Jiraphon Srisertpol, Ph.

D
School of Mechanical Engineering

Recommended reading :  

... ก : ก!"ก#, Pearson Education
Indochina 2545 

Singiresu S.Rao : Mechanical Vibration (Fourth Edition) ,Prentice Hall
2004. SI Edition 

Leonard Meirovitch : Fundamentals of Vibrations , Mc-Graw Hill 2001. 

Kelly S. Graham : Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrations,
Mc-Graw Hill 2000.

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Introduction to Vibration and The
Free Response     

The Spring-Mass model
Single –degree of freedom
Simple harmonic motion
Relationship between Displacement, Velocity
and Acceleration
Representations of harmonic motion

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School of Mechanical Engineering

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The Vibration of a Fixed-Fixed String School of Mechanical Engineering 5 The main mass and dynamic absorber at three frequencies. 6 Vibration Characteristics of a Spring 7 8 .

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Infinite number of degree of freedom system  .

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"""  " (Forced Vibration) ก ."" (Random Vibration)   19 $ก "" ก *# ก*ก"ก""*# +/ +*//  2.""*# (Damped Vibration) ก . (Linear Vibration) ก .""ก  20 ."" (Free Vibration) ก ."". (Nonlinear Vibration) ก .""ก'#/(/ (Deterministic Vibration) ก .""(*# (Undamped Vibration) ก .  ก  2/' ()%/+(*.ก $'#ก/ก 2.""(.         18 ก .ก3+กก'ก """*ก + ก"ก"")-ก'#ก/ก / #$'#ก/ 4#$ 2 .

ก .""*2()  ก "*5."" ก *2* ก **.ก'ก3+ก &.*+/ #$.""(*#'# ""# ก $**2** ก *(*#""ก/2(/ก 2 ก . ก $ก(/ $ ก*ก/ก # * ก .$/ $"" $*. ก &2'#$(&2' ก4(/ ก  ก *2 . (Natural Frequency) 21 22 ก.ก (amplitude) ก * ก *+กก  ก *2 ก   (Resonance)     #+ก *(*ก1*+ #ก ".""(*#.""*""*+ก *5.ก'ก3+ก*2 )-./ "" (+ ).กXBBSGTGOEFGYTF" (Undamped Vibration) กXBBB"EB (Forced Vibration)    $ก ""3+.

ก'()+. # กก'." 2 2  23 ""ก &)ก"/+  ) .   (Linear Vibration) กXBBGOEFGYTF" (Damped Vibration)    #+ก  *ก* 1*+ #ก/ก $* "" (/+#/ก4 %/+ ().) ..ก " +#$4 ก /*.# (Principle of Superposition) 24 .  # * !ก) *+. ก .""* #. ก 3 )- 2 )-ก ."".

 *.ก'()+()-.ก'ก3+ก ก  /ก4 .*ก'""(ก'#// .  # * !ก) *+. & )-70ก6.) .ก'ก3+ก ก  /ก4 .(/     27 ก.""'  6 (Mathematical Modeling) ก#กก $* (Derivation of Governing Equations) ก#8 9 +กก $* (Solution of Governing Equations) ก#68 *(/ (Interpretation of the Results) 28 .*ก'+ 2ก'#//.กXBBSGTHIH"HP (Nonlinear Vibration)  กXBBกYSP (Deterministic Vibration) ""ก &)ก"/+  ) .  ""* ก/ก +3+.(/ #$"  56.  2ก' 25 CDกFHEYก!"FFกG (Vibration Analysis Procedure) กXBBRTG (Random Vibration)  26 ""* ก/ก +3+. ก "+#$4 ก /*.

*)-. )8 56*(/ /.   (Numerical method) Dynamic System Modeling and Analysis.กก 56 ก) *+) ) & (Laplace)s transform) 5*.#   ก+6ก .*'#ก/ก1*+ /+ #(damped) .** /+. 9$+    ก.  ก. .ก $*   ก.กก $* ""ก "..ก ก 6   * * * 31 5"+.  32 .""' ก+3 . McGraw-Hill 1998 29 30 กFHEYb#!OSP (Interpretation of the Results) กYb#Hc#QGกกHE#`!O (Solution of Governing Equations)  . Hung V Vu and Ramin S.""""/+)(spring ) . Esfandiari.*ก' +ก $(# 4.กP"XBBL#"!"E[ (Mathematical Modeling)     กYGกกHE#`!O (Derivation of Governing Equations) ก:"$2""*ก/ก  %/+.#   6 /+  (mass) .""' * 2&(/# +5* .

meq {mr .v − vehicle body. ceq {cs . w − wheels. ks }− equivalentstiffness. 35 36 . kr . mw }− equivalent mass r − rider . v − vehicle body. w − wheels. s −struts . keq {kt .v − vehicle body. r − rider .t − tires. s −struts . mv .t − tires.t − tires. 33 Mathematical Model of Motorcycle 34 Mathematical Model of Motorcycle r − rider ./) b."' *+*/ • Single-degree of freedom model *.Mathematical Model of Motorcycle Vibration Analysis Procedure  ก. cr }− equivalentdamping constant. s −struts . w − wheels.

Mathematical Model of Motorcycle ก.

37 38 Spring Elements       Stiffness (N/m) Young’s modulus (N/m²) Density (kg/m³) Shear modulus G(N/m²) Springs in series Springs in parallel   ).   ก!"# $ Springs Elements  Mass or Inertia Elements  Damping Elements  r − rider .)ก 6/ ""**/#+*. $ก   ก+6"" Spring force F = kx k − spring contant or spring stiffness x − displacement(deformation) Potential energy in the spring : 39 U= 1 2 kx 2 40 . w − wheels.t − tires. s −struts .v − vehicle body.

4 (Dry Friction or Coulomb Damping)  #$ก(+/$ #+ / (Hysteretic Damping or Structural Damping) ) d 4G (0.000 N m k= 3 8D 3n 8(0. Equilibrium equation W = k1δ1 W = keqδ st W = k2δ 2 where keq = k1 + k 2 3. Static of the system (δ st ) Equilibrium equation W = k1δ st + k 2δ st δ st = δ1 + δ 2 2.4ก ".02 ) 80 ×109 = 40.000 N m 43 44 .2 ) 5 4 The equivalent spring constant of the suspension system is given by keq = 3k = 3 × 40. keq for the same static deflection W = keqδ st k1δ1 = k 2δ 2 = keqδ st or Equivalent spring constant (keq ) in parallel Equivalent spring constant (keq ) in series keq = k1 + k 2 + k3 + ⋯ + k n 1 1 1 1 1 = + + +⋯+ keq k1 k 2 k3 kn δ1 = that is.*+/#.000 = 120. δ2 = keqδ st k2 1 1 1 = + keq k1 k 2 41 42 Damping Elements EX: Springs in Parallel  shear modulus G = 80 ×109 N m 2  mean coil diameter D = 20 cm wire diameter d = 2 cm  The stiffness of helical spring is given by (  #$ก#$/ (Viscous Damping)  #$ก. keqδ st k1 .Springs in Parallel Springs in Series 1.

Mostly a mathematically motivated form. To account for this we must consider damping. The most simple form of damping (from a mathematical point of view) is called viscous damping. A viscous damper (or dashpot) produces a force that is proportional to velocity. allowing a solution to the resulting equations of motion that predicts reasonable (observed) amounts of energy dissipation. Damper (c) x f c = −cv(t ) = −cxɺ (t ) fc 45 46 Viscous Damping  Equivalentdampingconstant (ceq ) in series  1 1 1 1 = + +⋯ ceq c1 c2 cn   Damper Damping coefficient Critical damping coefficient Damping ratio Equivalentdampingconstant (ceq ) in parallel ceq = c1 + c2 + ⋯ + c3 47 48 .Viscous Damping Damping All real systems dissipate energy when they vibrate.

i = 1. Fsi − forces acting on the springs . Fdi − forces acting on the dampers Fs − forces acting on all the springs .3.2.4 Fd = ceq xɺ Fs = Fs1 + Fs 2 + Fs 3 + Fs 4 Fd = Fd1 + Fd 2 + Fd 3 + Fd 4 where keq = k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 ceq = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 Fs + Fd = W − total vertical force G − center of mass .4 Fdi = ci xɺ .2. Fd − forces acting on all the dampers 51 52 .3. i = 1.Ex: Horizontal milling machine    Underdamped Motion Overdamped Motion Critically Damped Motion 49 Ex: Horizontal milling machine 50 Ex: Horizontal milling machine Fs = keq x Fsi = ki x .

     Newton’s second law Conservation of Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Natural frequency 53 .