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MODUL CHEMISTRY 2014

SUCCESS IN CHEMISTRY SPM 2014


SMK DR MEGAT KHAS
KEEP FIGHTING TILL THE END NEVER GIVE UP!!!
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SET 1
ATOMIC STRUCTURE EMPRICAL FORMULAE

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EXPERIMENT INVOLVING HEATING AND COOLING CURVE-NAPHTHALENE SPM ZONE

EXPERIMENT NAPHTALENE- study the precaution during experiment: Favourite question:


i- What is the purposed of using water bath in the experiment because naphthalene is flammable to ensure an even heating ii- How to ensure the naphthalene undergoes even heating - stir the naphthalene continuously iii. How to avoid supercooling - Stir the substance/ naphthalene continuously

GRAPH OF HEATING AND COOLING CURVE Favourite question: i- State the meaning of Melting point?
is temperature at which solid changes to liquid ii- Why temperature remains constant from t1 to t2 Heat absorbed to overcome the intermolecular forces iii- State the melting point/ What is the melting point of naphthalene 78 (refer to the graph given) iv State the physical state between t1 to t2 solid and liquid ( refer to graph given)
Temperature / C

Suhu / C A T t
2

v. Why temperature remains constant from t1 to t2 Heat loss to the surroundings is exactly balanced by the heat enegy liberated as the t particles attract one another to form a solid. 1 vi. Type of particles v- Draw the arrangement of particles of naphthalene at point t3 and t2

C / t Time min 3 Ma sa / min

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ATOM, MOLECULES AND ION Favourite question: i- State the type of particles atom/ molecules / ion ii.- What is physical state of magnesium at room temperature solid iii- State the type of particles of magnesium at room temperature atom SPM ZONE

The sub atomic particles in atom : proton, electron, neutron The meaning of proton : The number of protons in its atoms The meaning of nucleon number: The total number of neutrons and protons in its atom. State the meaning of isotopes the atom with same number of protons but different number of neutrons/ neucleon

The uses of isotopes:- iodine 131- used in thyroid disease (medicine) cobalt 60- cancer treatment carbon 14 to estimate age of fossil (archaeology) phosporus-32: as fertilizer (agricultural) uranium 235 : nuclear in power stations State the meaning of valence electron are electron in the outermost occupied shell i. Write the electron arrangement of P 2.5 ii. Draw the electron arrangement of atom P
Atom P Q R S T Proton Number 7 10 17 17 19 Nucleon number 14 20 35 37 39

iii.Draw the electron arrangement of ion P

iv- State the number of neutron of atom P 7

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TRIAL CHEMISTRY SPM 1
Diagram 1 shows the cooling curve of acetamide beginning from 90o C. Rajah 1 menunjukkan graf penyejukan asetamida bermula daripada 90oC.

Temperature / C Suhu / C

90 A

C 0 t1
DIAGRAM 1 RAJAH 1 Based on Diagram 1, answer the following questions. Berdasarkan Rajah 1, jawab soalan-soalan berikut. (a) What is the type of particles in acetamide? Apakah jenis zarah dalam asetamida? . [1 mark] (b) State the time when acetamide starts to freeze. Nyatakan masa apabila asetamida mula membeku. . [1 mark] (c) State the freezing point of acetamide. Nyatakan takat beku bagi asetamida. .

t2

t3

Time / min Masa / min

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(d) Why does the temperature of acetamide remains constant from t1 to t2? Mengapa suhu asetamida tidak berubah dari t1 hingga t2? . .[ 2 MARK] (e) Draw the arrangement of particles of acetamide at points A and C in the spaces provided. Lukiskan susunan zarah bagi asetamida pada titik A dan C di ruangan yang disediakan.

Point A Titik A

Point C Titik C
[2 marks]

(f) State the physical state of acetamide at these points: Nyatakan keadaan fizik asetamida pada masa: (i) 0 to t1: (ii) t2 to t3: [2 marks]

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MODUL CHEMISTRY 2014

The table below shows four substances with their respective chemical formula. Substance Iodine Potassium chloride Naphthalene Magnesium Chemical formula I2 KCl C10H8 Mg [3 marks]

(a) State one substance from the table above that exists as (i) atoms.

_________________________________________________________________ (ii) molecules. _________________________________________________________________ (iii) ions. _______________________________________________________________________

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3 Diagram 3.1 shows the heating curve of solid naphthalene, C10H8. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan lengkung pemanasan pepejal naftalena, C10H8. Temperature / 0C

T1

B C

T0 A

0
Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

Time / s

(a)

(i)

Name the process involved in this experiment. Namakan proses yang terlibat dalam eksperimen ini. .............................................................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah ]

(ii)

State the type of particle present in naphthalene, C10H8. Nyatakan jenis zarah yang terdapat dalam naftalena, C10H8 . ......................................................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

Explain why there is no change in temperature from B to C Terangkan mengapa tiada perubahan suhu dari B ke C ................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] [2 markah]

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(c) State how the movement of naphthalene particles changes from C to D during heating. Nyatakan bagaimana pergerakan zarah-zarah naftalena berubah semasa pemanasan dari C ke D. ................................................................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah] (d) Diagram 2.2 shows the atomic model proposed by Neils Bohr. Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan model atom yang dicadangkan oleh Neils Bohr.

X Y

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2 i ) Name X and Y. Namakan X dan Y. X : ...................................... Y : .......................................... [1 mark] [1 markah] ii) Which subatomic particles are involved in a chemical reaction? Zarah-zarah sub-atom yang manakah terlibat dalam tindak balas kimia? ....................................................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah]

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(e) Table 2 shows the number of protons and neutrons of four different atoms. Jadual 2 menunjukkan bilangan proton dan neutron bagi empat atom yang berlainan.

Atom W X Y Z

Number of protons Bilangan proton 16 16 3 19

Number of neutrons Bilangan neutron 17 16 4 20

i)

Which atoms are isotopes? Atom-atom yang manakah adalah isotop? ................................................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah]

ii)

Give a reason for your answer in (e) (i). Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda di (e) (i).

..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... [2 marks] [2 markah] TRIAL KELANTAN SPM 2007 1. Table 1 shows proton number and nucleon number for atom W, X and Y. Jadual 1 menunjukkan nombor proton dan nombor nukleon bagi atom W, X dan Y. Atom W X Y Proton number / Nombor Proton 11 17 17 TABLE / JADUAL 1 Nucleon number / Nombor Nukleon 23 35 37

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(a) (i) What is meant by proton number? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor proton ? ............................................................... ......................................... (ii) What is the number of neutron in atom W ? Apakah bilangan neutron dalam atom W? ................................................................................... (b) Which atoms are isotopes? Explain why. Atom atom yang manakah adalah isotop? Jelaskan mengapa. .................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................... (c) Write the electron arrangement of atom X . Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom X. ............................................................................................................. [1 mark] [2 marks] [1 mark] [1 mark]

(d)(i) Draw the electron arrangement of atom Y. In your diagram , show the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Lukiskan susunan elektron atom Y. Dalam rajah anda, tunjukkan bilangan proton dan bilangan neutron dalam nukleus.

[2 marks] (ii) What is the number of valence electron of atom Y? Apakah bilangan elektron valen bagi atom Y? ...........................................................................................................................[1 mark] Write the formula of ion Y. Tuliskan formula ion Y. ................................................................................................................................[1 mark] (e) Write the symbol of atom X in the form of Tuliskan simbol bagi atom X dalam bentuk
A Z A Z

X. X.

....................................................................................................................[1 mark]

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TRIAL PAHANG SPM . a) Atom S T U V Number of protons Bilangan proton 16 16 17 18 Number of neutrons Bilangan neutron 17 18 18 17 Table 1

(i)

What is meant by the proton number and nucleon number of an atom? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor proton dan nombor nukleon bagi atom? Proton number Nombor proton .............................................................................................. [1 mark] Nucleon number Nombor nucleon

.. [1 mark] A (ii) Represent atom S in the form of Z X Tuliskan atom S dengan perwakilan atom unsur
A Z

.. [1 mark] (iii) Which of the atoms are isotopes? Atom-atom yang manakah isotop? . [1 mark] (iv) State a reason for your answer in (d)(iii) Nyatakan alasan bagi jawapan anda di (d)(iii)

[1 mark]

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EMPRICAL FORMULAE: EXPERIMENT OF MAGNESIUM OXIDE AND COPPER OXIDE
copper oxide

Dry hydrogen gas

EXPERIMENT 1

EXPERIMENT II

i- Why must magnesium ribbon be cleaned with sandpaper? To remove the oxide layer on the surface of magnesium oxide ii- Explain why the crucible must be closed immediately when the magnesium ribbon starts to burn? To prevent the white fumes of Magnesium oxides from escaping iii- Explain why the crucible lid must be opened at intervals during the experiment? To allow oxygen in the air to enter into the crucible for complete combustion iv. How to make sure all the magnesium has reacted completelywith oxygen? Repeating the heating, cooling and weighing process until a constant mass is achieved v. Why the empirical formula of cooper oxide can not determined using this technique? because the copper oxide is less reactive metal Mass(g) 54.6 59.4 62.6

Mass of crucible + lid Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide vi- Calculate the mass of magnesium 59.4 54.6 = 4.8 g vii. Calculate the mass of oxygen 62.6 59.4 = 3.2 g

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copper oxide

Dry hydrogen gas

Asbestos crucible

EXPERIMENT 1
i-. Suggest two substances to produce the hydrogen gas in this experiment

Zinc and Hydrochloric acid ii- Name the substance used to dry hydrogen gas Calcium chloride iii- The combustion tube must be filled up with hydrogen gas. Describe how to confirm that hydrogen gas has filled up the combustion tube. Let the dry hydrogen gas flow into the combustion tube for few minutes. The collected gas is tested with glowing wooden splinter until no pop sound is heard indicating that hydrogen gas has been removed. iv- Explain why the hydrogen gas is still passed through the apparatus during the cooling of the combustion tube. To prevent the metal formed from being oxidized by hydrogen in air Mass of combustion tube + asbestos crucible Mass of combustion tube + asbestos crucible + M oxide Mass of combustion tube + asbestos crucible + M [Relative atomic mass: M,207; O,16] a) Calculate the mass of i) M 56.70 54.63 = 2.07 g = 54.63 g = 58.30 g = 56.70 g

ii) Oxygen 58.30 56.70 = 1.6g

b) Calculate the mole ratio of atom M and oxygen atom M = 2.07 g = 0.1 mol 207 atom oxygen = 1.6 g = 0.1 mol 16

EMPRICAL FORMULA AND MOLECULAR FORMULA c) Determine the empirical formula of M oxide simplest ratio M = 0.1 = 1 simplest ratio O = 0.1 =1 0.1 14 0.1 MO

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i- State the meaning of Emprical Formula The chemical formula which shows the simplest ratio of the number of atoms for each element in a compound ii- State the meaning of Molecular formulae Formula that shows the actual number of each types of atom in a molecule for each element in a compound iii Determine the empirical formular of the following
Mass of carbon: Jisim karbon Mass of oxygen: Jisim oksigen Mass of hydrogen: Jisim hydrogen Relative molecular mass: Jisim molekul relative 26.67 g 71.11 g 2.22 g 90 carbon: 40.00% Karbon Hydrogen: 6.66 % Hidrogen Oxygen: 53.33 % hydrogen Relative molecular mass: 180 Jisim molekul relative Relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12 and O = 16

Relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12 and O = 16

i-

Element Mass (g) Number of moles

Carbon 26.67 26.67 12

Oxygen 71.11 71.11 16

Hydrogen 2.22 2.22 1

Ratio of number of moles Simplest Ratio

2.22 2.22 = 1 2.22

4.44 4.44 = 2 2.22

2.22 2.22 =1 2.22

Emprical Formula = CO2H ii- Determine the molecular formula of this compound. (Emprical formula )n= Relative Molecular mass (CO2H)n = 90 (12+2(16)+1)n = 90 (12+32+1)n =90 45n = 90 n= 90 =2 45 Molecular formula = (CO2H)2 = C2O4H2

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iii.
Element Mass (g) Number of moles Carbon 40.00 Hydrogen 6.66 Oxygen 53.33

Ratio of number of moles

Emprical Formula = ii- Determine the molecular formula of this compound.

TRIAL PAHANG SPM 2011 (b) An organic compound Q consists of 64.87% of carbon, 13.51% of hydrogen and 21.62% of oxygen. [Relative atomic mass: H,1 ; C,12 ;O, 16] Suatu sebatian organik Q mengandungi karbon 64.87%, hidrogen 13.51% dan oksigen 21.62%. [Jisim atom relatif: H,1 ; C,12 ; O, 16] (i) Determine the empirical formula of compound Q. Tentukan formula empirik bagi sebatian Q.

[3 marks] (ii) If the relative molecular mass of compound Q is 74, find the molecular formula of compound Q. Jika jisim molekul relatif bagi sebatian Q adalah 74, cari formula molekul bagi sebatian Q.

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TRIAL SPM
Diagram 3 shows the set-up of apparatus to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menentukan formula empirik magnesium oksida.

Diagram 3 Rajah 3 The following are the results of the experiment Di bawah adalah keputusan daripada eksperimen Mass of crucible + Jisim mangkuk pijar Mass of crucible + Jisim mangkuk pijar lid + penutup lid + magnesium ribbon + penutup + pita magnesium

54.6 g 59.4 g 62.6 g

Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + magnesium oksida [Relative atomic mass: Mg,24; O,16] [Jisim atom relatif: Mg, 24; O, 16]

(a)

Calculate the mass of Kira jisim bagi

(i)

Magnesium [1 marks] [1markah]

(ii)

Oxygen [1 marks] [1markah]

(b)

Calculate the number of moles of Kira bilangan mol bagi

(i)

Magnesium [1 marks] [1markah]

(ii)

Oxygen [1 marks] [1markah

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(c) Determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide formed. Tentukan formula empirik magnesium oksida yang terbentuk.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (d) Write the chemical equation between magnesium and oxygen in this experiment. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas magnesium dan uksigen dalam eksperimen ini. .. [1 mark] [1 markah] (e) Why must magnesium ribbon be cleaned with sandpaper? Mengapakah magnesium perlu dibersihkan dengan kertas pasir ? ... .. [1 mark] [1 Markah] (f) Explain why Terangkan mengapa (i) the crucible must be closed immediately when the magnesium ribbon starts to burn? Mangkuk pijar perlu ditutup serta merta apabila pita magnesium mula terbakar ? .. ...................................................................... [1 mark] [1 Markah] the crucible lid must be opened at intervals during the experiment? Penutup mangkuk pijar dibuka sekali sekala semasa eksperimen ? .. .. [1 mark] [1 Markah] (g) How to make sure all the magnesium has reacted completely with oxygen? Bagaimana memastikan semua magnesium telah lengkap bertindak balas dengan oksigen? .. ... [1 mark] [1 Markah]

(ii)

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TRIAL CHEMISTRY KEDAH SPM 2008 2. Diagram 2 shows the apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula of oxide metal M. Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi oksida logam M.

M oxide Oksida M Dry hydrogen gas Gas hidrogen kering Combustion tube Tiub pembakaran
DIAGRAM 2 (a) (i) Name two chemicals used to prepare hydrogen gas in the laboratory. Namakan dua bahan yang digunakan untuk menyediakan gas hidrogen dalam makmal. ....................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction in (a)(i). Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di (a)(i). ... [1 mark] (b) Table 2 shows the result of the experiment: Jadual 2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen itu: Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper Jisim tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + M oxide before heating Jisim tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos + oksida M sebelum pembakaran Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + product after heating Jisim tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos + hasil selepas pembakaran [Relative atomic mass of O=16, M=55] (i) Determine the empirical formula of M oxide. Tentukan formula empirik bagi oksida M. 39.25 g 47.95 g 44.75 g

Asbestos paper Kertas asbestos

[3 marks]

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(c) State one precaution that must be taken when carrying out the experiment. Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang mesti diambil semasa menjalankan eksperimen itu. ................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (d) Can the empirical formula of magnesium oxide be determined by the same method? Explain your answer. Bolehkah formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida ditentukan dengan kaedah yang sama? Terangkan jawapan anda. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] TRIAL JOHOR SPM 2008 2 Diagram 2 shows the set up of an experiment to determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide. Rajah 2 di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi eksperimen yang dijalankan untuk menentukan formula empirik kuprum(II) oksida.

Copper(II) oxide Kuprum(II) oksida


H2

Heat Panaskan Anhydrous calcium chloride, CaCl2 Kalsium klorida kontang

DIAGRAM 2 (a) The empty box in Diagram 2 is the set up of apparatus to prepare the hydrogen gas. Complete the diagram. Di dalam kotak kosong pada Rajah 2 di atas merupakan susunan radas untuk menyediakan gas hidrogen. Lengkapkan Rajah 2 tersebut. [2 marks] (b) State the function of the anhydrous calcium chloride? [ 1 mark] Nyatakan fungsi kalsium klorida kontang ? ..........................................

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(c) Write a chemical equation to show the reaction taking place in (a). Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas yang berlaku di (a). ............................................... [2 marks] (d) State one precaution that need be taken before the copper(II) oxide is heated. Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diambil sebelum memanaskan kupum(II) oksida. .. [1 mark] (e) Table 2 shows the results of an experiment carried out by a student. Jadual 2 menunjukkan keputusan bagi eksperimen yang dilakukan oleh pelajar. Mass of combustion tube + porcelain boat Jisim tiub pembakaran + bot porselin Mass of combustion tube + porcelain boat + copper(II) oksida Jisim tiub pembakaran + bot porselin + kuprum(II) oksida Mass of combustion tube + porcelain boat + copper Jisim tiub pembakaran + bot porselin + kuprum Mass of copper Jisim kuprum Mass of oxygen Jisim oksigen TABLE 2 (i) Complete Table 2. Lengkapkan Jadual 2. [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the number of moles of copper and oxygen in this reaction. [Relative atomic mass for Cu = 64, O = 16] Kirakan bilangan mol kuprum dan oksigen dalam tindak balas ini. [Jisim atom relatif bagi Cu= 64, O = 16] 30.24g 32.26g 31.86g

[2 marks] (iii) Determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide. Tentukan formula empirik kuprum(II) oksida

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(f) Give an example of another metal, which the empirical formula of that metal oxide can be determined by the same method. Berikan satu contoh logam lain di mana formula empirik bagi logam oksidanya boleh ditentukan dengan kaedah yang sama seperti di atas. .... [1 mark] TRIAL JOHOR 2 Diagram 2 shows the set -up apparatus of an experiment to determine the empirical formula of copper (II) oxide. Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi kuprum (II) oksida.

Hydrogen gas Gas hidrogen

Copper(II) oxide Kuprum(II) oksida

Porcelain dish Mangkuk porselin Heat Panaskan

Anhydrous calcium chloride, CaCl2 Kalsium klorida kontang, CaCl2


Diagram 2 (a) What is the meaning of chemical formula? Apakah maksud formula kimia? ................................................ [1 mark] Name an acid and metal that can be used to prepare hydrogen gas in this experiment. Namakan suatu asid dan logam yang boleh digunakan untuk menyediakan gas hidrogen dalam eksperimen ini. [1 mark] .................................................. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between the acid and the metal in (b) (i). Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang berimbang untuk tindak balas yang berlaku di antara asid dan logam di (b) (i). ........................................

(b)

(i)

(ii)

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(c) State one precaution that must be taken before the copper (II) oxide is heated. Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diambil sebelum kupum(II) oksida dipanaskan. ..... [1 mark] [1 markah] Table 2 shows the results of an experiment carried out by a student. Jadual 2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen yang dilakukan oleh pelajar. Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish Jisim tiub pembakaran + mangkuk porselin Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper (II) oxide Jisim tiub pembakaran + mangkuk porselin + kuprum(II) oksida Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper Jisim tiub pembakaran + mangkuk porselin + kuprum 30.24g 32.26g 31.86g

(d)

(i)

Calculate the number of moles of copper in this reaction. [Relative atomic mass : Cu = 64] Kirakan bilangan mol kuprum dalam tindak balas ini. [Jisim atom relatif :i Cu= 64]

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

Calculate the number of moles of oxygen in this reaction. [Relative atomic mass : O = 16] Kirakan bilangan mol kuprum dalam tindak balas ini. [Jisim atom relative: O= 16]

[1 mark] [1 markah] (iii) Determine the empirical formula of copper (II) oxide. Tentukan formula empirik kuprum (II) oksida. [2 marks]

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(e)
Name another metal oxide which uses the same method to determine the empirical formula. Namakan suatu oksida logam yang lain di mana formula empiriknya ditentukan dengan kaedah yang sama. .... [1 mark] [1 markah]

(f)

M is a reactive metal. Suggest a method to determine the empirical formula of the oxide of M. M merupakan suatu logam reaktif. Cadangkan satu kaedah untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi oksida M. ........................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah]

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SET 2
PERIODIC TABLE CHEMICAL BONDING

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PERIODIC TABLE A B E F C D G

i- State one element that exist as metal? B ii- State element that exist as mono atom A iii- Choose an element that is a halogen/diatomic D or G iv- shaded the Transition Elements in the table above vi- State the name that represent vertical column Group vii- State the name represent horizontal column Period viii- State one special characteristic of transition elements formed coloured ion / used as catalyst x- State the element that can form ionic compound B and D / E and C xi- State the element that can form covalent compound C and D / C and G xii- State the element that can form amphoteric oxides F xiii- Arrange A, B,C,D,E, F, and G according to the increase in size of the atoms A, D, C.B, G, F, E xiiii- State the element that react vigorously with water B x- Write the chemical equation when element in (xiii) react with water B + H2O BOH + H2 xi. State the formulae ion for E E2+

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POSITION OF ELEMENT IN GROUP Favourite question:

Group 17 since it has 7 valence electron occupied in outermost shell Period 3 since it has 3 shell occupied by electron

GROUP 18 Favourite question: i- Why group 18 is chemically inert/ not reactive? because group 18 has stable octet arrangement which is do not share, lose or release electron ii- State the uses of element in group 18 Helium to fill weather ballons Neon to fill advertising light bulbs Argon uses to fill electric bulbs

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TRIAL JOHOR SPM 2013 3 Diagram 3 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Elements. D, E, G, L, M, and J do not represent the actual symbol of the elements. Rajah 3 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. D, E, K, L, M dan J tidak mewakili simbol sebenar unsur-unsur berkenaan.

L
D

M J
G

Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the Elements in Diagram 3, answer the following questions. Dengan menggunakan huruf-huruf yang terdapat dalam Jadual Berkala pada Rajah 3, jawab soalansoalan berikut. (a) (i) State the position of element E in the Periodic Table. Nyatakan kedudukan unsur E dalam Jadual Berkala. . [2 marks] [2 markah] (ii) Choose the element which exhibit different oxidation numbers in its compounds. Pilih unsur yang mempunyai pelbagai nombor pengoksidaan di dalam sebatiannya.

(b)

..... [1 mark] [1 markah] Element D combines with element L to form a compound. Unsur D bergabung dengan unsur L untuk membentuk suatu sebatian. (i) Write the chemical formula of this compound. Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian ini. ..................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah] State one physical property of this compound. Nyatakan satu sifat fizik sebatian ini. . [1 mark

(ii)

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(c) D and E have the same chemical properties. D dan E mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia yang sama. (i) Which element is more reactive? Unsur yang manakah yang lebih reaktif? ........................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer in (c) (i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (c) (i). . . [2 marks] [2 markah] Which element exists as diatomic molecules? Unsur yang manakah membentuk molekul dwiatom? ..[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Name the chemical bond in these diatomic molecules. Namakan ikatan kimia dalam molekul dwiatom ini. .................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

(d)

(i)

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1 Diagram 1 shows the position of several elements P, Q, R, S, T, U and W. Rajah 1 menunujukkan kedudukan beberapa unsur-unsur P, Q, R, S, T, U and W.

P Q R S T V U W

DIAGRAM 1 RAJAH 1 Using the symbols P, Q, R, S, T, U and W, answer the following questions. Dengan menggunakan simbol P, Q, R, S, T, U dan W, jawab soalan-soalan (a) State the element which you would classify under Group 2 Nyatakan unsur yang boleh dikelaskan di bawah Kumpulan 2 .... [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Write the electron arrangement of atom V. Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom V. .. [1 mark] [ markah] (c) Which of the elements has the biggest atomic radius? Unsur yang manakah mempunyai jejari atom paling besar? ... [1 markah] [1markah]

berikut.

(d)

(i) Compare the electronegativity of elements Q, T, V and U. Bandingkan keelektronegatifan bagi Q, T, V dan U. .. [1 mark] [1 markah]

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(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i). Terang jawapan anda di (b)(i). .. [2 marks] [2 markah] (e) State the ion formed by Q. Nyatakan ion yang terbentuk oleh Q. ............................................................................ [1 mark] [1 markah] (f) Compare the reactivity of Q and R. Bandingkan kereaktifan di antara Q dan R. .. [1 mark] [markah] (g) Why is W chemically unreactive? Kenapa W tidak reaktif secara kimia? ............................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah ] (h) Give one special characteristic of S. Beri satu ciri istimewa bagi S. .... [1 mark] [ 1 markah]

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3. Diagram 2 shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H do not represent the
actual symbol of the elements. A B E F C D G

DIAGRAM 2 Using the letters in the Periodic Table of Elements in Diagram 2, answer the following questions. (a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atom F. ................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Give the formula of ion F. ................................................ [1 mark] (b) Arrange the elements A, B, C, D, E, F and G according to the atomic size in ascending order. ................................................... [1 mark] (c) Element A exists as a monoatomic gas. Explain why. ................................................... ............................................... [1 mark] (d) Element D is more reactive than element G. Explain why. ................................................................. ................................................................. [2 marks] (e) E reacts with D to form a compound. (i) What is the type of the compound formed? . ................................................................ [1 mark]

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(ii) Draw the diagram of electron arrangement for the compound formed.

TRIAL TERENGGANU 4.Diagram 2 shows the symbols of atom for element U, V, W and X. Rajah 2 menunjukkan simbol- simbol atom bagi unsur U, V, W dan X.

7 3

12 6

19 9

20 10

DIAGRAM / RAJAH 2 (a) Write the electron arrangement of atom W. Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom W. ..............................................................................................................................[1 mark] (b) (i) Element U, V, W and X are placed in the same period in the Periodic Table. State the period. Unsur U, V, W dan X berada dalam kala yang sama dalam Jadual Berkala. Nyatakan kala itu.

.....................................................................................................................[1 mark] (ii) Compare the atomic size of element V and X. Bandingkan saiz atom unsur V dan X. .....................................................................................................................[1 mark] (iii) Explain your answer in (b) (ii) Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (b) (ii). ................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................[2 marks ] (c) Element V can react with element W to form a compound. Unsur V boleh bertindak balas dengan unsur W membentuk satu sebatian. (i) Write the chemical formula for the compound. Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian itu. ..................................................................................................................[1 mark ]

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2 Figure 2.1 shows the chemical symbols which represent elements R, S and T. (Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan simbol kimia yang mewakili unsur-unsur R, S dan T.) 35 R 17 (a) (i) 12 S

39 T

6
FIGURE 2.1

19

Write the electron arrangement of atom T. (Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom T.) ... [1 mark] State the period and the group for element T in the Periodic Table. (Nyatakan kala dan kumpulan bagi unsur T dalam Jadual Berkala.) Period (Kala) : . Group (Kumpulan) : .............................. [2 marks]

(ii)

(b)

Atoms of R and S can react to form a compound. (Atom R dan atom S boleh bertindak balas untuk membentuk satu sebatian.) (i) Name the type of bond in the compound formed between atoms R and S. (Nyatakan jenis ikatan dalam sebatian yang terbentuk antara atom R dan atom S.) .. [1 mark] Give one physical property of the compound in (b)(i). (Beri satu sifat fizik bagi sebatian di (b)(i).)

(ii)

(c)

. [1 mark] Atoms of R and T can also react to form a compound. Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed. (Atom R dan atom T juga boleh bertindak balas untuk membentuk satu sebatian. Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk.)

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CHAPTER 5 Favourite question: Formation of ionic and covalent compound Element Unsur W X Y Z Electron arrangement Susunan elektron 2.4 2.6 2.8.1 2.8.2

Using the information in Table 10.2, choose any two elements and explain how ionic compund and covalent compound are formed. i- ionic compound .( Z and X// Y and X) Z = 2.8.2 Formula ion : Z+2 Z+2 X-2 Z2X2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ZX X = 2.6 Formula ion : X-2

Atom Z releases two electrons to atom X and achieve a stable octet electron arrangement. Z 2+ formed//Z positive ion formed Atom X receives two electrons and achieve a stable octet electron arrangement. X 2- formed// X negative ion formed. Z 2+ and X 2- are attracted by a strong electrostatic forces // ionic bond Z and X form ionic compound with formula ZX

ii- covalent bond (W and X) W = 2.4 Formula ion : W-4 X = 2.6 Formula ion = X-2 W-4 X-2

W2X4 WX2 1.atom W needs 4 electrons to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement 2. Atom X needs 2 electrons to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement 3. One atom of W contribute four electrons to be shared with two atoms X 4. Two atoms X will contribute two electrons each to be share with one atom W 5. One atom W shares four pairs of electrons with two atoms X, forming two double covalent bonds // The formula of the compound is WX2/ or can deduce from the diagram

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i- State the physical properties of ionic compound -conduct electricity in molten and aqueous solution - soluble in water - has higher melting point and boiling point - insoluble in organic solvent ii- State the properties of covalent compound -can not conduct electricity in both molten and aqueous solution - insoluble in water - has low melting point and boiling point -vaporize easily(meruap) - soluble in organic solvent Tolong ingat 2 properties sahaja bagi setiap ionic and covalent compound !!!

iii- State the meaning of anion the ion which has negative charge iv- State the meaning of cation the ion which has positive charge

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TRIAL KEDAH SPM (a) Figure 9 shows the symbols which represent elements X and Y

Element X and Y react to form ionic bond. Describe the formation of an ionic compound [ 8 marks]

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b) Table 10.1 shows the electron arrangement diagram of compound X and Y. Jadual 10. menunjukkan gambarajah susunan elektron bagi sebatian X dan Y.

Compound Sebatian

Electron arrangement diagram Gambarajah susunan elektron

+
X

P+

R-

Table 10.1
Jadual 10.1

(i)

Based on Table 10.1, determine the types of compound X and Y. Berdasarkan Jadual 10.1, tentukan jenis sebatian X dan Y. [2 marks]

Compound X and compound Y have different physical properties. Choose one of the physical properties that can differentiate between compound X and Y Explain the difference in the physical properties between compound X and Y. Sebatian X dan sebatian Y mempunyai sifat fizik yang berbeza. Plih satu sifat fizik tersebut yang dapat membezakan antara sebatian X and Y. Terangkan perbezaan sifat fizik tersebut di antara sebatian X dan Y. [2 marks]

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c) Table 10.2 shows the electron arrangement for atoms W, X, Y and Z. d) Jadual 10.2 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi atom-atom W, X, Y and Z.

Element Unsur W X Y Z

Electron arrangement Susunan elektron 2.4 2.6 2.8.1 2.8.2 Table 10.2
Jadual 10.2

Using the information in Table 10.2, choose any two elements and explain how ionic compund and covalent compound are formed. Gunakan maklumat dalam Jadual 10.2, pilih mana-mana dua unsur dan terangkan bagaimana sebatian ion dan sebatian kovalen terbentuk

[10 marks]

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SET 3
ELECTROCHEMISTRY

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CHAPTER 6 Favourite question: i- State the meaning of electrolytes the chemical substances that can conduct electricity either in molten and aqueous solution ii- State the meaning of electrolysis the process whereby a compound is decomposed into its constituent elements when electric current passes through an electrolyte iii- Why ionic compound can conduct electricity in molten and aqueous solution because the ion are free to move to carry out the electric current iv- Why in solid state ionic compound cannot conduct electricity because they are held in fixed position therefore the ion are not free to move v- Why covalent compound cannot conduct electricity either in molten and aqueous solution because they do not contains ion which cannot carry electric current ANALYSING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

i- State the energy change in electrolysis cell Electrical change to chemical charge ii-State the application of electrolysis in industries -Extraction of ores metal - Purification of metals - Electroplating of metals iii.Why the colour of copper(II) sulphate is remain unchanged because the concentration of the blue Cu2+ ion remain unchanged since anode dissolved to form Cu2+ ion iv. State three factor affected the aqueous solution -position of ions in electrochemical series - concentration of ions - types of electrodes v.Why the ion Cu+2 selectively discharge at cathode since ion Cu+2 has lower position compared to H+ ion in electrochemical series vi. Why the ion Cl- selectively discharged at anode since ion Cl- has higher concentration compared to OH- ion in electrochemical series vii. How to confirm the gas is oxygen? Put the glowing wooden splinter inside the mouth of test tube. Relight glowing wooden splinter.

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viii. How to identify the gas is hydrogen? Put the glowing wooden splinter near the mouth of test tube. Pop sound will heard. viiii. How to identify the gas is chlorine decolourised the blue litmus paper x. How to identify the iodine gas Flow the gas in test tube containing starch solution. white solution changes to dark blue solution xii. Observation involving oxygen gas and hydrogen gas The colorless bubbles gas released xiii. Observation involving chlorine gas the greenish yellow gas released with chocking smell xiiii. Observation involving iodine and bromine gas brown gas released with chocking smell xiv. State the observation of copper plate at cathode brown solid layer deposited at cathode/ cathode become thicker xv. State the observation of copper plate at anode anode dissolved in electrolyte/ anode become thinner xvi. State the observation of silver/lead plate at cathode grey solid layer deposited at cathode/ cathode become thicker xv. State the observation of silver/ lead plate at anode anode dissolved in electrolyte/ anode become thinner

ANALYSING OF VOLTAIC CELL

i- State the energy change in voltaic cell Chemical change to electric charge ii- What is function of salt bridge to allow the movement of ion so that the electric circuit is completed iii- What is function of porous pot? to prevent two electrolyte from mixing iv- State the negative terminal and positive terminal between zinc plate and cooper plate Negative terminal-Zinc plate and positive terminal- Cooper plate v. Why zinc act as negative terminal Since the position of Zinc is higher than position of Copper in electrochemical series

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4 Diagram 4 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution with carbon electrodes. Rajah 4 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan natrium klorida dengan menggunakan elektrod-elektrod karbon.

Test tube Tabung Uji Electrolytic Cell Sel Elektrolisis

0.001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution larutan natrium klorida 0.001 mol dm-3

Electrode P Elektrod P

Electrode Q Elektrod Q

Diagram 4 Rajah 4 (a) What is the energy change in the electrolytic cell above? Apakah perubahan tenaga dalam sel elektrolisis di atas ......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (b) Write the formulae of all ions present in sodium chloride solution. Tuliskan formula bagi semua ion yang hadir dalam larutan natrium klorida. ...................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (i) Name the gas collected at electrode P. Namakan gas yang terkumpul pada elektrod P ........................................................... ...................... [1 mark] [1 markah]

(c)

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(ii) How do you identify the gas collected in (c)(i)? Bagaimanakah anda mengesahkan gas yang terkumpul di (c)(i)? ............................................. .... [2 marks] [2 markah] (d) (i) What is the product formed at electrode P if the experiment is repeated using 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution? Apakah hasil yang akan terbentuk di elektrod P jika eksperimen ini di ulangi dengan menggunakan larutan natrium klorida 2.0 mol dm-3? .................................. .. [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain your answer in (d)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda di (d)(i). .... .... .. [2 marks] [2 markah] (iii) Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode P. Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas di elektrod P. ....... [1 mark] [1 markah] (e) Suggest one metal that can replace the carbon electrodes in this experiment to obtain the same result as above. Cadangkan satu logam yang boleh menggantikan elektrod karbon dalam eksperimen tersebut untuk mendapatkan keputusan yang sama seperti di atas. ................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

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TRIAL SPM
2.Diagram 2 shows the set up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of silver nitrate solution with carbon electrodes and copper(II) sulphate solution with copper electrodes. Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan argentum nitrat dengan elektrod karbon dan elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dengan elektrod-elektrod kuprum.

Carbon electrode Elektrod karbon Silver nitrate solution Larutan argentum nitrat

Copper electrode Elektrod kuprum Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

Cell 1 Sel 1 Diagram 2 Rajah 2 (a) What is the energy change in electrolysis? Apakah perubahan tenaga dalam elektrolisis?

Cell 2 Sel 2

[ 1 mark] (b) Write the formulae of all the ions present in silver nitrate solution. Tuliskan formula bagi semua ion yang terdapat dalam larutan argentum nitrat. ............................................................................................................................................... [ 1 marks] (c) In the electrolysis of Cell 1 Dalam elektrolisis Sel 1 (i) What is the observation at electrode B? Apakah pemerhatian pada elektrod B? [ 1 mark]

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(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode B. Tulis persamaan setengah yang berlaku pada elektrod B.

(d)

. [ 1 mark] In the electrolysis of Cell 2. Dalam elektrolisis Sel 2. (i) What is the observation at electrode C? Apakah pemerhatian pada elektrod C? ..................................... [1 mark] Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode C. Tulis persamaan setengah yang berlaku pada elektrod C.

(ii)

(e )

.. [1 mark] What are the processes that occur at electrodes A and D? Apakah proses yang berlaku pada elektrod A dan D? Electrode A Electrode D :.. :. [2 marks]

(f )

State which cell the concentration of electrolyte remains unchanged. Nyatakan sel manakah kepekatan elektrolitnya tidak berubah. ............... [1 mark]

(g )

State one application of electrolysis in industrial. Nyatakan satu aplikasi elektrolisis dalam industri.. .............. [1 mark]

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TRIAL SPM
Diagram 1 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of 0.0001 mol dm3 of hydrochloric acid and 1.0 mol dm3 of potassium iodide using carbon electrodes. Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis 0.0001 mol dm3 hidroklorik asid dan 1.0 mol dm3 kalium iodida dengan menggunakan elektrod karbon.

Electrode X [Elektrod X] Electrode W [Elektrod W Hydrochloric acid [asid hidroklorik]

Electrode Y [Elektrod Y] Electrode Z [Elektrod Z] Potassium iodide solution [Larutan kalium iodida]

Diagram 1[Rajah 1]

(a)

(i) Identify all the electrodes which serve as anode and cathode. Kenalpastikan semua elektrod yang berfungsi sebagai anod dan katod Anode [anod]:.................................................................................................................... Cathode [katod]:................................................................................................................ [2 marks] (ii) Name the product that is formed at electrode W. Namakan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod W. ..... [1 mark] (iii) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at electrode W. Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di elektrod W. .. [1mark]

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(b) (i) State the observation at electrode Y. Nyatakan pemerhatian pada elektrod Y. [1 mark]

(ii) Name the product formed in b(i) Namakan hasil yang terbentuk di b(i) ............................................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] (iii) Suggest a test to confirm the product in b(ii). Cadangkan satu ujian untuk mengesahkan hasil yang terbentuk di b(ii). ..... .................................................. [2 marks] (c) In a separate experiment, the 0.0001 mol dm3 of hydrochloric acid is replaced with 1.0 moldm3 of hydrochloric acid and electrolysis is carried out. Dalam experimen yang berlainan, asid hidroklorik yang berkepekatan 0.0001 mol dm3 digantikan dengan asid hidroklorik yang berkepekatan 1.0 mol dm3 dan elektrolisis dijalankan.. (i) State the product that will form at electrode W. Nyatakan hasil yang akan terbentuk pada elektrod W. ..... [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in c(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam c(i). ............................................................................................................................................ ..... . [1 mark]

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TRIAL SPM
Diagram 3.2 shows the set up of the apparatus used to electroplate an iron key with silver metal. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan untuk menyadur satu kunci besi dengan logam perak.

Electrolyte R Elektrolit R

Diagram / Rajah 3.2

Based on Diagram 3.2 : Berdasarkan Rajah 3.2 : (i) State the correct position of the iron key either electrodes P or Q. Nyatakan kedudukan yang betul bagi kunci besi samada elektrod P atau Q. .......................... [1 mark] (ii) Name a suitable solution that can be used as electrolyte R. Namakan satu larutan yang sesuai digunakan sebagai elektrolit R. .......................... [1 mark] (iii) Suggest one step that must be taken to get a better electroplated key. Cadangkan satu langkah yang perlu diambil untuk mendapatkan saduran yang baik pada kunci tersebut. .......................... [1 mark]

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(c) Diagram 3.3 shows the set-up of apparatus of a purification process. Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi suatu proses penulenan.

Electrical source Sumber tenaga elektrik

A X Y

Impure copper plate Kepingan kuprum tak tulen

Pure copper plate Kepingan kuprum tulen

Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Diagram / Rajah 3.3 (i) Identify the anode and the cathode. Kenal pasti anod dan katod. X : ............ Y : ............ [1 mark] (ii) During this process, the intensity of the blue colour of copper(II) sulphate remains unchanged. Explain why. Semasa proses ini, didapati keamatan warna biru larutan kuprum(II) sulfat tidak berubah. Terangkan mengapa. .................................................................. ................................................................ ................................................................. [2 marks]

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TRIAL SPM JOHOR
1.The diagram below shows the apparatus set up to study the effect of concentration of electrolyte on the products of electrolysis

Experiment I : Electrolysis of very dilute sodium chloride solution Experiment II : Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution In Experiment I (i) What can be observed at the anode ? [ 1 mark] (ii) Write an equation to represent the reaction that takes place at the anode. [ 1 mark] (iii) What is the redox process that takes place at the anode ? . [ 1 mark] In Experiment II, (i) Which electrode will give a different compared to Experiment I ? . [ 1 mark] (ii) Name the product formed at the electrode in (b) (i). .. [ 1 mark] (iii) Write an equation for the reaction that takes place in (b) (i). [ 1 mark]

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5. Diagram 3.1 shows the set-up of apparatus of an electrolytic cell.In beaker A, energy is change from chemical energy to electrical energy. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel elektrolisis.Perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam bikar A ialah dari tenaga kimia kepada tenaga elektrik V

Magnesium plate [Plat magnesium] ZnSO4(ak) Beaker A [Bikar A] (a) (i)

Zinc plate [Plat zink]

Carbon rod [Rod karbon] CuSO4(aq) Beaker B [Bikar B]

Name all the cations present in the solution of beaker B. Namakan semua kation yang hadir dalam larutan di bikar B.

.................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (ii) Mark the negative electrode and positive electrode in beaker B Tandakan elektrod negatif dan positif dalam bikar B [1 mark] What is the expected observation in the copper (II) sulphate solution? Apakah pemerhatian yang dijangkakan pada larutan kuprum (II) sulfat?

(b) (i)

................................................................................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in (b) (i) Jelaskan jawapan anda dalam (b) (i) ................................................................................................................. [1 mark] What is the product formed at the anode in beaker Apakah hasil yang terbentuk di anod dalam bikar A? ............................................................................................................... [1 Mark] Write a half equation for the reaction that occurs at the anode. Tulis setengah persamaan bagi tindakbalas yang berlaku di anod [1 Mark]

(c) (i)

[1 mark]

(ii)

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(ii) If the zinc plate is replaced by a copper plate, describe what will happen to the voltmeter reading.Explain your answer. Jika plat zink diganti dengan plat kuprum,nyatakan apa yang berlaku pada bacaan voltmeter.Jelaskan jawapan anda .. [2 marks] TRIAL SPM 2.Diagram 3.1 shows the set-up of apparatus for two types of cell. (Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk dua jenis sel.)

Cell P (a) DIAGRAM 3.1 State the energy changes in cell P and cell Q. (Nyatakan perubahan tenaga dalam sel P dan sel Q.) Cell P:...

Cell Q

Cell Q:... [2 marks] (b) Write the half-equation for the reaction that occurs at the magnesium rod in cell P. (Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di rod magnesium dalam sel P.) [2 marks]

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(c) Mark the direction of the flow of electrons in cell P. (Tandakan arah aliran electron dalam Sel P) [1 mark] (d) (i) What happens to the voltmeter reading when the magnesium rod in cell P is replaced by zinc rod? (Apakah yang berlaku kepada bacaan voltmeter apabila rod magnesium dalam sel P digantikan dengan rod zink?) [1 mark]

(ii) Explain your answer in d(i). (Terangkan jawapan anda di d(i).) .. [1 mark] (e) (i) Label the anode in cell Q. (Labelkan anod dalam sel Q) [1 mark] (ii) What is observed at the copper anode in cell Q? (Apakah yang diperhatikan pada anod kuprum dalam sel Q?) . [1 mark] (f) What happens to the intensity of colour of the solution in cell Q? Explain your answer. (Apakah yang berlaku kepada keamatan warna larutan dalam sel Q? Terangkan jawapan anda..) [2 marks]

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TRIAL SPM PERLIS 6. Diagram 1 shows the set up of the apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution.

Carbon electrode X

Carbon electrode Y Potassium iodide solution

a)

DIAGRAM 1 i) What is meant by anion? [1 mark] ii) Which electrode is cathode ? [1 mark]

b)

i) State all the ions present in potassium iodide solution. [1 mark] ii)State the ion that will be discharged at Electrode X: Electrode Y: .. .. [2 marks]

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(c) (i) What is the observation at electrode X? [1 mark] Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode X. [1 mark] (d) (i) Name the gas collected at electrode Y.

(ii)

.... [1 mark] (e) If 0.0001 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution is used as electrolyte (i) What is produced at electrode X at the beginning of the experiment? .. [1 mark] (ii) Write the half equation in (e)(i) ...................................... [1 mark]

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TRIAL SPM MELAKA 5. Diagram 5 shows two types of cells. Rajah 5 menunjukkan dua jenis sel.

Battery Bateri

Voltmeter Volmeter Zinc Plate Kepingan zink

Copper Plate Kepingan kuprum P

Copper Plate Kepingan kuprum

Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat DIAGRAM 5 RAJAH 5

(g) Write the ionic formulae of all cations in copper (II) sulphate solution. Tuliskan formula ion bagi semua kation dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat. .............................................................. [1 mark] (h) State the energy changes in cell P and cell Q. Nyatakan perubahan tenaga dalam sel P dan sel Q. Cell P:... Sel P Cell Q : .... Sel Q

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

(i) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at the cathode in cell P. Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku pada katod dalam sel P. .. [2 marks]

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(j) (i) Is there any colour change of the copper(II) sulphate solution in cell P? Adakah terdapat perubahan warna pada larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dalam sel P? ........................................................... (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (d)(i) ............................................................... ............................................................. [2 marks] (k) State the negative terminal in cell Q. Nyatakan terminal negatif dalam sel Q. ... [1 mark] (l) If the zinc plate is replaced with a magnesium plate, what will happen to the voltmeter reading in cell Q? Jika kepingan zink digantikan dengan kepingan magnesium, apakah yang berlaku kepada bacaan voltmeter dalam sel Q? ........................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (d)(i) ...................................................... ..................................................... [2 marks] (m) State the negative terminal in cell Q. Nyatakan terminal negatif dalam sel Q. .. [1 mark] (n) If the zinc plate is replaced with a magnesium plate, what will happen to the voltmeter reading in cell Q? Jika kepingan zink digantikan dengan kepingan magnesium, apakah yang berlaku kepada bacaan voltmeter dalam sel Q? ...................................................... [1 mark]

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SET 4 ACID AND BASE

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CHAPTER 7 Favourite question: i. What is meant by strong acid? Strong acid is acid that ionized completely in water to produced a high concentration of hydrogen ions ii. Give the examples of strong acid Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric acid (HNO3) and Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) iii. What is meant by weak acid? Acid that ionized partially in water to produced low concentration of hydrogen ion iv. Give the examples of weak acid Ethanoic acid V. What is meant by strong alkali? Strong alkali ia alkali that ionized completely in water to produced a high concentration of hydroxide ion vi. Give examples of strong alkali Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) vii. What is meant by weak alkali Alkali that ionized partially in water to produced low hydroxide ion viii. Give examples of weak alkali Ammonia

EXPERIMENT INVOLVING NEUTRALISATION PROCESS Favourite question:

v. Name the reaction that take places in experiment Neutralisation process vi. Name the technique/ method using in this experiment Titration method vii.State the colour change of the phenolphthalein in the conical flask at the end pink to colourless viii. Name the another substance that can be used to replace phenolphthalein methyl orange x. What is meant by end point is the point in the titration at which the indicator changes colour point

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hydrochloric acid 0.1mol dm-3

25.00 cm3 sodium hydroxide

Calculation : Exp I Volume acid used = Final reading initial reading = 39.70- 17.30 cm3 = 22.40 cm3 Exp II Volume acid used = 39.20 17.00 cm3 = 22.20 cm3 Exp III Volume acid used = 39.70 17.70 cm3 = 22.00 cm3 xi. Calculate the average volume of sulphuric acid used in this reaction 22.40 + 22.20 + 22.00 cm3 3 = 22.20 cm3

xiii. Write the chemical equation 1HCl + 1NaOH NaCl + H2O xiv. Calculate the Molarity (M) of Sodium Hydroxide MacidVacid MalkaliValkali (0.1) (22.20) Malkali(25.00) = 1 1 = 1 1

Molarity/ Malkali (25.00) (1) = (0.1) (22.20) Molarity / Malkali = 2.22 = 0.0888 mol dm-3 25.00

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xv. The experiment is repeated with 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid to replaced hydrocholoric acid.Predict the volume of sulphuric acid needed to neutralized 25.00 cm3 sodium hydroxide Volume = volume HCl acid = 22.20 = 11.10 cm3 2 2 xvi. Explain your answer in xv Sulphuric acid is diprotic acid and Hydrochloric acid is monoprotic acid. So sulphuric acid has twice the number of hydrogen ions compared to HCl acid CONCEPT OF pH ACID AND ALKALI Favorite question Hydrochloric acid A B C D Concentration of Hydrcholoric acid Mol dm-3 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 pH 3 2 1 0

i. Based on table state the relationship between the concentration of hydrochloric acid and pH value The higher concentration of hydrochloric acid the lower pH value ii. Explain your answer in a (i) -The pH value is used to measure the concentration of H+ ions - the higher the number of H+ ion per unit volume solution , the lower the pH value iii. Arrange the hydrocholoric acid according to increasing order A,B,C,D

Alkali Sodium Hydroxide Ammonia Solution

Concentration mol dm-3 0.1 0.1

pH 13 10

iv. Explain why the two alkalis have different pH values? - Sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali - Ammonia is a weak alkali - Sodium hydroxide ionized completely in water to produced higher concentration of ion OH- Ammonia ionized partially in water to produced low concentration of OH- The concentration of ion OH- in sodium Hydroxide in higher than Ammonia - When the concentration of OH- ion is higher the pH value is higher.

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TRIAL KEDAH SPM 2009 1. An experiment was carried out to investigate neutralisation reaction between 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid and 20.00 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. 3 drops of phenolphthalein are added to the solution. The acid is slowly added to the sodium hydroxide solution until end point. Table below shows the result of the experiment. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji tindak balas peneutralan di antara 1.0 moldm-3 asid sulfurik dan 20.00 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida. 3 titis fenolftalein telah ditambahkan ke dalam larutan tersebut. Larutan asid ditambahkan sedikit demi sedikit sehingga mencapai takat akhir. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut. Set of experiment Initial burette reading, cm3. Bacaan awal buret, cm3 Final burette reading, cm3. Bacaan akhir buret, cm3 Volume of acid used, cm3 Isipadu asid digunakan, cm3 Table 1 What is the meaning of end point? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan takat akhir? ......................................................................... [1 mark] State the colour change of phenolphthalein when it reaches end point of titration. Nyatakan perubahan warna fenolftalein apabila mencapai takat akhir pentitratan. ............................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah] c) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di atas. ................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah] d) (i) Find the average volume of sulphuric acid used? Cari isipadu purata asid sulfurik asid yang digunakan? ................................. [1 mark] [1 markah] 1 0.50 20.60 20.10 2 20.60 40.60 20.00 3 1.20 20.10 19.90

a)

b)

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Calculate the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution used in this experiment. Kira kepekatan larutan natrium hidroksida yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini.

(ii)

[2 marks] [2 markah] e) Draw labelled diagram of set up apparatus to carry out the experiment. Lukis gambarajah berlabel susunan radas untuk menjalankan eksperimen ini.

f)

[2 marks] [2 markah] If sulphuric acid is replaced with 1.0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid to neutralise 20.00cm3 sodium hydroxide solution of the same concentration. It is shown that the volume of the acid needed is double the volume of sulphuric acid. Explain why? Jika asid sulfurik digantikan dengan 1.0 moldm-3 asid hidroklorik untuk meneutralkan 20.00cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida dengan kepekatan yang sama. Didapati isipadu asid yang diperlukan ialah dua kali ganda daripada isipadu asid sulfurik. Terangkan mengapa? ................................................... .................................................. .................................................... [2 marks] [2 markah]

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FINAL EXAM JOHOR 2011 1. Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up for the neutralisation reaction between a strong acid and a strong alkali. Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk tindak balas peneutralan antara satu asid kuat dan satu alkali kuat.

Hydrochloric acid, 0.1 mol dm-3 Asid hidroklorik, 0.1 mol dm-3

25 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida + fenolftalein DIAGRAM 1 3 25.0 cm of sodium hydroxide solution is poured into a conical flask. A few drops of phenolphthalein are added into the solution. The solution in the conical flask is titrated -3 with 0.1 mol dm hydrochloric acid . 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah kelalang kon. Beberapa titik fenolftalein ditambah ke dalam larutan itu. Larutan dalam kelalang kon dititratkan dengan 0.1 mol dm-3 asid hidroklorik. (a) Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. What is meant by a strong acid? Asid hidroklorik adalah asid kuat. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan asid kuat? .. [2 marks] (b) Suggest an apparatus that can be used to measure 25.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution accurately. Cadangkan satu radas yang dapat digunakan untuk menyukat 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida dengan tepat. . [1 mark]

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(c) State the colour change of the solution in the conical flask at the end point. Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan dalam kelalang kon pada takat akhir. [1 mark] (d) (i) Write a chemical equation for the above reaction. Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di atas. . [1 mark] (ii) In this experiment, 20.0 cm3 hydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise 25.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution. Dalam eksperimen ini, 20.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida. Hitungkan kemolaran larutan natrium hidroksida itu.

[2 marks] (e) (i) The experiment is repeated with 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid to replace hydrochloric acid. Predict the volume of sulphuric acid needed to neutralise 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution. Eksperimen itu diulang dengan menggunakan 0.1 mol dm-3 asid sulfurik bagi menggantikan asid hidroklorik. Ramalkan isipadu asid sulfurik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida. [1 mark] Explain your answer in (e) (i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (e)(i). . [2 marks]

(ii)

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TRIAL JOHOR SPM 2010
3 Table 3 shows pH values of different concentration of hydrochloric acid, HCl solutions. Jadual 3 menunjukkan nilai-nilai pH bagi larutan asid hidroklorik, HCl yang berbeza kepekatan.

Type of solution Jenis larutan Concentration Kepekatan pH value Nilai pH

Solution I Larutan I 0.1 mol dm-3 1

Solution II Larutan II 0.01 mol dm-3 2

Solution III Larutan III 0.001 mol dm-3 3

(a)

(i)

Table 3 Which of the solutions in Table 3 has the highest concentration of hydrogen ions? Larutan yang manakah dalam Jadual 3 mempunyai kepekatan ion hidrogen yang paling tinggi? ........................................................................................................................ [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

Calculate the number of hydrogen ions in 25 cm3 of Solution II. [Avogadro Constant = 6 x 1023 mol-1 ] Hitungkan bilangan ion hidrogen dalam 25 cm3 Larutan II. [Nombor Avogadro = 6 x 1023 mol -1 ]

[2 marks] [2 markah] (iii) Name an indicator that can be used to measure the pH values of the solutions I, II and III. Namakan satu penunjuk yang boleh digunakan untuk mengukur nilai pH larutan-larutan I, II dan III. ... [1 mark] [1 markah]

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(b) Solution I is used to neutralise 25 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 of sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution. Larutan I digunakan untuk meneutralkan 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH 0.1 mol dm-3. (i) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide, NaOH in the solution. Hitungkan bilangan mol natrium hidroksida, NaOH dalam larutan.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Calculate the volume of Solution I used to neutralise sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution in cm3. Hitungkan isipadu Larutan I yang digunakan untuk meneutralkan larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH dalam cm3.

(iii)

[3 marks] [3 markah] Draw an apparatus set-up for the titration of sodium hydroxide solution with solution I. Lukis susunan radas untuk pentitratan larutan natrium hidroksida dengan Larutan I

[2 marks] [2 markah]

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SET 5
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCE IN INDUSTRY

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TRIAL JOHOR 2009 1 Diagram 1.1 shows the arrangement of atoms in substance X and Y. Rajah 1.1 di bawah menunjukkan susunan atom-atom untuk bahan X dan Y

Substance X Bahan X (a)

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

Substance Y Bahan Y

Based on Diagram 1.1, answer the following questions: Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1, jawab soalan-soalan berikut : (i) Identify which of the substance in Diagram 1.1 is a pure metal or alloy. Tentukan bahan yang manakah dalam Rajah 1.1 adalah logam tulen atau aloi. Pure metal : .................................................................................................... Logam Tulen [1 mark] [1 markah] Alloy : ................................................................................................................. Aloi [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Explain your answers in (a) (i) Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (a) (i). ............................................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (iii) Which substance is harder, X or Y? Give a reason for your answer. Di antara bahan X dan Y, yang manakah lebih keras? Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda. ....................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................

[ 2marks]

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(b) Diagram 1.2 below shows the structural formula of a polymer. Rajah 1.2 di bawah menunjukkan formula struktur bagi suatu polimer.

H C H

H C

H C

H C Cl

H C H

H C Cl n

Cl H

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 Based on Diagram 1.2, answer the following questions: Berdasarkan Rajah 1.2, jawab soalan-soalan berikut: (i) State the meaning of polymer. Nyatakan maksud polimer. ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Draw and name the structural formula of its monomer. Lukiskan dan namakan formula struktur bagi monomernya.

[2 marks] (iii) State one use of the polymer in Diagram 1.2 in our daily life. Nyatakan satu kegunaan polimer pada Rajah 1.2 dalam kehidupan seharian kita. ............................................................................................................ [1 mark]

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TRIAL KEDAH SPM 2 Diagram 5 shows the flow chart for the formation of salt A from the reaction between ammonia and . sulphuric acid. Rajah 5 menunjukkan carta alir pembentukan garam A daripada tindak balas antara ammonia dan asid sulfurik.

Sulphur Sulfur

Sulphur dioxide Sulfur dioksida

Sulphur trioxide Sulfur trioksida

Nitrogen Nitrogen
Hydrogen Hidrogen Process Y Proses Y

Ammonia Ammonia

Sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik

Salt A Garam A Diagram 5 Rajah 5 (a) Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen in Process Y to produce ammonia. Nitrogen bertindak balas dengan hidrogen dalam Proses Y untuk menghasilkan ammonia. (i) Name Process Y. Namakan Proses Y. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction that occurs in a(i). Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku dalam a(i). .................................................................................................................................. [1 marks] State the catalyst and the optimum temperature needed in the manufacture of ammonia. Nyatakan mangkin dan suhu optimum yang diperlukan dalam penghasilan ammonia. Catalyst : Temperature : oC Mangkin Suhu

(iii)

[2 marks]

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TRIAL KELANTAN SPM

2.(a)

Polymers are long chained molecules made by joining together thousands of smaller molecules called monomers . Polimer adalah molekul berantai panjang yang terhasil daripada cantuman beribu-ribu molekul kecil yang dipanggil monomer.

Polypropene and polyvinyl chloride are examples of polymers. State the name of their monomers. Polipropena dan polivinil klorida adalah contoh polimer. Nyatakan nama monomer mereka. Polypropene: ... Polipropena Polyvinyl chloride : Polivinil klorida [2 marks] b. Plastic bag used in our daily life is a type of synthetic polymer. State one advantage and one disadvantage of plastic bag. Beg plastik yang digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian ialah sejenis polimer sintetik. Nyatakan satu kebaikan dan satu keburukan beg plastik. Advantage: Kebaikan: .................................................... Disadvantage: Keburukan: .............................................................. [2 marks] c. Bronze is an alloy formed from copper and tin. Gangsa adalah suatu aloi yang terbentuk daripada kuprum dan timah (i)State one use of bronze. Nyatakan satu kegunaan gangsa. ................................................................... [1 mark] (ii)State one aim of alloying . Nyatakan satu tujuan pengaloian. ................................................................. [1 mark ]

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(iii) Draw the arrangement of particles in bronze. Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah dalam gangsa.

(iv) Bronze is harder than copper. Explain why. Gangsa adalah lebih keras daripada kuprum. Terangkan mengapa. ........................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] TRIAL CHEMISTRY SPM 2008

Alloy Bronze Aloi Gangsa


Diagram 2 Rajah 2 The Digram 2 shows the formation of an alloy bronze. Rajah di atas menunjukkan pembentukkan aloi gangsa. (a) (i) Name the components of bronze . Namakan komponen-komponen dalam gangsa .

............................................................................................ [1 mark]

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(ii) State which is harder by comparing the alloy and its pure metal. Nyatakan yang manakah lebih keras dengan membandingkan aloi dengan logam tulennya,

[ 1 mark] (iii) Explain your answer in (a)(ii) Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (a)(ii) ....................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... [2 marks]. (iv) State one uses of bronze. Nyatakan satu kegunaan gangsa .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] TRIAL PERLIS SPM 2010 1.Table 1 shows the particulars of four different types of manufactured substances in industry. Rajah 1 menunjukkan butiran tentang empat jenis bahan buatan dalam industri.

Type of manufactured substance Jenis bahan buatan Glass Kaca Polymer Polimer Alloy Aloi

Example Contoh Borosilicate Borosilikat Polythene Politena Brass Loyang Brick Bata

Component Komponen Silicon dioxide, sodium oxide, calcium oxide and Y. Silikon dioksida, natrium oksida, kalsium oksida dan Y. Ethene Etena Copper and zinc Kuprum dan zink Silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide, iron (III) oxide. Silikon dioksida, aluminium oksida, ferum(III) oksida. Table 1
Jadual 1

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(a) Name the type of manufactured substance Z. Namakan jenis bahan buatan Z. . [1 mark]

(b)(i) Brass is harder than its pure copper. Explain. Loyang lebih keras daripada logam kuprum tulennya.Terangkan. ..... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]

(ii) Draw a labelled diagram that shows the arrangement of particles in brass. Lukis gambar rajah berlabel yang menunjukkan susunan zarah-zarah dalam loyang.

[2 marks]

(c) Substance Y is part of components of borosilicate glass. Bahan Y adalah sebahagian daripada kaca borosilikat. (i) Name the substance Y. Namakan bahan Y. ....... [1 mark] (ii) State one characteristic of borosilicate glass compared to the other types of glasses. Nyatakan satu sifat kaca borosilikat berbanding dengan kaca jenis yang lain. ....... [1 mark]

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(d) Diagram 1 shows the structural formula of polythene. Rajah 1 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi politena.

H H H H | | | | CC CC | | | | H H H H

Diagram 1
Rajah 1

(i)

Draw the structural formula of monomer of polythene. Lukis formula struktur monomer bagi politena.

[1 mark]

(ii)

State one use of polythene. Nyatakan satu kegunaan politena. ................................................................................................................. [1 mark]

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