If the employer can train them with proper training then they can provide the service as efficient as the female employees with high level of education. a student becomes a empowered with knowledge. The argument comes with two points. Throughout the 4 years of graduation. they also need this to ensure that their customers are getting a good quality service from the welcome desk or customer service desk. In this way. Besides. The findings came out with the statement that employers need this higher level of education mostly to maintain the HR standard of their organization. why only females then? Why not males are also preferred for these positions? Second. There is a familiar saying that no job is odd because every job teaches us something. that student is like a strong weapon to fight any competitive field. the research is not against of hiring female form ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ position. the employers should bring male and female candidates into equal ground for recruitment decisions for ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘ positions. Otherwise. first. . where it intended to find out the reason for employers‘ preference for higher levels of education ‗Front Desk/Receptionist and Secretariate‘. an employer can utilize the knowledge and the efficiency of that student in any sophisticated work irrespective of her gender concern. Thus.

before education working in a organization. is one of the most renowned foreign organizations across the world. Margaret states that “I am very happy and proud to be a part of this EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYMENT”. and even after passing MBA she didn’t get any promotion in her 5 years of employment with that private counseling agency. Education UK department as the Project Coordinator.1 Case#01 Margaret Ahmed is working in a Britisheducationaln organization. student admission management along with her regular counseling job. Margaret does so many sophisticated tasks The British education organization under Education UK . private counseling agency as the front desk executive. the observation process has helped to confirm the problem fact. The British education organization where Margaret is working. is Her effort was never being evaluated properly. her effort was never been evaluated properly. It aims to spread British culture and heritage throughout the world. With the benefit of equal opportunity employment. At another point. working here for explains that not recruitment. However. Whereas. Margaret last 5 Ahmed years. In education organization has of gender respect in their influences the organization employees to know and gender equality.0 Case Study This research has set out its methodology by two established research methods namely. Although it was a front desk position but she used to do many tasks of administration. and even after passing MBA she didn‘t get any promotion in her 5 years of employment there. Margaret joining The she British was said that. She has been working here for last 5 years since 2008. Few of these case studies are explained below- 10. This and promote its the Margaret only in employment or British education equal and fair policy in Resource Management. The interview process has also enabled the research to judge the individual opinion of each employee as an individual case study. Now in British education organization. The organization has Human fact The British a clear guideline HR policy.P a g e | 39 10. the interview process has helped to get the opinion of different employers about the problem situation and the reason behind it. At one point. Observation and Interview.

when This the gets been difference gets more gender attached to it. Thus. Ahsan Mollik claimed that. Regarding the education level. Otherwise. When a customer comes to the front desk first. Even irrespective of gender balance. Moreover. she has also got a promotion after passing 3 years of employment. Starting from addressing the colleague to job description each and every way of HR is different in the private profit oriented company. 10. experience Ahsan openly. Ahsan working on HR for experience has been profit oriented discrimination Mollik has several years and his growing up in private companies. He said that. All this has motivated Margaret to state that ―I am very happy and proud to be a part of this EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYMENT‖. that the coin has another side too. Contract management with UK universities etc. if he gets a warm welcome from a well-decorated female then he is likely to consider any other simple negative issues. He also confessed that the reason is the feminine beauty is favorable to give the first impression to the customers.2 Case#02 HR policy and practicedrastically changes when it comes from a development agency to a private profit oriented company. this his understands the usual system of private During the personal research. The companies look for females in managerial jobs too.P a g e | 40 department including. program arrangement. contract management with foreign delegates. but then females fail to perform with highest level of concerntration as males do. budget. he practice companies‘ interview Mollik for shared and the HR. the usual HR practice is also differs in the private profit company. females are also reluctant to carry out hardline jobs as they want to involve more with their family. Ahsan Mollik added. Her effort here is being evaluated every year and she gets a performance bonus. this simple negative issue might irritate him to get dissatisfied with the company. it's not like higher level but a standard level of education is required to ensure a . He accepted the fact females are preferred in ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ position. There is no particular is a regular and reason behind it but it practiced severe fact.

but then females fail to perform with the highest level of concentration as males do.3 Case#03 The case study of Ahsan Mollik has mentioned a fact that the HR system of development agencydifferss a lot with the HR system of private profit oriented company. At this mention that. development mentioned in the Margaret Ahmed agency has also been first case study of from British Education the research has found study which reflects the female preference in Organization. Her job description was nothing complicated or analytical which would require the Bachelor level of Business Administrative knowledge.B. giving course information. counseling. This would have been done by higher secondary knowledge with some specialized or professional training. He said that. This would have been done by higher secondary knowledge with some specialized or . giving course information. that the coin has another side too. All she used to do is receiving phone calls. Now he is doing the full hour job and his wife is doing some online business at home. Ahsan Mollik concluded. Now out HR another practice case for private companies. the post she was a from a reputed private point. The privilege in HR in Her job description was nothing complicated or analytical which would require the Bachelor level of Business Administrative knowledge. He also shared his personal experience that when he became a father. that females are also reluctant to carry out hardline jobs as they want to involve more with their family. Thus. 10. All she used to do is receiving phone calls. it is not always that females are preferred for this job only.B. he asked his wife what she wants to do and his wife left her job in the bay.P a g e | 41 smart approach in this welcome. and taking admission. He also added.A graduate university. She joined as Front Desk Shaila Rajib is working university for last 10 that university in 2003 Executive/ Receptionist. it is necessary to 2003 B. and taking admission. in were very few in number and the private university of Shaila Rajib‘s is counted a reputed one even on today‘s date. in a reputed private years.A graduates When she joined B. The companies look for females in managerial jobs too. counseling.

P a g e | 42 professional training. Therefore. cultural center.B. Mr. However. or educational quality. gender. it worked at banks. Thus. as This Mr.4 Case#04 The research planned to gather information from both development agency and private companies. development agencies. Shaila Rajib got her due promotion to assistant registrar level after 5 years and of course by submitting her M. They value the skill. in a French Cultural Manager organization HR is & the French cultural center profitable Although affiliated as well as a nonorganization. the research found it‘s another case study. Mr. organization is French Embassy but perimeter in terms of human and other runs it has a very limited working aspect. Ziaul Khan explained that they are not concerned about the gender preference for any position. Through this process. Ziaul Khan who is working organization Admin.A degree. financial institutes. Ziaul Khan explained that they are not concerned about the gender preference for any position. the Bachelor level of Business Administrative skill of Shaila Rajib could be used in some other sophisticated aspect of the organization. 10. The study talked to Mr. This is why. Ziaul Khan stated that they do not consider the educational background to be an accounts officer or femine beauty for Front Desk/Receptionist position. efficiency and suitability of an employee for a particular position instead of feminine beauty. they have never faced never face any disappointment from the female accounts officer with undergraduation level or from the . educational institutes to understand the variation in situations. it has both male and female in the reception office. female and The male organization has both employee in their reception. or educational quality. the under efficiency and suitability of an employee for a particular position instead of feminine beauty. resources. This is why. Factually. On this ground. the organization has an employee of undergraduate level and also post graduate level. the with a simple HR the practice of both and private organization policy which blends development agency companies. They value the skill. They do not consider educational background to be an accounts officer or femine beauty for Front Desk/Receptionist position. gender.

they arrange several relevant training individually for each department. .P a g e | 43 male receptionist with graduation level. He also informed that to maintain this skill and efficiency level. Ziaul Khan proclaimed with confidence that they are very much benefited and proud to have such diversified human resource.

still she has to face discrimination over there. it is restricting the growth of the entire economy. Even if a female cross over these barriers and joins a work life outside the home. so that men and women. Then comes the barrier of traditional beliefs that points out a working women as the worst one in the society. The problem the research has discussed is a very specific corner of gender discrimination. in fact. gender mainstreaming refers to a wide set of strategies and processes. No matter how much education. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) defines gender mainstreaming as ―… the process of accessing the implications for women and men of any planned action. monitoring and evaluation of the policies and programs in all political. Literacy lacks. Therefore. religion obstacle. the solution should start from the opposition part first and then should conclude with the suggestion for females as well. including legislation. The problem is more infectious in case of a developing country like Bangladesh. she is preferred mostly for the ‗Front Desk/Receptionist‘ or ‗Customer Service‘ positions. the one and only way of solution is recommended and that is Gender Mainstreaming. Grounded in feminist theoretical frameworks and intended to make mainstream institutions agents of social change.‖ . economical and societal spheres. but that the goal of gender mainstreaming is gender equality. This portion of the analysis revealed another fact that females are also reluctant to involve their complete concentration in any complicated job. traditional belief and mentality rigidity pull the gender equality backward more in developing country like Bangladesh. The strategies of making women‘s as well as men‘s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design. The research has found out the persistence of this fact through an observation survey of the job circulars of 5 prominent job sites. However. policies or programs in some areas and at all levels (Rao 2007). The survey findings has been more clear by the opinion gathered from individual interviews of different employers and employee. People here refer to the religion first to restrict females from going outside to work. implementation. benefit equally. All these mentalities are shaped by the lack of literacy.P a g e | 44 11. this discrimination starts from the recruitment point. Factually.0 Recommendation Gender discrimination is like a banyan tree which has grabbed the nation with several infected branches. skill and efficiency a female employee has. Eventually.

strategies. disease. Greater participation of all women. the private sector. The ground of the socioeconomic context is mentioned earlier which listed the name of literacy lacks. rather than treating them as subsidy providers for basic social services such as health. violence. women are viewed as subjects of poverty rather than as producers and generators or wealth.gender equality cannot be achieved as long as women live in insecure environments. . Similarly. whether due to an abusive partner. advocacy and public awareness initiatives. Thus the mainstreaming strategies should also be based on these aspects. and patriarchy in which women live are the biggest challenge for gender mainstreaming. The context of poverty.  Secure Environments. rich poor. In order to move the gender equality agenda forward.P a g e | 45 Examining the effectiveness of gender mainstreaming efforts. political debates. academic and research institutions. Women‘s arts and crafts should be adequately valued as a reflection of their knowledge and skill. and within households would create one collective voice for change. All these aspects work as the moderator of gender discrimination approach.The voice of leadership at the international and national levels is also needed to call for greater investment in gender equality and women‘s empowerment. and institutional features) and problems related to implementation that contributed to the failure of gender mainstreaming.By focusing on poverty reduction. militias. At this point of the research.  The voice of leadership. she argued. governments should offer support to women for their role as caregivers and nurturers. It is necessary to focus on the probable ways of adopting gender mainstreaming in the socioeconomic context of Bangladesh. religion obstacle. traditional belief and mentality rigidity. working women and housewives in decision-making spaces. or a threatening neighbor. it is necessary to examine the policy environment (resources.  Shifting the focus from poverty reduction to wealth creation. Aruna Rao (2007) noted that gender mainstreaming has been associated with more failures than gains. she said.

and passion are not given an outlet to use their knowledge and skills. Technological tools are particularly important as they enable women to use their time. through investments in basic services. Without access to such resources. resources. gender mainstreaming has often involved adopting a gender policy. electricity. water.P a g e | 46  Equal access to services and infrastructure. their identity and the qualification will valued with dignity.  Women empowerment. political governance. Thus. mandatory gender training. and expertise more efficiently. and communication tools. gender mainstreaming has been used to . expertise. and greater private sector investment and responsibility. females have to carry out the responsibility of their family. and increasing the number of women staff and managers. women with tremendous knowledge. In this way. but it does not mean that they will devalue their qualification by doing a job which is undergraded from their qualification. thus they will be able to manage both work and family. creating a gender unit to work on organizational programs. in practice. Yet gender mainstreaming is neither a clear agenda for institutional transformation nor a clear agenda for gender transformation and social change. If their family responsibilities restrict them to pay undivided concentration on paid job. keeping them at a disadvantage. It is true that. an end to impunity. In the worst cases. Women‘s empowerment also requires mainstreaming the gender equality agenda in institutions and processes in a way that transforms social values that have sustained gender inequality. Specific measures are needed to respond to existing inequality and to champion the empowerment of women in order to increase women‘s opportunities and capabilities.Gender equality is not just related to human rights. energy.Gender equality requires equal access to services and infrastructure such as roads. reform and harmonization. This would give them enough flexibility of time and scope. but also women‘s empowerment.  Accountability for gender equality-Advocates of gender equality must seek greater accountability through legislative and policy strengthening. Donor governments should be held accountable for the aid they provide such aid should be directed towards people as generators of wealth.  Female entrepreneurship.Guideline of the solution cannot be complete without a suggestion from female as well. then they can think to entrepreneur their own business field.

institutional features that have blocked change. it appears that this naive view did not take into account the limitations of institutional roles and functions—bureaucracies are not agents of social and political transformation. she argued. and has been made a crime in many countries. Girls‘ access to primary education has improved and women are increasingly entering the labor force. women have made striking gains in elections to local and national government bodies. Rao argued (2007). yet both need to be done. that the transformational change expected to result from gender mainstreaming has not occurred. These positive examples have been the exception rather than the norm. access to contraception is much more widespread and violence against women has been recognized as a human rights issue. In some regions. Moreover. and to dismantle many of the institutional mechanisms such as women‘s units and advisors created to promote women in development in the name of integration. A number of strategic partnerships have been forged between women‘s movements and policy reformers which have placed equity and women‘s human rights. and the way in which gender mainstreaming processes have been implemented. Rao (2007) emphasized. Rao acknowledged the many gains. This show. . such as South Asia. and engagement with state institutions Convinced gender mainstreaming advocates about the role of bureaucratic institutions as Agents of change. Rather. as well as in entering public institutions. inadequate resources allocated to this work. Theoretical insights on gender and development. bureaucracies have emphasized mainstreaming and planning at the expense of social transformation. she remarked. In hindsight. Despite the overall disappointment with the results of gender mainstreaming. She attributed the overall failure of gender mainstreaming to the challenging policy environment within which gender mainstreaming processes operate. due to the insidious ways in which the mainstream resists women‘s perspectives and rights.P a g e | 47 stop funding for women‘s empowerment work.

a larger conceptual framework is needed. The research has defined the problem scenario that. and children‘s daily lives. the true development gets stuck outside the obstacle bar. Besides. The end portion of the analysis was a bit of a surprise for the research but it is a fact too. Therefore. The developing countries are the most vulnerable victim of it. gender relations are influenced by poverty. Looking . and patriarchy. which links empowerment. the employers also revealed the fact that. rights. impunity. It is also crucial to consider the realities of women‘s. Nonetheless Bangladesh is among those developing countries who tries to break the bar of gender discrimination from one side but a new one appears from another side. The analysis found the presence of this fact by surveying the female preferred job circulars of 5 job sites. After that.0 Conclusion Gender Discrimination has become a cancerous virus for the whole nation which hinders the nation to avail the success of the development. and mainstreaming in all social spaces. After that. females are mostly preferred in the ‗Front Desk/Receptionist/ Secretariate or Customer Service‘ position in Bangladesh. Even if an employee has a higher education still she is placed in these positions. The research has suggested to promote gender mainstreaming or equality to remove the virus from the root. the female participation through different kinds of business entrepreurship can help a woman maintain both family responsibility and her individual identity. the research has come with the recommendations which has outlined the action plan for both society and the females as well. Thus.P a g e | 48 12. insecurity. men‘s. the research interviewed the employers to know the reason behind it. females are also reluctant to pay enough attention to their job as they have their family responsibilities too. The employers honestly accepted the fact and also said that they require a higher education to maintain their HR standard and to ensure better quality of the service. In order to advance the discourse on gender relations and achieve greater gender equality. she said. This research paper explores a dimension of gender discrimination which actually practices in our day to day life but never got attention as gender discrimination. As a result. In a developing country context. the country fails to disinfect this cancerous virus completely.

and effectiveness. achieving gender equity requires a stronger and diverse but unified voice for change. the issue of gender equality should be brought into the discourse on resource management and investment in natural resources. The integration of gender equality issues and women‘s political participation in post-conflict areas should also be examined more closely.P a g e | 49 towards the future. targeted resources. and increased. More public resources are needed to make strategies to promote gender equality successful. and gender-responsive budgeting. Mobilizing greater resources for gender equality requires a system of taxation that does not overburden the poor. donor harmonization. In addition. . because poverty in many developing countries is not due to lack of resources. results. It is also important to consider ways resources can be mobilized under the Paris principles of donor coordination. greater accountability.

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P a g e | 53 14.0 Appendix Respondents List .

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