SO 206- 01 Gender in a Global Perspective Mulderig 11/6/13 Gender and the State  Topics o Nation and State o Tools of Domination

o Gendered Language o Reproductive rights o The Arab Spring Nations, States, nation-states o The state is the institution that passes the authority to make rules that govern people in one or more societies within a definite, sovereign territory  An entity that has a “monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”- Weber o A nation is a group of people who share common history, language, ethnicity, or culture, and possess or want its own government  “The members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion” – Anderson o US- we are a nation on certain days (fourth of July, 9/11) but are not culturally a nation o Israel- is a state, but the Jewish people are a nation because they share a common identity o Japan is a state and nation- not a lot of ethnic diversity, one national identity Government Types o A monarchy is ruled by a king/queen who gains power through decent/lineage. o A democracy is a government in which individuals have a say through voting. o A republic is a government in which representatives are chosen to make decisions on behalf of the people. Led by a president or PM. o An authoritarian government is one which requires obedience to the administrative center. Totalitarianism is the extreme. Power an Authority o Power is the ability to control or influence others  “a complex strategic situation in a given society social setting” – Machiavelli

o Authority is the public acceptance of someone’s legitimate claim to power o Tools of Politics  Elections are ways to gauge public opinion and choose leadership.  Charisma is a major tool for gaining and maintaining legitimacy.  The cult of personality is a propaganda tool that endears the leader to the people. Elections o Women’s suffrage is not universal, but democracy is not a universal. o Women struggle to find equal representation in elected bodies, but this is often more about qualifications and the economic/educational limitations women face than political inequality o Many countries have quotas or women’s lists, in which a certain percentage of seats in the elected body are dedicated to women. Fatherland and Motherland o We often used gendered language to discuss politics:  The motherland and the Fatherland  The Father of the Nation (Sun Yat-Sen, Simon Bolivar, Sukarno, Jomo Kenyatta, Peter I)  The Mother of the people (Evita, FLotUS- supposed to be political about family issues)  Ataturk- (Ata=forefather (of Turkish people)), leads Turkish war of independence  Papa Doc- Hati, paternal figure  Band of Brothers, Mothers of the Nation  Big Brother (China- watches everything you do)  The children of the nation Cult of Personality o The cult of personality often plays on gendered ideas of family.  Evita- would give out cooking and other household items to women, also the “queen” of Argentina, mother to the poor and “Barbie doll” of the nation  Ataturk- the army man, rough, drinking smoking, military still has a strong presence in Turkey  Putin- what the Russian people wanted, a rough, abrasive father figure. Very physical and outdoorsy, a man of few words Reproductive Rights o The state controls reproduction in a number of ways:  Legalizing/banning abortion  Encouraging certain populations to breed  Publicizing family-planning incentives  Providing reproductive health resources

o The State and Reproduction  The Pope and Contraception- viewed as bad by Catholic church, reconsidered in 90s- If a woman has a large enough family she can use it  China’s One-Child Policy  1.2 billion people (4X US population) with an unbalanced economy, 900 million live in abject poverty  1960’s- every couple gets to have one child  Poor people could have more kids to help with farming  Led to gendercide- boys were valued over girls  “It is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls.”  Some wealthy people left country to have more children  Policy lifted about 5 years ago, Chinese population went down  Created little emperor syndrome- young men are responsible for continuing family and financially supporting parents, spoiled by parents and now all responsibility is on them, no siblings to help with family  Australia and the Aboriginal people  State controls children, starting in 1920s took aboriginal children from families and put them in white families, taught to hate ancestry and embrace being “Australian”  Lasted for 40 years  Ripped from families, had no connection to past  Iran’s see-saw of reproduction  Needed to build up nationality, war with Iraq led to need for family  Before war- family planning was encouraged  Population of young men declines, mothers must be “mothers of the Iranian nation” every child is another solider  Realized that they had too many children, put in family planning laws again  Roe vs. Wade  1972 Decision- the govt. does not have the right to prevent a women from choosing an abortion  Romania Under Ceausescu  Nationalism and socialist policies led to governmental demands fore more children  What were some of the methods used by Ceausescu to encourage more births? o Paid maternity leave and prenatal care o Don’t have to pay to deliver baby

o If you had and raised 10 or more children, you received an honor o Criminalized abortion, contraception outlawed  Interesting aspects of the Ceausescu policies: o Abortion became the most common form of birth control o Babies for sale- there was a black market for babies  In 1991 Ceausescu’s government falls, abortion becomes legal and a common form of birth control  Lots of babies sent to orphanages and are adopted by foreigners  Singapore’s Ethnic Preferences  What are the intersections between race, education, wealth, and reproduction in Singapore? o Has done well economically and socially o Prime Minister and Government develop programs that encourage reproduction of educated women and not of uneducated women o Financial bonuses and paid maternity leave for educated women that have children  What is the State’s role in developing nationalism? o All of the educated people are Chinese, wanted to create a Chinese national character, want it to look white: Chinese not Indian o About ethnic preferences, social engineering The Arab Spring o What are the connections between gender and revolution in the Arab Spring? o Why is marriage connected to money?  They cannot get jobs to get money needed to get married o Why do the structures of society matter?  Young men cannot lead adult lives, they are in a liminal phase where they cannot find employment or get married which would give them adult status  Not about democracy or elections, about a young population trapped in childhood and looking for respect

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