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Lab # 1

Determine the Total Solids in Water

Solids
Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water. Generally defined as the matter that remains as residual upon evaporation and drying at 103-105 C. Consist of An inorganic fraction (silts, clays, etc.). An organic fraction (algae , bacteria, and detritus). Inorganic portion >>> Organic portion Contribute to turbidity of the water. High sediment loads are obvious because of their "muddy" appearance. Drinking water limit 500 mg/L (secondary standard).

Total Solids (TS)

Total Solids is a term used for the material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a definite temperature (103-105 C). Total Solids are the total of all solids in a water sample , Can be measured by evaporation. TS = TSS + TDS + VSS

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

The solids retained on a filter paper of pore size 2.0 m or smaller, during the filtration of the sample water. Total Suspended Solids are the amount of filterable solids in a water sample. Samples are filtered through a glass fiber filter. The filters are dried and weighed to determine total suspended solids in mg/ L.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

The solids that pass through the filter paper during the filtration of sample water. Total Dissolved Solids are those solids (inorganic + organic) that pass through a filter of 2.0 m or smaller. They are said to be non-filterable. After filtration the filtrate (liquid) is dried and the remaining residue is weighed and calculated as mg/L of Total Dissolved Solids.

Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS)

Volatile solids are those solids lost on ignition (heating to 550 C) .They give a rough approximation of the amount of organic matter present in the solid fraction.

Volatile & Fixed Solids

Volatile & Fixed Solids are determined by igniting the residues of TS, TSS, or TDS at 550C for 15 minutes followed by measuring weight loss.

Effects of Solids
Generally, water with high dissolved solids are of inferior palatability - such water may induce unfavourable physiological reactions in human body. Many industrial processes are effected by water containing high amounts of TDS. Water containing high amounts of TSS may be aesthetically unsatisfactory for washing , etc.

Analysis for TSS

1. Prepare a 0.45 micron filter using wash-dry-cool cycle. 2. Seat filter with DI water prior to filtration. 3. Pipet a measured volume into filtration apparatus from stirred sample. 4. Wash filter with 3 x 10 mL washings DI water. 5. Apply suction for 3 minutes after washing. 6. Transfer to aluminum dish for support. 7. Dry in the oven at 103-105 C overnight (should be 1 h). 8. Place in a desiccator to cool to room temperature , reweigh to the nearest 0.1 mg. 9. Calculate TSS in mg/L.

Calculations
Total suspended solids (TSS) : The total suspended solids (TSS) is given by the following formula: mg/L Total suspended solids = (A-B) 1000 / ml Sample Where: A = weight of filter disk with dried residue B = weight of filter disk only