Communication channels are the means by which a message is conveyed to its anticipated or intended audience.

Thought must be given to what channels are used to complete various tasks, because using an inappropriate channel for a task or interaction can lead to negative consequences. Complex messages require richer channels of communication that facilitate interaction to ensure clarity. Verbal It is written or spoken message that uses words to exchange ideas/information. Types of Verbal Communication There are two types of verbal communication: oral and written 1. Oral - Anything that emanates from the mouth is referred as oral communication. It refers to the spoken words in the communication process. It can either be face-to-face or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chats over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. Attributes of Good Oral Communication     Stress Rhythm Intonation Speed    Pausing Clarity of articulation Voice modulation: volume and pitch variation (avoiding monotonous speech)

Methods of Oral Communication  Among individuals:  Face-to-face communication  Interviews  Telephone conversation  Grapevine  Among groups:  Negotiations  Meetings  Lecture/speech  Presentations

Advantages and Disadvantages of Oral Communication Advantages Immediate feedback Better relationships Time saving Effective tool of persuasion Economical It’s the only way out during an emergency Disadvatages Lack of retention/documentation Distortion in passing the message No legal validity Possibility of misunderstanding Unsuitable for long messages Not effective when the target group is spread out

the formation of questions and the opportunity to share information. while technically nonverbal. email. therefore. Informal communication typically requires a common bond. object. magazines. vocabulary used. conferences. Healthy discussion allows a participant to change their views or appreciate a different perspective. grammar. Its intent is an open exchange of ideas. clarity and precision of language. while technically nonverbal. Advantages Ready reference Legal defense Promotes uniformity Mass access Suitable for distance communication Permits substitution and revision Disadvatages High level of knowledge and literacy is required Time consuming Lack of immediate feedback Costly No immediate clarification Needs expertise in expression A Free Dictionary defines "discussion" as the consideration of a subject by a group. This may happen between friends. letters. event and subject. memos. Written communication. commonly falls under the umbrella of verbal communication for the use of words to convey ideas. Books. texts.  Informal This form of verbal communication. newspapers and personal journals are all examples of verbal communication. Legal documents and court proceedings constitute forms of formal exchanges. it takes place most frequently between . A verbal exchange of any kind between two or more persons is called Dialogue.2. Written communication. magazines. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing. commonly falls under the umbrella of verbal communication for the use of words to convey ideas. coworkers and even strangers. Written Another form of verbal communication which does not require speech. Interpersonal relationships on all levels require the exchange of ideas. letters and memorandums serve as examples of formal communication. an earnest conversation. texts. The non-threatening nature of dialog gives contributors the ability to explore and create as a group. it promotes collaboration and equal verbal footing within a group. newspapers and personal journals are all examples of verbal communication. email. letters. speeches. It is also a free-form discussion among individuals examines any idea. For example.  Formal Both oral and written communication take a formal turn when meeting strangers or within a business or legal setting. memos. books. Official corporate communications such as meetings. Participants also share perspectives to develop new concepts and ideas. the informal communication includes casual spoken and written exchanges. In business settings.  Written This form of verbal communication requires no speech.

sadness. facial expressions (i. physical appearance. Here are the ten channels of nonverbal communication that we use: facial displays. the use of time and the use of artifacts.e.g. sketches and paintings. a “wink” may contradict a stated positive message. Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or not speak).g. the use of space. point in a direction while stating directions. anger and fear are similar throughout the world. the hand gestures.  Paralinguistics Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture. signboards. Common gestures include waving. Non-verbal communication uses all of our senses. pointing.  Gestures Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. etc) — i. time limit or topic guidelines.e. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures. Why is non-verbal communication important? o o o o o Used to repeat the verbal message (e. or even photographs. movement and gestures. Nonverbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations. They are the aspects of spoken communication that does not involve words. a nod instead of a yes) Types of Nonverbal Communication  Facial Expression Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Also. eye behaviors. May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise. Often used to accent a verbal message.g. which includes the body posture. A person's facial expressions say a lot about his/her mood.’ Non-verbal Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person speaking.: a nod reinforces a positive message (among Americans). gestures like a handshake. One of the major roles in communication is facial expression.close friends and family members. This includes factors that add . verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words). and the overall body movements. E. the facial expressions for happiness. Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. interruption. touch behaviors. This form of verbal communication has no structure. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. the use of smell. a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions and do not need to be accompanied by words. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet). (e. vocal behaviors.

Touch can be used to converse affection. as well as to separate strangers using public areas such as beaches and bus stops. When people encounter people or things that they like. familiarity. It has been proven on some researches that “contact or touch” is essential during infancy and early childhood. We reserve it for whispering and embracing. inflection and pitch. When said in a strong tone of voice.  Eye Gaze Looking. and to separate people waiting in lines at teller machines for example. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions. interest and attraction. especially after the publication of Julius Fast's book Body Language. listeners might think of it as approval and enthusiasm. sympathy and other emotions. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. For example. B. intimate space ranges out to one foot and involves a high probability of touching. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes. C. in America: A. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970's. Finally. culture. Social space ranges from 4 to 10 feet and is used for communication among business associates. Harry Harlow's classic monkey research found out that the lack of touch is a hindrance in development. Public space ranges from 12 to 25 feet and is the distance maintained between the audience and a speaker such as the President. It can be observed or sensed from long distance thus it has power to convey message to many. situational factors. staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors because insufficient or excessive eye contact can create communication barriers. loudness.  Body Language and Posture Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. The tone of voice has a powerful effect on the meaning of a sentence.  Haptics Another way of non-verbal communication is thru touch. D. the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. personality characteristics and level of familiarity. including hostility. but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures like arm-crossing. research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed. and leg-crossing. .  Proxemics Personal space is also an important type of nonverbal communication. Personal space ranges from 2 to 4 feet and is used among friends and family members.emphasis and meanings to a sentence such as tone of voice. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms.

hairstyles and other factors affecting our looks are also considered non-verbal communication. attire. judgments and interpretation. . A study focused on colors showed that different colors can stir up different moods. Appearance The personal preference of fashion which includes color. These initial impressions are essential especially to the job seekers which why experts recommended that they must dress suitably for interview. Appearance can also influence physiological response.