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VOLCANISM
By: tijana sekulic Source: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/environment-natural-disasters/volcanoes/volcanoes-101/

Vocabulary
Directions: Study the following keywords and definintions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. archipelago -(n) - A group of islands. depth -(n) - Deepness. Which words are dormant -(adj) - Inactive; asleep. the hardest? duration -(n) - The period of time during which anything lasts. explosion -(n) - A sudden and violent outbreak. Focus on the explosive -(adj) - Related to a violent release of energy.* tough ones! peaceful -(adj) - Tranquil. primeval -(adj) - Belonging to the first ages. prominent -(adj) - Noticeable or important. superficial -(adj) - On the surface; not deep. erupts -(v) - Explode; a sudden release of energy.* petrified -(v) - To cause to become stone-like, stiff, or stunned. emitted -(v) - To send or give out. precedes -(v) - To happen first. eruption -(n) - A sudden, violent release of energy. crater -(n) - A whole shaped like a bowl. component -(n) - A part. range -(n) - A series of things between limits. zones -(n) - An area known or used for a special purpose. submerged -(v) - To put under water. slopes -(n) - The measure of how steep a line is, determined by finding out how much the line rises (vertically) over a horizontal distance. 22. spreads -(v) - To expand or distribute to cover an area. 23. rift -(n) - A break in the Earth's crust.

Reading
Directions: Read the following passage carefully.
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/environment-natural-disasters/volcanoes/volcanoes-101/

1. 2. 3. 4.

Underline important parts of the text. Circle words or phrases in the text that you don’t know. Put a question mark (?) next to statements you have a question about. Put a check mark (✓ ) next to statements that you agree with.

VOLCANISM
By volcanism we understand all the phenomena and processes connected with the eruption of lava onto the Earth’s surface. Magma is a component of the asthenosphere and is in fact a mush of molten rocks, the temperature of 1400 – 1500*C. Due to upward flow of the molten matter within the asthenosphere and the movements of the plates of the Earth’s crust, magma flows through big cracks and slowly moves towards the surface while gradually cooling down. The cool magma then forms intrusive bodies of various size within the Earth’s crust (batholithes, lacolithes, dykes and sills), that account for deep igneous rocks. When magma erupts onto the surface of the Earth it is called lava and by cooling down it turns into lava or superficial igneous rocks. At the moment of eruption the temperature of the lava is 800-1400*C. The speed at which it erupts depends on its chemical composition, i.e., its silica – dioxide content. The basaltic lava (“alkali”), depending on the incline of the terrain, can move up to 30 km/h (Mauna Loa in Hawaii), while the rhyolitic and trachytic

The volcanic eruptions can be explosive when huge amounts of water vapour and various gases. The crater is a rounded dent at the top of the volcanic cone through which the material from inside the Earth erupts. Herculaneum and Stabia near Naples. volcanic cinder. the cones of which rise from the ocean floor at the depth of over 5000 m. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Lava flow 13. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. and peaceful when there is just lava flow in the form of lava flows or plates. there are volcanic cones of only a couple of tens or hundreds of metres. plantations. Volcanic forms The basic forms of volcanic relief are volcanic cone and crater. Calderas are up to 20 km wide. It has a shape of a funnel or cauldron. Ash cloud The lava flows look like petrified rivers and can be up to 30 km Long (Mauna Loa in Hawaii). The cones of the stratovolcanoes have steep slopes. even whole settlements. Parasitic cone 12. rock fragments. while the cones composed of mixed material are called stratovolcanoes because they have layered composition (Vesuvius). lava plates up to a few hundred years while lava flows take only several years. attract millions of tourists from all over the world every year. At the bottom there is a crater through which the molten matter from the asthenosphere reaches the volcanic crater. The width can measure up from several tens of metres up to several kilometers with the depth of from several tens of metres up to 1 km. large intrusive igneous bodies (batholithes) take up to a million years to cool. Lava volcanic cones have gentle slopes and look like shields (Hawaii volcanoes). One such plateau. Sill 6. They do a lot of damage. They are a characteristic feature of central Iceland. can be found east of Kumanovo in Macedonia. Base 5. divided by erosion. when lava and ashes buried the cities of Pompeii. Lava plateaus form when viscous lava comes out along the large cracks in the Earth’s crust. Plini the Younger described the horrendous eruption of the Vesuvius in 79. sand and dust. are the most prominent elevations in the relief of the Earth. Bedrock 3. The height of volcanic cones is measured from the foot to the top. usually with some smaller volcanic cones at the bottom (Yega on mountain Tibesti in Sahara). Flank 9. Nevertheless. Conduit (pipe) 4. mainly by poisonous gases and mud flows that rush down the sides of the volcano. . volcanoes. Dike 7. buildings. Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated): 1. that primeval force coming out from inside of the Earth.lava (“acidic”) is slow moving and fast cooling (Vesuvius and Volcano in Italy). People get hurt in volcanic eruptions too. The Hawaii volcanoes of Mauna Kea (4214 m) and Mauna Loa (4168 m). Vent 14. The lava flows are beautiful but look terrifying if you look at them at night. lava hardens at 600-700*C. However. Crater 15. or lava. Depending on the chemical composition. killing around 20000 people. destroying everything in their way: roads. The volcanic cone is composed of the material erupted from inside the Earth and can be composed of only lava. sand and dust come out with lava. The volcanic crater destroyed by the explosion is called caldera. Simple volcanic cones are made up of just one elevation with symmetrical sides (Stromboli) while the complex ones have several smaller parasitic cones on the sides (Etna). Throat 11. The highest volcanic cone in Europe is Etna (3263 m). Large magma chamber 2.

2) 3) Identify 2 details that are not very important to the main idea of the passage.Types of volcanoes Depending on their build. 1) Identify 3 important supporting details that contribute to the main idea of the passage. like increased gas emission and weaker earthquakes. The lava in the crater rises and falls but hardly ever comes out of it. one of the plates is being submerged under the other. The look and build of the volcanic cones show the character of the volcanic eruptions and their duration. which can then be subdivided into simple and complex. also characterized by frequent earthquakes. reaching the coast of the Adriatic Sea. the submarine volcano cones turn into volcanic islands which are a characteristic feature of the Pacific and Atlantic ocean. 1) 2) Write 1 brief paragraph summarizing the main idea of the passage. The volcano stations on the slopes of Kilauea in Hawaii and in Catania at the base of Etna predict the volcanic eruptions. can be observed but this still does not mean that there will be an eruption. Furthermore. due to the pressure of magma coming from the inside of the Earth. there are also some along the Mid-Atlantic submarine range and in Iceland that the rift crosses (a chain of 20 active volcanoes. By building up. Question 1: What is volcanism? Question 2: What is a volcano? Question 3: What is the cause of the volcanic phenomena? . As there are no such precise observations in other places. All the volcanoes that are known to have had at least one eruption in history are active. which are. Mostly composed of cinder. the volcanic cone has very steep sides with deep drains created by erosion. The volcano zones are conditioned by the cracks in the Earth’s crust along which the ocean bottom spreads or else. Use the important details to support your discussion of the main idea. Depending on that there are several different types of volcanoes. Some alarming signs of the volcano awakening. next along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and East African rift. It has been established that a series of earthquakes precedes volcanic eruptions and that the earth around volcano slowly rises (20 – 50 cm). There are over700 active volcanoes on land and at least fivefold that on the bottom of the sea. There are a number of active and dormant volcanoes around the edge of the Pacific Ocean (“The Fire Belt of the Pacific”). volcanoes can be active and dormant (inactive). other than active volcanoes. volcanoes can be divided in shield and stratovolcanoes. All these are unstable zones of the earth’s crust. The Stromboli volcano in the archipelago of Lipar is characterized by frequent explosions and huge amounts of hollow cinder like “volcanic bombs”. the largest of which being Hekla). Volcanoes form on land and at the bottom of the sea. the volcanic eruptions still do happen suddenly. Cinder can sometimes be so hollow that it floats at sea.

..Question 4: How are the volcanic phenomena manifested on the surface? Question 5: What are the active volcanoes in Europe? Question 6: What are the volcanic shapes? Question 7: Volcanic cone is.. Question 10: Lava plateau is .. Question 8: Crater is...... Question 9: Caldera is ... Question 11: How can volcanoes be divided by their build? ..

At the bottom there is a crater through which the molten matter from the asthenosphere reaches the volcanic crater. . 5." the subject is "Miguel" and the relative clause "which is south of the United States" tells more about Mexico. By building up. in the sentence "Canada is the country which is north of the United States. 3. are the relative clauses needed to identify the subject? Directions: Identify how the relative_clauses is used in the sentence(s) below 1. NOT about Miguel. 4.e. The crater is a rounded dent at the top of the volcanic cone through which the material from inside the Earth erupts. For example. 2. The Hawaii volcanoes of Mauna Kea( 4214 m) and Mauna Loa( 4168 m).Question 12: What are the volcanic zones conditioned by? Focus on Grammar Relative Clauses give information about a subject. It is extra information that does NOT identify Miguel. In the sentence "Miguel is from Mexico. the cones of which rise from the ocean floor at the depth of over 5000 m. Sometimes a relative clause gives extra information that does not identify the subject." the relative clause "which is north of the United States" identifies Canada. In the sentence(s) below. are the most prominent elevations in the relief of the Earth. i. Sometimes the information identifies the subject. All the volcanoes that are known to have had at least one eruption in history are active. 6. The speed at which it erupts depends on its chemical composition. the submarine volcano cones turn into volcanic islands which are a characteristic feature of the Pacific and Atlantic ocean. which is south of the United States.

An old castle seems _______________ compared to a new house 12. 11. 6. The river's _______________ is 10 meters here. 5. 7. He _______________ peanut butter on the bread. The volcano has not _______________ in many years. 2. 4. 9. Directions: Identify the word that ends with super. The volcano's _______________ destroyed the city. 2. superman super + man He is an amazing athlete. just as in the models. When magma erupts onto the surface of the Earth it is called lava and by cooling down it turns into lava or superficial igneous rocks.* 8. He has an _______________ temper. 13. 3. it is what's inside a person that is important. Directions: Fill in the blanks below. The bulb _______________ light.in each sentence and write it on the line. 10. archipelago peaceful emitted zones depth primeval precedes submerged dormant prominent eruption slopes duration superficial crater spreads explosion erupts component rift explosive petrified range 1. The _______________ was so far out at sea that most people did not know that these islands existed. 1.Word Roots & Stems Rule: The prefix super adds "above" or "amazingly" to the the meaning of a word. supernatural ____________ ________________________________________________ superego ____________ ________________________________________________ supermarket ____________ ________________________________________________ superabundant ____________ ________________________________________________ Vocabulary Practice FILL IN THE BLANK Directions: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. Pregnancy _______________ birth.almost a superman! superfine super + fine Silk thread is superfine. She bought a new _______________ for her stereo. . Physical beauty is _______________. There are many _______________s on the moon. When magma erupts onto the surface of the Earth it is called lava and by cooling down it turns into lava or superficial igneous rocks.

K. _______ A group of islands. The flowers are _______________ all winter. and come alive again in the spring. _______ Related to a violent release of energy. 30. 29. _______ To send or give out. 22. violent release of energy. 27. H. T. W. _______ On the surface. 26. _______ Deepness. _______ Inactive. Y = 3/2X has a _______________ of 3/2 because it goes up 3 units for every 2 units it goes over horizontally. 36. _______ Tranquil. not deep. _______ A sudden. A. There is no-smoking _______________ in the restaurant. P. 23. The robbery _______________ her. _______ A series of things between limits. I. F. If it helps. G. _______ The period of time during which anything lasts. feel free to also draw a line between the definition and the matching word. lovely sound. 34. 32. 39. 21. _______ A whole shaped like a bowl. E. 35. 19. _______ An area known or used for a special purpose. U. 15. and she could not move even to call the police. MATCHING Directions: Write the letter of word that matches the definition on the line. _______ A part. It was _______________ by the river. V. 16. archipelago depth dormant duration explosion explosive peaceful primeval prominent superficial erupts petrified emitted precedes eruption crater component range zones submerged slopes spreads rift .* 37. 18. R.14. N. _______ To expand or distribute to cover an area. _______ To put under water. The flight's _______________ was 3 hours. _______ Noticeable or important. _______ Explode. O. S. 17. B. _______ To happen first. M. 43.* 31. where no one spoke and the water made a soft. J. asleep. 25. D. 24. There was an _______________ when the after the car caught fire. Q. _______ Belonging to the first ages. C. L. The bird _______________ and then came back up with a fish in its mouth. 20. The price _______________ is from ten to one hundred dollars. 44. 40. _______ A sudden and violent outbreak. 41. a sudden release of energy. 42. _______ A break in the Earth's crust. The _______________ house on the hill can be seen from everywhere in town. 28. 33. 38.

WRITE YOUR OWN SENTENCES Directions: For each of the words in the box. _______ To cause to become stone-like. 49. 50. . 58. 57. 46. 52. 55. _______ The measure of how steep a line is. stiff. 59. 56. determined by finding out how much the line rises (vertically) over a horizontal distance. 48. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. 61. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. 60. 51. write an original sentence using the word. 54. archipelago peaceful emitted zones depth primeval precedes submerged dormant prominent eruption slopes duration superficial crater spreads explosion erupts component rift explosive petrified range 47.45. or stunned. 53.

63. 64. . 66.62. 67. 65. 68. 69.

submerged 3. Standards addressed: Vocabulary: 1. crater 22. Depending on the population: Read the entire passage aloud. and use the words in the vocabulary list below.LESSON: Aim: Grade: 9 Subject: Prepared by: Marijana Nikolic Objectives: Students will be able to understand. precedes 20. while working with students who need more literacy help. ALL Students will be able to increase their understanding and awareness of the new words. explosive 12. associate a visual image to cue to understanding of the word. slopes 4. Students will write 5 original sentences using simple_present. zones 2. range Activity Description Differentiation Guide Assessment Introduction of vocabulary Introduce the new words from the vocabulary list in above (see Objectives) by modeling pronunciation. explain the definition. give different types of learners an opportunity to write down the new words.SOME Students will be asked to orally demonstrate knowledge of new words. superficial 16. prominent 15. individual and choral repitition. Ask students to complete the questions by doing Think. Pause at key moments and model good reading strategies through a think aloud. archipelago 7. ALL Students will strive to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering the questions. Students will be able to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering questions which require basic understanding and interpretation of the content. pronounce. dormant 9. spreads 5. eruption 21. explosion 11. to model phrasing and fluency. emitted 19. duration 10. Grammar Students will review the usage of and then identify simple_present in sentences from the reading. Who can think of a time when this word might be used? Can you use this word in a sentence? What’s the antonym (opposite) of this word? When appropriate. rift 6. Share ALL Students will read the passage or follow along as the passage is read. but also include the vocabulary from the lesson in their sentences. Give students need time to work on completing their own practice sentences for the grammatical structure. ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increased mastery of the grammar structure by independently writing sentences that correctly employ simple_present. petrified 18. component 23. or develop a physical action to increase the student’s ability to remember the new words. depth 8. Instruct students to read the passage silently and complete the questions independently. Reading & Comprehension Questions Students will read the passages of and demonstrate comprehension of the content by question. SOME students will be given an opportunity to share their answer aloud. Invite early finishers to put their sentences on the board or challenge them to not only use the grammar structure. Pair. Ask students to volunteer to read parts of the passage aloud. . primeval 14. peaceful 13. Review defintions Sample Questioning: In your own words. erupts 17.

-1 Q. ALL students will be able to recognize the suffix -y and understand The suffix y changes a noun into an adjective. -19 S. 2 new words. -6 W. -3 C. -22 M. -17 D. -18 J. -20 E. -11 I. -15 F. -16 U. -4 R. which was used in the reading. -21 T. Fill-in-the-blank Answer Key: 1) crater 2) precedes 3) depth 4) component 5) archipelago 6) spread 7) explosive 8) emits 10) eruption 11) primeval 12) superficial 13) erupted 14) peaceful 15) explosion 16) submerged 17) dormant 18) prominent 19) range 20) duration 21) zone 22) petrified 23) slope Matching Answer Key: A.e. The summary can be completed as quick discussion or by asking student to summarize in their notes. -9 . like dirty. flash cards). -5 B. Students may benefit from having time to complete this portion of the worksheet individually or in pairs. -7 G. -12 K..Word Building: Roots and Stems Students will be encouraged to take away a word-attack strategy from this lesson by reviewing -y. Summary Instructor will review the objectives of the lesson with the class a whole. -13 L. -10 P. -8 N. Students complete this section of worksheet independently prior to group review of the answers. Example quick assess: 3 new pieces of information from text. -14 H. have students work in pairs or small groups. -23 V. ALL Students will increase their familiarity with the new vocabulary and their ability to successfully use these new words in context. When appropriate. Practicing New Vocabulary Students will be given a chance to practice applying new vocabulary by completing cloze sentences. -2 O. Students who get more than two of the cloze sentences wrong should be asked do other reinforcement (i. 1 question about what they learned.