What is Computer?


Computer o It is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions. o It is composed and made of electronic components and devices. Several uses of computers:  Word Processing  Internet  Digital video or audio composition  Desktop publishing  Medicine  Mathematical Calculations  Traveling  Telecommunications  Defense systems
       

E-Learning Gambling Examinations Business Online banking transaction Robotics Electronic households and gadgets Weather analysis

Two major parts of Computer: 1. Hardware o In general term it refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. o In the form of computer hardware, It is the physical components of a computer system. 2. Software o in general term, it is used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. Classifications of computer according to its size:  Supercomputer  Mainframe  Minicomputer  Microcomputer Characteristics of a computer:  Speed  Reliability  Storage  Capacity  Productivity Microcomputer  It is a complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally a synonym for the more common term, personal computer or PC, a computer designed for an individual.  A microcomputer contains a microprocessor (a central processing unit on a microchip), memory in the form of read-only memory and random access memory, I/O ports and a bus or system of interconnecting wires, housed in a unit that is usually called a motherboard. Personal Computer (PC)  Is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator.

Types of Personal Computer 1. Workstation o Is a high-end personal computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. 2. Desktop computer o A type of computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. U o Usually indicates a particular style of computer case. o Desktop computers come in a variety of styles ranging from large vertical tower cases to small form factor models that can be tucked behind an LCD monitor. 3. Single unit o These Personal Computers combine the monitor with the case of the unit into a single unit. o The monitor almost always utilizes a Touch Screen as the primary user input. o Otherwise known as All-in-One PCs. 4. Nettop o It is a type of mini desktop or small form factor computer designed for performing basic computation tasks such as surfing the Internet, accessing web-based applications and rich internet applications, document processing and audio/video playback etc. 5. Laptop o Also called a notebook computer or sometimes a notebook, is a small personal computer designed for mobility. o Subnotebooks, a subtype of notebook computers with most of the features of a standard laptop computer but smaller. 6. Netbook o These are small portable computers in a "clamshell" design, that are designed specifically for wireless communication and access to the Internet. 7. Tablet PC o It is a slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. o It is a touchscreen or graphics tablet/screen hybrid technology allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. 8. Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC) o It is a specification for a small form factor tablet PC. It was developed as a joint development exercise by Microsoft, Intel, and Samsung, among others. 9. Home theater PC o It is a convergence device that combines the functions of a personal computer and a digital video recorder. o It is connected to a television or a television-sized computer display and is often used as a digital photo, music, video player, TV receiver and digital video recorder. o Home theater PCs are also referred to as media center systems or media servers. 10. Pocket PC o It is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer (personal digital assistant) that runs the Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. o It may have the capability to run an alternative operating system like NetBSD or Linux. It has many of the capabilities of modern desktop PCs. SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix)  is a name or associated symbol that precedes a basic unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple.  The abbreviation SI is from the French language name Système International d’Unités (also known as International System of Units).  SI prefixes are used to reduce the number of zeros shown in numerical quantities.

SI prefixes 1000m 10008 10007 10006 10005 10004 10003 10002 10001

10n Prefix Symbol Since[1] Short scale 1024 yotta Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa 1015 peta 1012 tera 109 giga E P T G 1991 1991 1975 1975 1960 1960 1960 1795 1795 1795 Septillion Sextillion Quintillion Quadrillion Trillion Billion

Long scale Quadrillion Trilliard Trillion Billiard Billion Milliard

Decimal 1000000000000000000000000 1000000000000000000000 1000000000000000000 1000000000000000 1000000000000 1000000000 1 000 000 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001 0.000000000001 0.000000000000001 0.000000000000000001 0.000000000000000000001

106 mega M 103 kilo k

Million Thousand Hundred Ten One Tenth Hundredth Thousandth Millionth Billionth Trillionth Milliardth Billionth

2 10002 3 10 hecto h

1 10001 3 10 deca



100 (none) (none) NA d 1795 1795 1795 1960[2] 1960 1960 1964 1964 1991 1991

−1 1000−1 3 10 deci

−2 1000−2 3 10 centi c

1000−1 10−3 milli


1000−2 10−6 micro µ 1000−3 10−9 nano n 1000−4 10−12 pico p

1000−5 10−15 femto f 1000−6 10−18 atto a

Quadrillionth Billiardth Quintillionth Trillionth Sextillionth Septillionth Trilliardth

1000−7 10−21 zepto z 1000−8 10−24 yocto y

Quadrillionth 0.000000000000000000000001

Quizzes: 1. It is the physical components of a computer system. Hardware 2. It is a computer designed for an individual? Personal Computer 3. it is a type of classification of computer which is commonly used for mathematical and arithmetic computations. Supercomputer 4. it is a classification of computer commonly used large storage. Mainframe 5. it is used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. Software 6. Computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of what?. Instructions 7. Capital “M” stands for what scale? Million 8. What is the prefix for capital “T”? tera 9. What is the prefix for small “m”? milli 10. It is a high-end personal computer designed for technical or scientific applications and Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time. Workstation 11-15. What are the five characteristics of a computer? Speed, Reliability, Storage, Capacity, Productivity

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Assignment: 1. What is electronics? 2. What are different electronic components and schematic symbols?

They normally have their value marked on them. but some have their value in Ohms and their tolerance printed on them. A multimeter that can check resistance can also be helpful. They are typically marked with an “VR” on a circuit board. Most are color coded.Identifying Electronic Components Resistors are one of the most used components in a circuit. due to connections with the rest of the circuit). They are typically marked with an “R” on a circuit board. For example. They may also have a letter code on them indicating the taper (which is how resistance changes in relation to how far the potentiometer is turned). Smaller trimpots may use a 3-digit code where the first 2 digits are significant. and the 3rd is the multiplier (basically the number of 0’s after the first 2 digits). Potentiometers are variable resistors. providing the resistor is already removed from the board (measuring it while still soldered in can give inaccurate results. . code 104 = 10 followed by four 0’s = 100000 Ohms = 100K Ohms. normally marked with the maximum value in Ohms.

They are typically marked with an “C” on a circuit board. and a few are color coded.Capacitors are also very commonly used. They are typically marked with an “L” on a circuit board. If they are color coded. A lot have their values printed on them. The same resources listed above for resistors can also help you identify capacitor values. some are marked with 3-digit codes. also called coils. otherwise a good meter that can measure inductance will be n eeded. . They are typically marked with an “X” or a “Y” on a circuit board. Most are clearly marked with their operating frequency printed on them. the resources listed for resistors can help. Crystals and Oscillators are also fairly easy to identify by sight. can be a bit harder to figure out their values. Inductors.

They are typically marked with an “K” on a circuit board. and are well marked with their specs. and many have their specs printed on them.Relays are typically enclosed in plastic. Transformers are normally pretty easy to identify by sight. . They are typically marked with an “T” on a circuit board. and many have their specs printed on them. Batteries are also pretty easy to identify.

and typically have their voltage and amperage rating marked on them. Semiconductors. such as Diodes (typically marked with an “D” on a circuit board).Fuses can be easy to identify. . Transistors (typically marked with an “Q” on a circuit board).

Bridge Rectifiers (typically marked with an “BR” on a circuit board) Integrated Circuits (typically marked with an “U” or “IC” on a circuit board). or you can put the part number in their search bar. you first need to find some info on the part. check out the following sites. They are typically in a . you will need a PDF reader to open it. they have part numbers which can be used to help identify them. or are unable to find a datasheet on their website. Luckily. To find a datasheet. The datasheet is a document containing the specs on the device and many will include example circuits. If you have never used a PDF file before. They may also have the manufacturers logo on them. you do have a few more options. can take a little more work to figure out what they are. For help in finding the manufacturer based on their logo. A couple of free ones can be found below.PDF format. Some free ones are listed below. and other valuable information. links to app notes. Many different types can use the same packaging. You can search . In most cases the information you need is found in the device’s datasheet. so they all can’t be identified by just their looks. There are several search engines on the web to help locate datasheets. Datasheets can normally be found under the support/download section. They also include links to the manufacturer’s websites. If you can’t find any information on the manufacturer. Finding the manufacturer can be extremely useful as the most up-to-date information is usually available on their website.

but may be difficult to find specific information on. They may not be marked.There are also many other components you may want to scrounge off a board. . but you can find some good general information on the web to help you out.


Answers—————— 1 Diodes 2 Piezo Buzzer 3 Transistor 4 Transformer 5 Relay 6 Inductors 7 Integrated Circuits (IC’s) 8 Capacitors 9 Crystal 10 Resistors .


Supplies electrical energy. This symbol is used for a lamp providing illumination. Supplies electrical energy. as shown on the right. Energy is transferred between the coils by the magnetic field in the core. but for mains electricity and some radio circuits it really means the earth. Motor. Cell Battery DC supply AC supply Fuse Transformer Earth (Ground) Output Devices: Lamps. but it is sometimes omitted. There is no electrical connection between the coils. always flowing in one direction. A connection to earth. Wires connected at 'crossroads' should be staggered slightly to form two T-junctions. In complex diagrams it is often necessary to draw wires crossing even though they are not connected. A single cell is often called a battery. continually changing direction. Lamp (lighting) Motor . For many electronic circuits this is the 0V (zero volts) of the power supply. It is also known as ground. A safety device which will 'blow' (melt) if the current flowing through it exceeds a specified value. Supplies electrical energy. but strictly a battery is two or more cells joined together. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). Two coils of wire linked by an iron core. Transformers are used to step up (increase) and step down (decrease) AC voltages. Heater. AC = Alternating Current. for example a car headlamp or torch bulb. A battery is more than one cell. A transducer which converts electrical energy to kinetic energy (motion). Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. etc. A 'blob' should be drawn where wires are connected (joined). DC = Direct Current.Wires and connections Component Wire Circuit Symbol Function of Component To pass current very easily from one part of a circuit to another. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). I prefer the 'bridge' symbol shown on the right because the simple crossing on the left may be misread as a join where you have forgotten to add a 'blob'! Wires joined Wires not joined Power Supplies Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component Supplies electrical energy.

SPDT = Single Pole. DPST = Double Pole. An on-off switch allows current to flow only when it is in the closed (on) position. it is open (off) only when the button is pressed. It may have an iron core inside the coil. Solenoid) Switches Component Push Switch (push-to-make) Push-to-Break Switch On-Off Switch (SPST) Circuit Symbol A coil of wire which creates a magnetic field when current passes through it. A resistor is used with a . A 2-way changeover switch directs the flow of current to one of two routes according to its position. Function of Component A push switch allows current to flow only when the button is pressed. Single Throw. It can be used as a transducer converting electrical energy to mechanical energy by pulling on something. Some DPDT switches have a central off position. Single Throw.Bell A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. This switch can be wired up as a reversing switch for a motor. NO = Normally Open. This is the switch used to operate a doorbell. Inductor (Coil. Double Throw. A dual on-off switch which is often used to switch mains electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections. Relay An electrically operated switch. NC = Normally Closed. This type of push switch is normally closed (on). SPST = Single Pole. 2-way Switch (SPDT) Dual On-Off Switch (DPST) Reversing Switch (DPDT) DPDT = Double Pole. for example a 9V battery circuit connected to the coil can switch a 230V AC mains circuit. Double Throw. COM = Common. for example to limit the current passing through an LED. Some SPDT switches have a central off position and are described as 'on-off-on'. Resistors Component Resistor Circuit Symbol Function of Component A resistor restricts the flow of current. Buzzer A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.

A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. Examples include: adjusting lamp brightness. adjusting motor speed. This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. A special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across its terminals. Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) Variable Resistor (Preset) Capacitors Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A capacitor stores electric charge. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit. Some publications still use the old resistor symbol: Variable Resistor (Rheostat) This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a rheostat) is usually used to control current.capacitor in a timing circuit. to block DC signals but pass AC signals. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. This type must be connected the correct way round. Presets are cheaper than normal variable resistors so they are often used in projects to reduce the cost. Transistors . Photodiode A light-sensitive diode. It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal. A capacitor stores electric charge. Diodes Component Diode LED Light Emitting Diode Zener Diode Circuit Symbol Function of Component A device which only allows current to flow in one direction. polarised Variable Capacitor A variable capacitor is used in a radio tuner. Capacitor Capacitor. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. to block DC signals but pass AC signals. It can also be used as a filter. Trimmer Capacitor This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It can also be used as a filter. This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (a potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage.

Earphone A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Phototransistor A light-sensitive transistor.Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component Transistor NPN A transistor amplifies current. Audio and Radio Devices Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component Microphone A transducer which converts sound to electrical energy. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. Loudspeaker A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. Aerial (Antenna) A device which is designed to receive or transmit radio signals. but most people prefer to say voltage! Voltmeter . It is also known as an antenna. Amplifier (general symbol) An amplifier circuit with one input. The proper name for voltage is 'potential difference'. Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current. Really it is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component. Meters and Oscilloscope Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A voltmeter is used to measure voltage. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit.

on) or false (0. The output of an AND gate is true when all its inputs are true. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not AND gate. The 'o' on the output means 'not'. Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be used to measure their voltage and time period. Gate Type Traditional Symbol IEC Symbol Function of Gate A NOT gate can only have one input. There are two sets of symbols: traditional and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). NOT AND An AND gate can have two or more inputs. LDR = Light Dependent Resistor A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property). +Vs. A NOT gate is also called an inverter.Ammeter An ammeter is used to measure current. For more information please see the Logic Gates page. Ohmmeter An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance. low. The output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input. NAND A NAND gate can have two or more inputs. . high. Galvanometer A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter which is used to measure tiny currents. off). Sensors (input devices) Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transducer which converts brightness (light) to resistance (an electrical property). so the output is true when the input is false. The output of a NAND gate is true unless all its inputs are true. 0V. OR An OR gate can have two or more inputs. LDR Thermistor Logic Gates Logic gates process signals which represent true (1. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting. usually 1mA or less. The output of an OR gate is true when at least one of its inputs is true.

An EX-OR gate can only have two inputs. EX-OR EXNOR . The output of an EX-OR gate is true when its inputs are different (one true. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not OR gate. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not EX-OR gate. one false).NOR A NOR gate can have two or more inputs. An EX-NOR gate can only have two inputs. The output of a NOR gate is true when none of its inputs are true. The output of an EX-NOR gate is true when its inputs are the same (both true or both false).

Type Distinctive shape Rectangular shape Boolean algebra between A & B Truth table INPUT OUTPUT A B A AND B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 AND INPUT OUTPUT A B OR A OR B 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 A+B INPUT OUTPUT NOT A 0 1 NOT A 1 0 In electronics a NOT gate is more commonly called an inverter. and is generally used in circuit diagrams to indicate an inverted (active-low) input or output. INPUT OUTPUT A B A NAND B NAND 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 INPUT OUTPUT A B A NOR B NOR 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 INPUT OUTPUT A B A XOR B XOR 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 INPUT OUTPUT A B A XNOR B XNOR 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 . The circle on the symbol is called a bubble.

3. under the digit. 10011011. This is the decimal equivalent of the binary number 10011011. If the digit is a 0. Move through each digit of the binary number. Next write down the value of the remainders from bottom to top (in other words write down the bottom remainder first and work your way up the list) which gives: 10011101 = 157 . 2. written with base subscripts: 100110112 = 15510 Here is this step written on paper using the example binary number. Or. If the digit is a 1. is its decimal equivalent. The sum should be 155.to convert write this remainder first. repeat this process until you cannot divide by 2 anymore.Steps in converting binary to number (base2 to base10) 1. for example let's take the decimal value 157: 157 ÷ 2 = 78 78 ÷ 2 = 39 39 ÷ 2 = 19 19 ÷ 2 = 9 9÷2=4 4÷2=2 2÷2=1 1÷2=0 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 1 <--. under the digit. Write the binary number below the list. let's convert the binary number 10011011 2 to decimal. The sum of the bottom row. Or. For this example. Add the numbers written below the line. written with base subscripts: 100110112 = 15510 Converting decimal to binary To convert decimal to binary is also very simple. write a 0 below the line. 4. you simply divide the decimal value by 2 and then write down the remainder. write its corresponding power of two below the line. 155.

Resistor Color Coding .

Quiz3 (resistor color coding) Write your answers in Ohms and Kilo Ohms. Answers in Ohms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Red Brown Blue Gray Yellow Violet White Orange Green Yellow Green Brown Black Orange Red Black Gray White Blue Red Blue White Violet Black Green Black Orange Brown Gray Black Gold Orange Yellow Gold Red Blue Gold Green Black Gold Silver Silver Red Brown Gold Silver Kilo ohms .

Unix variants such as Linux.iPods)  External Modem & routers  Bluetooth & Infrared  Digital Projectors Two categories of devices: 1.  The term PC comes from the first personal computer made by IBM (International Business Machine). PSP. 2. controls. and numeric. A great deal of software is also compatible with either Mac or PC. 3. Four basic desktop PC system parts: 1. and original sales price make it useful for individuals. Mac is short for Macintosh and refers to any computer produced by Apple Computer. 2. Monitor – or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) used to display output or images generated by devices. 4. is the main body of a desktop computer. functions. PC stands for Personal Computer and refers to any IBM-compatible computer. FreeBSD and Solaris. A computer that is IBM-compatible means that its architecture is based on the IBM microprocessor and number of different operating systems are compatible such as Microsoft Windows. HDD. Common devices that are used and attached in desktop PC:  Web camera / PC camera  Printer  Scanner  All-in-one printer  Microphone  Headsets / earphones / headphone  Speakers / subwoofers  Digital camera / camera recorder / video recorder  Flash disk  Card reader  External drives (FDD.MP4. Two different types of Personal Computer: 1. capabilities.  Macs are traditionally classified separately from PCs because they are based on the PowerPC architecture from Apple/IBM/Motorola instead of the traditional Intel based microprocessors that have powered PCs for decades. Keyboard – an input device use to key-in characters. Input device . with no intervening computer operator. System unit – also known as a base unit. and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user. Optical drives)  Mobile phones  Gadgets (MP3 player. Example:  Mouse  Keyboard  Microphone  Monitors (touch-screen) .is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). Mouse – is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.Personal Computer (PC) – is any general-purpose computer whose size. but not both.

D-sub 15. HDMI (high-definition multimedia interface) . 5. Output device .is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. It defines a new royalty-free. VGA (video graphics array) . digital audio/video interconnect. intended to be used primarily between a computer and its display monitor. PDP (plasma display panel) – made of gas known as plasma. 4.(latest display interface) . 3. mini sub D15 and mini D15) is a three-row 15 pin DE-15. Scanner 2. OLED (organic light emitting diode) – is composed or made of diodes. Video projectors – also known as digital projectors. DisplayPort . CRT (cathode ray tube) – is the picture tube type of monitor. .commonly known (other names include RGB connector.is a digital display interface standard put forth by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) since 2006. 2. DVI (digital visual interface) – is a video interface standard designed to provide very high visual quality on digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. Example:  Monitor & Projectors  Speaker  Printer Two common types of Monitor used in desktop PC: 1. or a computer and a home-theater system. 2. 4. TFT-LCD (thin film transistor – liquid crystal display) – consist of layers of molecules. Others: 3. It takes a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system.is a compact audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed digital data. Different types of monitor interface or connectors: 1.

Gaming and multimedia 4. 2.Two common types of keyboards: 1. USB (universal serial bus) – with 4 conductors 3. PS/2 (personal system 2) – with 6 pins . Laptop-size – standards in laptop.104. AT (advanced technology) type connector – commonly found in old type motherboard (also known as 5DIN pin connector). Non-Standards or special-use types  Chorded  Virtual  Touch screen  Foldable  Laser/infrared Control Keys Function Keys Numeric Keys Alpha-Numeric Keys Types of keyboard interface or connectors: 1. Numeric 6. Standard keyboard – with common 101. Others: 3.102/105 keys 2. Thumb-size 5.

Two common types of mouse 1. Serial – with 9 pins in parallel . Optical Types of interface or connections: 1. Mechanical or opto-mechanical 2. PS/2 2. USB 3.

Audio/sound ports – optional 1 9. Reset button /switch 5. System Case 2. Card reader drives & USB. HDMI ports . 5 ½” or 5.25 inches drive bay panel – commonly used for optical drives 2. Vent holes 4. Floppy disk drive (FDD) – optional 9. Power supply panel 5 5 3 6 2 4 4 1 7 8 2 3 9 10 . Expansion card/slot panel 3. or HDD.optional 8. CPU (Processor) 5. Power Supply Unit (PSU) 3. Power LED indicator (Green) 6.Common parts of System Unit: 1. Power button /switch 4. 3 ½” or 3. System fan vent holes 5. Optical Drive 7. 3. Hard disk(HDD) LED indicator (Red) 7. Hard disk drive (HDD) 8. Front panel 2. USB ports . Rear panel Parts of Front panel case: 1. Motherboard 4. Video card/VGA card – optional 10. RAM (Memory) 6. System Fan – optional Two parts of system case: 1.5 inches drive bay panel – commonly used for FDD. I/O panel with I/O plate 2. SATA ports – optional 10.optional Parts of Rear panel case: 1.

ATX(AT-extended) type – recently used PSU connectors: 1. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads Two common types of PSU: 1. P9 / auxiliary (6 pins) – system board power support that is rarely used. 4. 8. EPS 12v – system board power support. 9. 6. PCI express (6/8 pins) – support for extra PCI express expansion cards.Power Supply Unit . 12 V (4 pins) – power support for CPU. 3. Molex – a power connector commonly used for HDD and Optical drives. AT type – old 2. Berg – used for FDD and other internal drives with 3 ½” size. Molex Berg P9 /Aux (6 pins) SATA power P8 and P9 . SATA power connector – power used for SATA drives 7. P8 and P9 – used by old motherboards. ATX 20/24 pins – System power 5.is a reference to a source of electrical power. 2.

ATX 20 pins ATX 24 pins 12 V (4 pins) EPS 12v PCIe (6 pins) PCIe (8 pins) .

25″ HH 3. or HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces.5″ 2.9 mm 1 TB (2009) 54 mm 43 mm 24 mm 250 GB (2008) 40 GB (2007) 20 GB (2006) 8 GB (2004) 1″ (CFII/ZIF/IDE-Flex) 42 mm Three common size or form factors of HDD: 1. 3. 2. hard drive. 2. 3.25″ FH 5.3″ 0.8” – commonly for subnotebooks.5″ 1. 3. and commonly used today.Hard Disk Drive . HDD Form factors: Form factor 5. 4.3 GB (1998) 102 mm 2 TB (2009) 69. SATA (serial ATA) drives – with 7200 rpm or higher speed.(often shortened as hard disk.85″ Width Largest capacity 146 mm 47 GB (1998) 146 mm 19. SCSI (small computer system interface) drives – an old type interface for multiple interfaces commonly with a high speed of data transfer.5” – size for laptop.8″ (CE-ATA/ZIF) 1. . 1. 2. Four interface of HDD: 1. SAS (serial attached SCSI) drives – latest type of SCSI.5” – size for desktop PC. ATA (advanced technology attachment) drives – also known as PATA (parallel ATA) or uses IDE interface and ranges with 5400 rpm upto 7200 rpm speed.

Different types of RAM modules: 1.is a form of computer data storage which is often associated with volatile types of memory. SIPP (single-inline pin package) 3. SoDIMM (small-outline DIMM) 6. DIMM (dual inline memory module) 5. where the information is lost after the power is switched off. DIP (dual-inline-package) 2. SIMM (single inline memory module) 4.RAM (random access memory) . RIMM (rambus inline memory module) .


IBM's 1985 successor to the AT motherboard. and is backward compatible with ATX form factor cases. Functionally equivalent to the AT.[1] AMD stated that the DTX form factor is an open standard.6x12" although some companies extend that to 10x12". The IBM Personal Computer XT was the successor to the original IBM PC. BTX Boards are flipped in comparison to ATX Boards. Allows more flexible motherboard design. Targeted at smart digital entertainment devices such as PVRs. highly-integrated form factor. Used in embedded systems and single board computers. media centers and Car PCs.  The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard. according to Intel the layout has better cooling. Very popular for desktop and small form factor computers as of 2007. Created by IBM for the IBM Personal Computer/AT. it was popular during the era of the Intel 80386 microprocessor. It was announced to be in development by AMD on January 10. Obsolete. an Intel 80286 machine. Created by Intel in 1995. It is for small form factor PCs (especially for HTPCs) with dimensions of 203 mm by 244 mm.  It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo. A subset of microATX developed by Intel in 1999. many clone motherboards were produced and it became a de facto standard. on Apple computers. while an ATX style board fits in an ATX case. its first home computer. A smaller variant of the ATX form factor (about 25% shorter). Also known as Full AT. Different Motherboard form factors: Form factor XT AT (Advanced Technology) Baby-AT ATX SSI CEB Obsolete . Typical size is 9. As of 2007. This means that SSI CEB motherboards have the same mounting holes and the same IO connector area as ATX motherboards. . or. the logic board.Motherboard  It is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in some complex electronic systems. but has fewer slots than ATX. Requires a baseboard. it is the most popular form factor for commodity motherboards. system board. Superseded by ATX. 2007. Created by the Server System Infrastructure (SSI) forum. microATX Mini-ATX FlexATX Mini-ITX Nano-ITX Pico-ITX Mobile-ITX BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) MicroBTX (or uBTX) PicoBTX DTX Mini-DTX smartModule A standard proposed by Intel as a successor to ATX in the early 2000s. designed for small devices such as thin clients and set-top boxes. for a smaller power supply unit. such as modern personal computers. As the specifications were open. Can be smaller than regular microATX. component positioning and shape. and thin devices. it became popular due to its significantly smaller size. set-top boxes. A small. Compatible with most ATX cases. so a BTX or MicroBTX Board needs a BTX case. Derived from the EEB and ATX specifications.

Used in rackmount server systems. It also incorporated a riser for expansion cards. A large design for servers and high-end workstations featuring multiple CPUs and hard drives. Used in slimline retail PCs Used in embedded systems AT Bus architecture adapted to vibration-tolerant header connectors Used in embedded systems PCI Bus architecture adapted to vibration-tolerant header connectors Used in embedded systems PCI Express architecture adapted to vibration-tolerant header connectors A low-profile design released in 1997. Typically used for server-class type motherboards with dual processors and too much circuitry for a standard ATX motherboard.requires a baseboard. and never became popular. The mounting hole pattern for the upper portion of the board matches ATX. LPX Mini-LPX PC/104 PC104plus PCI/104Express NLX UTX WTX XTX . Based on a design by Western Digital. LPX was never standardized and generally only used by large OEMs. Used in embedded systems and single board computers. it allowed smaller cases than the AT standard. Used in embedded systems . by putting the expansion card slots on a Riser card. Requires a carrier board. Requires a baseboard. Requires a baseboard.[1] Used in slimline retail PCs.ETX nanoETXexpress Extended ATX (EATX) Used in embedded systems and single board computers. Used in embedded systems and IPCs.

Different parts and connectors of a standard desktop motherboard: 1. SATA connectors/slot 4.g.old/obsolete  VESA (video electronics standards association) . IDE connectors /slot – (used for HDD and Optical drives – PATA type) 3.old/obsolete  CNR (communications and networking riser)  AMR (audio/modem riser)  AGP (accelerated graphics port)  PCI (peripheral component interconnect)  PCIx (PCI extended)  PCIe (PCI express) 2.This image compares the sizes of common form factors to ISO 216 paper sizes (e. and PCI Express (or AGP) video cards and the south-bridge) 5. Expansion slots  ISA (integrated standard architecture) – old/obsolete  EISA (extended ISA) . North-bridge chipset – (handles communications among the CPU. A4) (Sizes are in mm): Form Factor – it specifies the physical dimensions of major system components. RAM slots  SIMM . South-bridge chipset – (also known as an I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or a Platform Controller Hub (PCH)) 6. RAM.

and LED indicators) Extended USB connectors/slot CMOS battery connector (with CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) battery) AT/ATX power connector (System board power source) 12v (4 pin) power connector CPU fan power connector P9/auxiliary power connector (old type) PCIe power connector (latest) EPS power connector (latest) CMOS connector with jumper CPU socket/slot CPU fan/cooler handles/mounts Game port I/O ports  PS/2 mouse port (green)  PS/2 keyboard port (purple/violet)  Serial port  Parallel port  USB port  VGA / video port (15 female pins – 3 sets)  S/PDIF port  Game port (15 female pins – 2 sets)  IEEE 1394 port  RJ45 / LAN port  SATA port    HDMI port DVI port Audio/sound ports  Side speaker (gray)  Center/subwoofer (black)  Rear speaker (orange)  Microphone (pink)  Line-Out (green)  Line-in (blue) . 16.reset. 18. 15. 20. 9.7. 12. 13. 14. 11. 10. 21. 8. 17. 22. 23.  DIMM  RIMM BIOS chip FDD connectors/slot Printer connector (obsolete) Control panel connectors (interfacing for the front panel case controls such as power. 19.

Parallel port Game port DVI port HDMI port .

AMR or CNR slot(brown) SATA connectors South bridge chipset w/ heat sink BIOS chip (PLCC) CPU handles Control panel connectors North bridge chipset w/ heat sink PCIe power .

CPU Socket ATX power connector DIMM slot (SDRAM) Northbridge chipset IDE connector FDD connector AGP slot (brown) Southbridge chipset CMOS battery PCI slot (white) ISA slot (black) .

ATX (20pins) power 12v (4pin) power connector 6 pins (auxiliary power) .

2. package. Include the numbers of pins. 3. What is the difference between PCI.Assignment: (put your answer in a bond paper – short) 1. 4. and different models of processors that are used in particular socket or slot. . and PCIe slots? What is the difference between EISA and VESA slots which now obsolete? What are the most commonly used motherboard form factors today? List the different CPU socket or slot used by Intel and AMD processors. PCIx.

400 MB/s 8.533 MB/s 10.666 MB/s 12.400 MB/s 6.200 MB/s 4. plus the FSB and effective FSB speeds of the motherboards that support it.266 MB/s 5.333 MB/s 6.RAM Speed Matrix: PC Rating PC66 PC100 PC133 PC1600 PC2100 PC2700 PC3200 PC3500 PC800 PC1066 SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM DDR-RAM DDR-RAM DDR-RAM DDR-RAM DDR-RAM RDRAM (RAMBUS) RDRAM (RAMBUS) Type 66 MHz 100 MHz 133 MHz 200 MHz (100x2) 266 MHz (133x2) 333 MHz (166x2) 400 MHz (200x2) 533 MHz (266x2) 800 MHz (200x4) 1066 MHz (266x4) Memory Speed Below is a table providing information on the different types of DDR RAM.400 MB/s 6. Names PC-1600 or DDR-200 PC-2100 or DDR-266 PC-2400 or DDR-300 PC-2700 or DDR-333 PC-3200 or DDR-400 Base FSB Speed 100MHz 133MHz 150MHz 166MHz 200MHz DDR RAM Speed 200 MHz 266 MHz 300 MHz 333 MHz 400 MHz Below is a table showing the bandwidth of DDR2-400 to DDR2-1066. Double Data Rate (DDR) I/O Bus clock DualChannel Mode DDR Bandwidth DDR Type PC Name Motherboard FSB Single-Channel Mode DDR Bandwidth DDR2-400 DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800 DDR2-1066 PC2-3200 PC2-4300 PC2-5300 PC2-6400 PC2-8500 100MHz 133MHz 166MHz 200MHz 266MHz 200MHz 266MHz 333MHz 400MHz 533MHz 3.800 MB/s 12.800 MB/s .

hard drives.800MB/s 14. an e-mail application and so on. They manage things like the keyboard.660MB/s 12. The BIOS provides those instructions. it has to get that instruction from somewhere. how to configure it and what to do if your BIOS needs updating.DDR3 Type PC Name Motherboard FSB Double Data Rate (DDR) I/O Bus clock Effective data Bandwidth transfer transfer speed rate 800MHz 1066MHz 1333MHz 1600MHz 1866MHz 2000MHz 6.  Providing a set of low-level routines that the operating system uses to interface to different hardware devices . In this article. What BIOS Does The BIOS software has a number of different roles.  Managing a collection of settings for the hard disks.The operating system provides a set of services for the applications running on your computer. and the microprocessor cannot get to it without some instructions that tell it how. but its most important role is to load the operating system. the screen. When you turn on your computer and the microprocessor tries to execute its first instruction. You are probably very familiar with two different types of software:  The operating system . and the serial and parallel ports. You can also buy new applications and install them.  It turns out that the BIOS is the third type of software your computer needs to operate successfully. Every desktop and laptop computer in common use today contains a microprocessor as its central processing unit. clock.530MB/s 10. ports and CPU function together. the BIOS makes sure all the other chips. On virtually every computer available.000MB/s DDR3-800 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 DDR3-1866 DDR3-2000 PC3-6400 PC3-8500 PC3-10667 PC3-12800 PC3-14900 PC3-16000 100MHz 133MHz 166MHz 200MHz 233MHz 250MHz 400MHz 533MHz 667MHz 800MHz 933MHz 1000MHz How BIOS Works One of the most common uses of Flash memory is for the basic input/output system of your computer.For example. a word processing application. The applications .Applications are pieces of software that are programmed to perform specific tasks.930MB/s 16. Windows 98 and Linux are examples of operating systems. etc.It is these routines that give the BIOS its name. Some of the other common tasks that the BIOS performs include:  A power-on self-test (POST) for all of the different hardware components in the system to make sure everything is working properly  Activating other BIOS chips on different cards installed in the computer . the microprocessor executes a set of instructions known as software. To get its work done. . The microprocessor is the hardware component.400MB/s 8. commonly known as the BIOS (pronounced "bye-ose").what it does. SCSI and graphics cards often have their own BIOS chips. you'll learn all about BIOS -. and it also provides the fundamental user interface for your computer. It cannot get it from the operating system because the operating system is located on a hard disk. especially when the computer is booting. On your computer right now you probably have a browser application.

into RAM to run faster. The CMOS Setup provides detailed information particular to your system and can be altered as your system changes. It does this by checking the value at memory address 0000:0472. It is usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the motherboard. and the BIOS skips the rest of POST. We will talk more about these settings later. which tells the CPU what it is and passes it on to the operating system. it will notify you by a series of beeps or a text message displayed on the screen. 5. Anything else is considered a cold boot. On many machines. 2. It turns out that. the BIOS is doing a remarkable amount of work to get your computer ready to run. If it is a cold boot. the BIOS checks to see if this is a cold boot or a reboot. 6. Since the BIOS is constantly intercepting signals to and from the hardware. the BIOS displays text describing things like the amount of memory installed in your computer. mouse.The BIOS is special software that interfaces the major hardware components of your computer with the operating system. hard drive and floppy drive. This is its usual sequence: 1. the BIOS verifies RAM by performing a read/write test of each memory address. or shadowed. After checking the CMOS Setup and loading the interrupt handlers. When you turn on your computer. Next. the signal is sent to the keyboard interrupt handler. . the BIOS does several things. The BIOS uses this information to modify or supplement its default programming as needed. the type of hard disk and so on. if it finds one. The device drivers are other pieces of software that identify the base hardware components such as keyboard. Check the CMOS Setup for custom settings Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers Initialize registers and power management Perform the power-on self-test (POST) Display system settings Determine which devices are bootable Initiate the bootstrap sequence The first thing the BIOS does is check the information stored in a tiny (64 bytes) amount of RAM located on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. 7. but sometimes the chip is another type of ROM. there is usually video driver information on another ROM on the motherboard that the BIOS can load. 4. It checks the PS/2 ports or USB ports for a keyboard and a mouse. the BIOS determines whether the video card is operational. it is usually copied. the first thing you see is the BIOS software doing its thing. checks all the PCI cards. 3. It looks for a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus and. If the BIOS finds any errors during the POST. during this boot sequence. A value of 1234h indicates a reboot. Booting the Computer Whenever you turn on your computer. If they do not. For example. Most video cards have a miniature BIOS of their own that initializes the memory and graphics processor on the card. An error at this point is almost always a hardware problem. when you press a key on your keyboard. This section briefly describes some of those activities for a typical PC. Interrupt handlers are small pieces of software that act as translators between the hardware components and the operating system.

It usually. such as triple faults As Windows XP/Vista has an option to skip its Blue Screen of Death (Blue Screens of Death in Windows XP/Vista offer no option of pressing any key and seeing if the computer continues functioning) and immediately restarts the computer in the event of a fatal error. In computing. "Boot" is short for "bootstrap. This typically includes information about:      The processor The floppy drive and hard drive Memory BIOS revision and date Display Any special drivers. which shuts down the currently running kernel and executes another one. it will try the next device in the list. less stressful on system components) restart than powering the computer completely down then back up. booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system.) It may be caused by power failure. If the BIOS do not find a device. refers to an orderly shutdown and restarting of the machine. The BIOS then looks at the sequence of storage devices identified as boot devices in the CMOS Setup. This restarts the computer without first performing any shut-down procedure. are loaded from the adapter and the BIOS displays the information. The Control-Alt-Delete key combination on the original IBM PC was designed to allow a soft reboot for a quicker and more convenient (and. (With many operating systems. A boot sequence is the set of operations the computer performs when it is switched on that loads an operating system Types of boot process:  A hard reboot (also known as a cold reboot. though not always. or be done deliberately as a last resort to forcibly retrieve the system from instances such as a critical error or virus-inflicted DoS attack A soft reboot (also known as a warm reboot) is restarting a computer under software control. some argue. be done by accident. the startup process will halt. Such reboots may occur due to a multitude of software and hardware problems. The BIOS will try to initiate the boot sequence from the first device. after a hard reboot the filesystem may be in an "unclean" state." as in the old phrase. "Lift yourself up by your bootstraps. especially those using disk caches.The BIOS then displays some details about your system. The entire process is done independent of the system firmware. Note that the kernel being executed does not have to be  Random reboot is a non-technical term referring to an unintended (and often undesired) reboot for which the cause is not immediately evident to the user." Boot refers to the process of launching the operating system. such as the ones for small computer system interface (SCSI) adapters. If it does not find the proper files on a device. and an automatic scan of on-disk filesystem structures will be done before normal operation can begin. A Linux kernelThe Linux kernel has optional support for the kexec system call. cold boot or cold start) is when power to a computer is cycled (turned off and then on) or a special reset signal to the processor is triggered (from a front panel switch of some sort). users can be mistaken in thinking a Windows XP/Vista computer suffers from random rebooting  . without removing power or (directly) triggering a reset line.