1919 - THE THIRD AFGHAN WAR

:
AN INTRODUCTION by Paul Hinson

In the preface to his book AFGHANISTAN 1919, Lieutenant General G. N. Molesworth, adjutant of the 2nd Battalion Somerset Light Infantry during the war, admits that "in comparison to the fearful slaughter which took place in World War I ... this campaign was a sideshow..." He then qualifies this statement saying 'in normal times from the casualties alone it would have ranked as a major war." By the scale of other operations on the Northwest Frontier, this last statement is not too inaccurate. Admittedly incomplete statistics show 1,751 casualties suffered by British and Indian troops, including over 500 dead from cholera. Operations in the Third Afghan War ranged along much of the border area. Fighting occurred in Chitral, in the Khyber Pass, through the Kurram Valley, in the Tochi Valley, in Waziristan, and in Baluchistan. Although the scenes of fighting were not new, this was not simply a refight of earlier wars and frontier campaigns. Strategically, the Afghans and their Pathan allies took the offensive at the outset on each front except in Southern Baluchistan, where a pre-emptive British strike into Afghanistan forestalled any planned or potential Afghan incursions into India. The only other front on which the British conducted significant offensive operations was in the Khyber Pass, where British and Indian troops advanced into Afghanistan to seize the town of Dakka. The Afghan Army The Afghan army, on paper, posed a significant threat to the thinly spread Northwest Frontier Force in 1919. 50,000 troops were organized into 75 infantry battalions, 21 cavalry regiments, and roughly 70 batteries (280 guns). The purpose of the army was to provide a core of regular troops around which the tribal lashkars, possibly as many as 80,000 fighting men, could form. In reality, the Afghan regular army was not ready for war. As in past years, the upper levels of the officer corps was riddled with political intrigue. General Molesworth gives the following evaluation of the Emir's army: "Afghan regular units ... were ill-trained, illpaid, and probably under strength. The cavalry was little better than indifferent infantry mounted on equally indifferent ponies. Rifles varied between modern German, Turkish and British types, to obsolete Martinis and Snyders. Few infantry units had bayonets. Artillery was ponydrawn, or pack, and included modern 10cm Krupp howitzers, 75mm Krupp mountain guns and ancient 7 pounder weapons. There were a few, very old, four-barrel Gardiner machine guns. Ammunition was in short supply and distribution must have been very difficult. For the artillery much black powder was used, both as a propellent and bursting charge for shells. The Kabul arsenal workshops were elementary and mainly staffed by Sikh artificers with much ingenuity but little real skill. There was no organised transport and arrangements for supply were rudimentary." Probably the best of the Afghan units were those in the Kabul-Jellalabad area, most of which would see action in the Kurram Valley and in the Khyber Pass. These units included 7 cavalry regiments, 31 infantry battalions, 1 pioneer battalion, a few antique machine guns, and 92

28 Mountain Battery (2 sections). all but two cavalry regiments and 8 infantry battalions were shipped to the killing fields of France. two horse-mounted cavalry brigades. 200 Kurram Militia at Karlachi. The British Army On the British side of the border. . and three frontier brigades as well as a number of frontier militia and irregular corps. Machine guns. only a fraction of this was on. the tribal lashkars were well or "excellent fighting quality. although in short supply in some cases." well armed. Palestine. In support of the regulars. 200 militia and 80 mounted infantry at Lakka Tigga.7-inch battery with which Indian divisions had been equipped during World War One. 230 militia in 7 smaller posts. Only a direct appeal from the C-in-C India prevented potential trouble in some Territorial battalions. and 400 Kurram Militia in reserve at Parachinar. 7 mountain guns (mixed quality).75-inch mountain guns. and with plenty of ammunition. No. 37th Lancers (1 squadron). four 4.artillery pieces of various calibers and ages. Instead of the 9 batteries of 18pdrs and single 4.5-inch howitzers. their places having been taken by second or third line reserve battalions. initially. The British gained a command and control advantage with their use of motor transport and wireless communications while armored cars and RAF detachments increased the Frontier Force's firepower and reach. Unhappy with garrison life. many of the premier regiments and battalions were still abroad. initially. and 8 2. 2 obsolete machine guns. which could gather up to 20.000 fighters in the Khyber region alone. the Afghan command expected to call out the tribes. Technologically. two infantry divisions. Headquarters 60th Infantry Brigade. were deployed as follows: 500 Kurram Militia and regular infantry in the Peiwar Kotal area. at least on the Khyber front.303 Maxims. well-led militia units supported by small numbers of regulars. Among the Indian units. Probably the poorest quality front-line regulars were those sent against Chitral. British equipment was relatively up to date. and about 3500 Pathan tribesmen. 3/Guides Infantry. Although the manpower of the Indian army reached 750. In stark contrast to the regulars. were old . The cavalry brigade-were each equipped with four 13-pdr guns served by the Royal Horse Artillery. A further complication arose due to the Great War. 22 Motor Machine Gun Battery. No. or reached.000 or 30. 57th Rifles (less one company). Opposing this force were 2500 Afghan regular infantry. and Mesopotamia. Of the 61 British regular battalions and regiments stationed in India in 1914. The field and howitzer batteries were served by elements of the Royal Field Artillery while the mountain guns were manned by the Royal Garrison Artillery. the British. Of those regiments and battalions which had returned to India. the ranks of many were filled with many recent recruits. In the Upper Kurram. the Northwest Frontier Force could utilize. a problem compounded in some areas where the frontier militia units proved unreliable and were disarmed and disbanded. Many of those units on the frontier were under strength. Replacing them on garrison duty in India were elements of the Territorial Army. the Territorials were only interested in a quick return to civilian life.000 during the Afghan war. the frontier. The great problem for the British was manpower. the latter being demonstrated to the Afghans by a bombing raid on Kabul itself. the two divisions on the frontier each had only 8 18-pdrs. Campaign Dispositions The two campaigns which I find most interesting were the Upper Kurram and Chitral fronts as much of the fighting was done by reliable.

South. For the British. In the course of this I have been finding out about the structure and makeup of the French forces. The Bodyguard also had a Russian machine gun. in addition to Chitrali tribesmen joined the Mehtar's forces. No gunners or artillery however. although I'd limit the number of jezails except among the Chitralis. and 4 machine guns at Birkot on the frontier about 40 miles south of Chitral City. and machine guns can be obtained from the World War I series while Bengal cavalry/lancers and Sikh mountain gun crews may be found in Minifigs. but as the Turks supplied equipment and training cadres. infantry. although the mountain guns from the Colonial series would be suitable for the older Afghan mountain guns. 5-6 battalions had moved from Badakshan and Wakhan toward the Baroghil and Manjan Passes northwest of Chitral City.In Chitral. I've decided to use Turks in sun helmets from the World War I range as Afghan regulars. Kafir and Kunar tribesmen. Colonial range. WARGAMING THE THIRD AFGHAN WAR Minifigs makes a nice collection of suitable figures in 1 5mm. armored cars. In 25mm. both sides received reinforcements. Although the armistice ending the fighting elsewhere was signed on June 3. The Scouts were an organized local infantry battalion commanded by British officers and lacked both artillery and mounted units. I'm not sure about the Afghan army uniforms. although some men had Martini-Henrys. The one big shortage is artillery. near Asmar. one section of No. 23 Mountain Battery and one section of 2/Sappers and Miners. 8 mountain guns. Pathan figures from the Colonial range are suitable. Frontier makes British and Turkish infantry and British machine gunners with sun helmet options and the Sikhs and lancers from the Boxer Rebellion range would be 'OK. 3 more Afghan battalions had moved into the area and about 6. regular units consisted of 1/11th Rajputs (450 rifles). Minifigs makes British 1 8-pdr field guns but none of the others needed. Throw in some Frontier and Ral Partha Pathans with rifles and you've got figures for some skirmish actions. along with Mohmand and Bajaur tribesmen. one aspect which intrigued me was an elusive formation called the royal grenadiers. By June 1. After an initial invasion of Chitral was repulsed. The other shortage is British artillery crews. Molesworth doubts the weapon had any ammunition. or the Grenadiers Royaux. were concentrated another 7 battalions. On July 28. The Mehtar's Bodyguard was primarily armed with muskets and matchlocks. The Afghan high command may have also ordered 5 more battalions into the area from Jellalabad. 100 Afghan cavalry and a battalion of infantry moved toward the northwest passes into Chitral.000 rifles) and the Mehtar's Bodyguard. There were another 3 battalions and 4 mountain guns further south at Asmar. . as those in the World War One range are Western Front gunners. Locally raised troops included the Chitral Scouts (1. command. In Search Of The French Grenadiers During the Seven Years War By David Cookman For some time I have been raising a Seven Years War French wargarne army. Opposing this British/Chitrali force were 3 infantry battalions. 000 Dir tribesmen gathered in the hills on the British side of the frontier ready to descend into Chitral. which had been hauled through the passes by a refugee fleeing the Bolsheviks.

The grenadier companies of the 18 disbanded regiments were formed into a special corps: the regiment of the grenadiers de France. Their equipment included a sabre. a company of grenadiers per battalion was maintained. During the Seven Years War. the regiment of the grenadiers de Franceillustrated its bravery during the Seven Years War. The regiment of the grenadiers de France comprised in 1749: 2. Paralleling the infantry grenadiers. the grenadiers postiches fought in the ranks of the grenadiers royaux and the regiments were disbanded as were thegrenadiers royaux on the 30th September 1789. created a company of horse grenadiers (grenadiers a cheval) recruited from the cavalry and armed with a musket.called the grenadiers postiches (false grenadiers) from whom the grenadiers royaux were recruited. with the help of a French work colleague. in the regiments of infantry which survived. This company was attached to the Maison du Roi (king's household). commanded by a lieutenantgeneral and divided into four brigades of 12 companies each (1749). On campaign the grenadiers pos tiches were attached to the regiments of the grenadiers royaux. pistol and sword. All nine regiments were disbanded on the 6th of August 1748 to be reconstituted. which were two battalions strong. It was controlled by an inspectorcommandant: the marquis de Saint-Pern. giving a total of 610 men. but these were not kept after the peace. In 1745 the ministry of d'Argenson imposed a minimum of two battalions to a regiment which resulted in the suppression of 18 regiments of infantry ( a regiment was formed of 12 companies of fusiliers and 1 company of grenadiers).Only a few of my sources even mentioned this formation and even here. With the introduction of the first regulation musket (complete with bayonet). which should not be confused with the regiments of the grenadiers royata. Louis XIV. each battalion was composed of 8 companies of fusiliers (each of 70 men) and one company of 50 grenadiers. but from the line infantry. An ordonnance of the 4th of August 1771 dissolved the grenadiers de France who were distributed amongst the 11 regiments of the grenadiers royauxor into the various provincial regiments. had a different origin: they were not raised from the militia. I wrote to the Musee de l'Armee in Paris and a couple of months later. During the War of the Polish Succession there was one company of grenadiers per battalion. The ordonnance of the 10th of April 1745 detached the companies of grenadiers from the battalions of militia and formed seven regiments (one battalion each) of grenadiers royaux (royal grenadiers). however. serving for six years. An ordonnance of 28th January 1746 created in each militia battalion a new company of grenadiers . on the 1st of March 1750. the usage of the grenade declined. this time at a strength of 11 regiments. Then. 16 colonels and 8 lieutenant-colonels. For some time considered only as parade troops. I tried a number of avenues to discover more information. I received a very complete and interesting reply from M. in 1676. Stephane Bourdin. and from 1671. An ordonnance of the 15th of February 1748 caused the creation of two additional regiments of grenadiers. named after their colonels. Their motto . each infantry battalion included a company of grenadiers. but continually drew a blank. the references were fleeting. A royal ordonnance of the 15th September 1745 created 103 battalions of provincial militia. a hatchet and a grenade pouch (containing between 12 and 15 grenades). I enclose the translation of this reply below with some additional thoughts on grenadiers in the French army. At the same time. The Translation In 1667 each company of infantry had attached a group of four men armed with hand grenades. Robert Cholay. The regiment of the grenadiers de France.160 grenadiers.

Modene and Chantilly] and the four battalions of the grenadiers de Franceformed a corps of 12 battalions of grenadiers. Narbonne only capitulated on the l5th of February and Louis XV accorded him the right. Additional Information The grenadiers. On the 17th of August. La Tresne. L'espinasse. henceforth. where they made up the left column and captured the chateau of Nadel. This French defeat was followed by the evacuation of Westphalia and Hesse. The grenadiers of Soubise fought at Wilhelmstadt (24th June 1762). Malplaquet (1709). In 1761 the regiments of Cambis. the capitulation of Klosterhaven and the occupation of Hanover and Brunswick. commanded by the viscount of Narbonne. In 1758. who arrived at the head of the four battalions of the grenadiers de France. In 1759 the corps of grenadiers was integrated into the Army of the Lower Rhine. whereas the regiments of Cambis and Ailly were integrated into the Army of the Lower Rhine under the command of the prince de Conde. the grenadiers royaux. Ailly. Argentre (exChantilly) and l'Espinasse were grouped in the army of Soubise and d'Estrees. Longaunay and Puysegur (ex-Modene) served under the orders of the Duc de Broglie. the second battalion of the regiment Narbonne surrendered after being isolated and attacked at Nienbourg. considered as the elite of the infantry. and three regiments of dragoons. As for the regiment of Solar. were beseiged by 12. under the command of the marquis de Contades. In 1760 the grenadiers participated in the occupation of the south of Hanover and Hesse. and the carabiniers passed Lippe on the 29th of September and pillaged the camp of Borck. undique lethum". The grenadiers of de Broglie's army participated in the battle of Vellinghausen.was "Undique terror. Bergeret ( which became Narbonne in 1759). placed trom 1757 to 1760 under the command of the marquis de Saint-Pern. as often as not it acted as escort to the geographical staff carrying out reconnaissance. At the battle of Hastenbeck the grenadiers de France were placed on the right wing. The regiments of the grenadiers royaux who did not fight in Germany were cantoned on the coasts of France and the regiment of Chabrillant was sent to Minorca. Then. Fontenoy (1745) and the Seven Years War. On the 1st of August 1759 the grenadiers de France attacked in Ihe first line at Todtenhausen (Battle of Minden). on the 16th of July 1761 the grenadiers de France were charged with covering the retreat of the duke. the regiments of Le Camus.000 of the enemy in Fritzlar on the 12th of February 1761. The two distinct corps of troops marched together in a single formation. Conde gave battle at Johannisberg (30th August) and was aided by Stainville. Grenadiers During the Seven Years War During the Seven Years War the grenadiers de France and the grenadiers royaux made themselves famous from 1757. to call himself the viscount de NarbonneFritzlar. After participating in the battles of Ramillies. Four regiments of grenadiers royaus [(Aulan . The forces of Saint-Pern participated in the march on the Lower Elbe. grenadiers de France. were always chosen for their robustness . under the command of SaintPern. Narbonne. six battalions of the grenadiers royaux. During the campaign of 1762. during which year the two battalions of the Solar regiment were made prisoner in Minden (14th March). La Roche-Lambert (exPuysegur).later to become Le Camus in 1759). being driven back by Brunswick troops and enduring a three hour cannonade which caused heavy casualties. the company was disbanded on the 15th of December 1775. Twelve companies of grenadiers royaux. Oudenarde (1708).

Bruxelles .1757. de Latour [ de Chantilly March 1746] Flandre. Serraville. Hanover. Vellinghausen . illustration 19) resembled that of the French line infantry: a coat of greywhite with buttons of copper or tin. Rocoux . Note that. Regiments of the Grenadier Royaux The information that follows conforms to a general format: each regiment is headed by its original name.1757. Termonde. vest and trousers in grey-white cloth.1760. Anvers. Headgear was a black tricorn edged in silver. Tortone. Casal. Rocoux . de Bautteville [de Chatillon March 1747. where their equipment was kept. Flandre (maritime). Flandre .1756-62. epaulettes. The intendant carried out a review of the troops and their equipment. Two quarters had a gold fleur de lis on a dark background. Germany . Bergen-op-Zoom . Hastenbeck.1745. as normal. Namur.1747. They were differentiated from the other infantrymen by wearing moustaches and receiving a larger salary. grenadiers de France had a white cross with the crowned arms of France in the center. Anvers. coasts of Aunis & Saintonge 1756-62. The grenadiers de France wore a blue coat with red turnbacks and a silver epaulette. Audenarde. de Narbonne Feb 1759] Flandre. All of these regiments were raised in 1745 and disbanded in December 1762. the crowned arms of France in the center. Laufeldt 1747. Anvers. They were always brought togeather for a month each year at a military training ground.1746. On the coasts .1761. On the coasts . d'Ally May 1757] Flandre.1748.1756-60. black gaiters for parade or white for ordinary service. Plaisance. Warburg 1760. A list of locations or battles for each regiment follows (French spellings are mostly used). Germany .1746. Maastricht . February 1759. The standard of the grenadiers royaux (Funcken page 65 illustration 65) had a white cross covered in gold fleur de lis. Charleroi. Termonde. Provence. followed by its name changes.1759. illustration 39). The uniform of the grenadiers royaux (controlled by the ordonnance of 25th November 1746 Funcken page 65. Corbach. Rocoux 1746. Alpes 1748. Laufeldt.1758. Rocoux.1746. not all the information is consistent from source to source! d'Espagnac lde Bergeret March 1750. Crefeld .1746. Namur. Audenarde.1747. Bruxelles.and height. Laufeldt . de Lespinasse 1760] Flandre .1748. Hastenbeck. Col de l'Assiette 1747.1745-48. Ath. de Valfonds [de Prugues May 1747. Crefeld . Maastrict. Anvers. Ath . Edone . Acqui.1757 (in addition see main text).1746. Germany . their headgear was a fur cap decorated with a copper plate (Funcken page 63.1758. Bergen-op-Zoom -1747. Asti. Maastrict . illustration 65) .1748. Mons. Corbach. de Longaunay 1759] Flandre. Hanover.1760. de Bruslard [d'Aulan. the other two quarters had flaming grenades on a light blue background (Funcken page 64. de Modene [Le Camus 1761] Alpes. and four blue quarters. Fontenoy. Minden 1759. Warburg . Minden. Germany . In 1765 the 11 regiments of the grenadiers royaux took the name of the province where they were raised and no longer took the name of their colonel. for military exercises. Tournai. de Coincy [de Cambis 1761] Flandre.

R. d'Aulan [ Le Camus February 1759. List of Sources S. Anvers. R. Bergen-op-7. Maastricht . The Nafziger Collection. Kennet states that the grenadier royaux drew recruits from the grenadier companies of line regiments and that the grenadiers de France. Pengel & G. Brent Nosworthy: The Anatomy of Victory . coast of Aunis 1756-62.Battle Tactics 1689-1763. Paris 1882. de Puysegur 1761] Flandre. Hachette.D. Some sources say that the grenadiers a cheval were raised from the infantry grenadiers and not the cavalry. de Longaunay [La Tresne. French Deployment of Grenadiers The grenadiers of the grenadiers royaux and the grenadiers de France were normally brigaded together and used as a battlefield reserve . Volume II Paris 1876.defense of the coasts during both wars. Gebelin: Histoire des Milices Provinciales (1688-1791) Le Tirage au Sort Sous L'Ancien Regime. 1996. In this role they were frequently associated with the carabiniers and gendarmes who were also in the reserve.defense of the coasts during both wars. On the coasts 1756-60. The grenadier companies from the normal line regiments were also brigaded on occaision to form elite units. J. drew recruits from the grenadiers royaux.oom . Bruxelles 1746. Funcken: L'Uniforme et les Armes des Soldats de la Guerre en Dentelle. Laufeldt. Volume I. these could be used as normal close order troops but. Maastrict . Bourdin: Letter to the Author January 9. Hippocrene Books 1992. Uniforms of Loyalist Units in the Americas by Rudy Scott Nelson . L. A further indication of this use of the grenadiers is that preceding the war.1746-48. in turn.L.1748. March 1746] Flandre. Germany.either to deliver the final blow or to cover a withdrawal. 1992. & F. General Susane: Histoire de l'Infantrie Francaise.1747. de Solar .1748. Vellinghausen 1761. 1987. Rocoux.1761 -62. Orders of Battle 1600-1945: The Seven Years War Section. De Broglie also raised companies of chasseurs from the line infantry who could be detached to serve with the grenadiers in a skirmishing role. Laufeldt . Namur. Germany . training camps experimented with light infantry tactics using the regimental grenadiers. Hurt: French Infantry Regiments 1740-1762 Imperial Press 1993. On the coasts 1757-60.1747. in Europe at least. Sanchez Martin: The Battle Maps of the SYW Volume II The Seven Years War Study Group. Paris 1987. Lee Kennen: The French Armies in the Seven Years War Duke University Press 1967. Caterman. seem to have been used more frequently as skirmishers to cover the army's deployment or to harass the enemy from difficult terrain (battle maps of Sandershausen and descriptions of Hastenbeck et al suggest this). de Chabrillant . Christopher Duffy: The Military Experience in the Age of Reason Routledge & Keegan Paul. J.

AMERICAN LEGION: Red coats. blue. trousers. 5000 uniforms of green coats lined with white. This is a partial list of uniform descriptions for selected units. As a result I have listed some units without notes so additional notes could be added later. 3000 hats and other uniform items such as shoes.green jackets. In other ways. there was some standardization. hats and breeches found in many towns. collar and lapels were all in that color. white waistcoats and breeches. Units assigned to garrison after 1778 would appear very much like other British units clothed in red. Blue collar and cuffs BAYARD'S RANGERS: ? Hunting frocks and frontier mix BRITISH LEGION:. velvet stocks. pants and waistcoats. Drummers in green jackets. Exerts from quartermaster reports list the following items being sent to America for use by Provincial (Loyalist) units : Late 1776. The next issue of uniforms in 1778 changed the majority of uniforms issued from green to red. especially if you live on the east coast. white and buff pants. dark brown cloth for leggings. Queen's Rangers have green jackets. 40% green and 20% blue. As a common sense rule. velvet stocks. The term facings indicates that the cuffs. Velvet stocks were black. then the remainder will be the basic coat color. Clothed in white while in the South (as they were reported as being clad in . black. Infantry = green jackets. white waistcoats. warehouses in New York had stored both red coats and complete green unifonns (suits). turnbacks and pants. buckles and stockings. but several units. However his notes cannot be discounted since he was contemporary and there. Delancey's NY Volunteers have green coats. plus cloth for facings in the colors of 40% white. white waistcoats and breeches. Blue greatcoats are listed for mounted infantry. In 1780 a clothing inventory included the following comments: "Provincial facings of white. cloth and deer tails. Bernhard de Wiederhold. Light Dragoon caps with a black bearskin crest became known as the Tarleton helmet. lapels and cuffs. was stationed in New York during 1783 and has listed facing colors which differ from other sources. white waistcoats and breeches. Other items sent included 5000 round hats. velvet stocks" A later inventory comment notes red cloaks for provincial cavalry (1781). If only one or two of the three are listed as a specific color. white waistcoats and breeches. On the frontier. It is possible that these brown items were requested for the units who would be on the frontier. may produce additional uniform information. woolen cloth for leggings and 6000 yards of red cloth. Temporary militia and volunteer units will wear mainly civilian clothes. orange. A later shipment in 1776 included brown linen to line pockets. A Hessian officer. Further research. white waistcoats and breeches with its drummers being in green suits. They are based on material which is available to me. buff.In some ways the uniforms of Loyalist units were just as diverse as their Patriot counterparts. Volunteers of Ireland Regiment have red coats. black collar. British Legion have green jackets. a variety of headgear and buckskins. the Loyalist who fought with the Indians were identified in Patriot reports as having something white in their hats. Examples from the reports included feathers. white buttons. and green (listed in order of quantity ?) Provincial cavalry regiments have one faced green and one faced blue. men from the coastal region would wear jackets. Cavalry . especially Ranger units retained green uniforms for campaigning. Many of the early militia units wore civilian clothes with armbands and cockades used to identify them as pro-Crown forces. white waistcoats and breeches. In 1777 the initial shipment of cloth sent to the Americas for uniforms were various shades of dark green. In 1778. Likewise men from the western frontier and Florida would wear hunting coats. since white leggings would expose their location.

white waistcoats and linen trousers.green coats.Infantry . Buff coats may have been altered to make pelisses or small clothes. while in the South those battalions are reported to have worn white and black round hats with black feathers DELANCEY'S REFUGEES : Infantry co . facings olive green ?. included ex-slaves EMMERICH'S CHASSEURS : Grey coats in 1778. BRYAN'S CORPS: ? BUCK'S COUNTY LGT DRAGOONS: Red jackets w/ Buff pants and small clothes '76-'78. Lgt Dragoons . leather helmet with bearskin crest. Dark green jackets while attached to Queen's Rangers. black collar and cuffs. '80-83 red or green jackets. DELANCEY'S BRIGADE OF NEW YORK LOYALIST: each battalion will have the number of buttons in a row on their coat equaling its battalion number. later.dark green jackets.tricome. tricornes with white hat band. leather overalls or buckskin leggings. other items as per British Lgt dragoons EAST FLORIDA VOLUNTEERS: frontier dress EAST FLORIDA MILITIA: mix of town and frontier dress. white waistcoat and breeches. black leather skullcaps with brass front and black cockade on the left side. white facings. belts were buff.'76-79 dressed as infantry. Lgt Drgns dressed as infantry ? FERGUSON'S RIFLE CORPS: mixture of men from several units . white waistcoats and breeches. brown leggings. blue facings but a Hessian officers recorded their facings as Green in 1783. later Red coat with black facings CUNNINGHAM'S SOUTH CAROLINA LOYALIST MILITIA: frontier and town mix DE DIEMAR HUSSARS : (Queen's Rangers Hussars) Hussar dress: issued both Black and Buff coats. also green dyed hunting shirts with mid blue dyed fringe CALEDONIAN VOLUNTEERS: ? CAMPBELL'S BROADSWORD COMPANY: mix of frontier and highland dress CANADIAN VOLUNTEER BOATMAN AND AXEMEN: French Canadian frontier dress CLAY'S SOUTH CAROLINA LOYALIST: ? CHESTER COUNTY LGT DRAGOONS: British Light Dragoon uniforms CONNECTICUT LOYALIST VOLUNTEERS: ? CORPS OF BLACK PIONEERS: Green coats in 1778. Winter dress consisted of brown trousers and leather caps (light inf or Hessian fusilier caps but more likely an animal skin/fur cap which was issued and worn only during winter months).the same manner as Lee's Legion and the 3rd Continental Lgt Dragoons who both wore white). scarlet facings. red coats. ? changed back to red when transferred to British army in '80 BUCK'S COUNTY VOLUNTEERS: ? BUTLER'S RANGERS : Dark green coats and waistcoats.

white waistcoats and breeches. ? facings GEORGIA LOYALISTS : frontier dress OR Red coats with white pants and waistcoats GUIDES AND PIONEERS : Short red jackets. white waistcoats and breeches. red lapels. blue facings. white scarf on left arm LOYAL AMERICAN RANGERS: ? LOYAL AMERICAN REGIMENT: 1777-78 Green coats. buff/buckskin trousers. white facings. black collar and cuffs HALIFAX MILITIA: town dress for Canada HIERLIHY'S CORPS: ? JESSUPS LOYALIST CORPS: ? KING'S AMERICAN REGIMENT : Red coats. crimson collar and cuffs KING'S ORANGE RANGERS: 1777-78 Green coats. tricorne with white hatbands. white waistcoats and breeches. buff belts. buff facings ( ? or green facings as reported in 1783) LOYAL FORESTERS: ? LOYAL IRISH VOLUNTEERS: town militia. initially olive green facings but reported as blue in 1783 KING'S AMERICAN DRAGOONS: Red jackets. brown leggings. for garrison red jackets. detachments assigned to raids often wore frontier dress LORD DUNMORE'S ETHIOPIANS: Ex-negro slaves with a mix of town militia hats and frontier stocking caps LOYAL AMERICAN ASSOCIATION: town militia. green (or Buff ? reported in 1783 by a Hessian officer) facings . bright yellow facings (faded orange ?) KING'S ROYAL REGIMENT of NEW YORK: (Royal Greens) Dark green coats. light company identified by green wings. white waistcoats and breeches. helmeted caps (1gt drgn caps) KING'S CAROLINA RANGERS : Green jackets and lapels. coat was changed in 1778 to red with blue facings. 1778-83 Red coats. white cockade on their hats LOYAL KING'S COUNTY MILITIA: town militia LOYAL NEWPORT ASSOCIATORS: town militia LOYAL NEW ENGLANDERS: town militia LOYAL NOVA SCOTIA VOLUNTEERS: Red coats.FLORIDA RANGERS: frontier dress GENTLEMEN VOLUNTEERS OF NEW YORK: Red coats GEORGIA LGT DRAGOONS: Lgt Dragoon uniform with green jackets or buckskins for campaigns. 1778-83 Red coats.

changed to green jackets while attached to the Queen's Rangers PFISTER'S LOYALIST MILITIA: mix of frontier and town militia PENNSYLVANIA DRAGOONS: ? Attached to the Queen's Rangers. buff facings (or blue facings as reported by a Hessian officer in 1783) NEWPORT LIGHT INFANTRY COMPANY: Red coats and waistcoats. white waistcoats and breeches. White waistcoats and pants. Red coats. 1777 Green coats with white pants and small clothes. independent troops of Light Dragoons LOYAL SUFFOLK COUNTY MILITIA: town militia LOYAL WESTCHESTER VOLUNTEERS: town militia MARYLAND LOYALIST: Red coats. kilts provided by the 71st British Regiment. olive green facings McGIRTH'S LOYALISTS: frontier and town mix? NASSAU BLUES: ? NEW HAMPSHIRE LOYALIST. red and white checked leggings NORTH CAROLINA HIGHLANDER VOLUNTEERS: frontier and highland mix NORTH CAROLINA HIGHLANDERS : frontier and highland mix NORTH CAROLINA HIGHLAND MILITIA: frontier and highland mix NORTH CAROLINA INDEPENDENT COMPANY. white cuffs. silver buttons. tricorne with silver band. royal blue facings NEW YORK RANGERS: Redjacket. white breeches. blue facings. NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS : Red coats. blue lapels. olive green facings . Green coats with black facings PENNSYLVANIA LOYALIST: garrison. ? facings NEW JERSEY VOLUNTEERS : 4 battalions with each battalion having the number of buttons in a row on their jacket equaling its battalion number. Highland blue bonnet. white waistcoats and breeches. Light infantry caps NORTH CAROLINA DRAGOONS: ? NORTH CAROLINA HIGHLAND REGIMENT: Blue coat without facings. Red coats by 1783 PHILADELPHIA FIRST TROOP LIGHT DRAGOONS: Red jackets in '77-'78. white waistcoat and breeches. buck hat with a black feather.LOYAL QUEEN'S COUNTY REGIMENT: Red coat. NORTH CAROLINA LOYALIST: frontier and highland mix. cape lined with white. 1778 Red coats. white waistcoats and breeches.REGIMENT : Red coats. white waistcoats and breeches.

blue facings. uniformed like the 42nd Highland Rgt including facings when adopted into British army as the 84th. blue facings (green facings are reported by a Hessian officer in 1783) PROVINCIAL LIGHT INFANTRY: Converged units wearing uniforms of their parent unit QUEEN'S AMERICAN RANGERS: ? QUEEN'S OWN LOYAL VIRGR41ANS: Town militia and frontier mix QUEEN'S RANGERS : Rifle companies . white waistcoats and breeches. black lapels ROYAL NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT: Red coats.PRINCE OF WALE'S AMERICAN REGIMENT: Red coats. Yellow facings. white turnbacks and pants . black collar and cuffs. black round hats with black feathers SAINT JOHN'S MILITIA: frontier dress SAVANNAH'S LOYALIST X41LITIA: town militiaSAVANNAH'S ARMED NEGROES: town militia with some stocking caps SOUTH CAROLINA DRAGOONS : Red jackets. ? facings ROYAL AMERICAN REFORMEES : frontier dress ROYAL GARRISON BATTALION: Red coats. black collar and cuffs . may have been provided red coats ? SOUTH CAROLINA RANGERS: ? frontier dress with mainly green coats SOUTH CAROLINA ROYALIST: Red coats. tricorne hats with white hatband (exchanged for light infantry caps when sent south in '80. infantry winter dress included brown gaiters.green jackets. white waistcoats and breeches. Hussar troops .green jackets. Grenadier co dressed as rifles but with an oversized black light infantry style hat. blue bonnets ROYAL FENCIBLE AMERICANS : Red coats. pants and waistcoats. white waistcoats and breeches. white waistcoats and breeches. Hussar cap (or Mirliton ?) with green bag plus a crescent moon device. ROYAL HIGHLAND EMIGRANTS : Highland dress. Garrison companies wore kilts. Yellow facings. green waistcoat. white pants and waistcoats. town militia mix. Light co dressed as rifles but with light infantry caps with crescent moon device and 1 Highland co green jackets with kilts. Field companies or kilts or trews or white breeches ROYAL NORTH BRITISH VOLUNTEERS : Highland. Light Dragoon headgear SOUTH CAROLINA LOYAL MILITIA: town militia and frontier dress mix. green and later white pants. white turnbacks. green collar and cuffs. 3 Lgt Dragoon troops as hussars but with light dragoon Tarleton caps REGULATORS: frontier dress ROMAN CATHOLIC VOLUNTEERS: Red coats.

garrison dress may have been a red coat with blue. ? facings VOLUNTEERS OF IRELAND: Red coats. royal. tricorne and issued Light Infantry caps 1780 WENTWORTH'S VOLUNTEERS: Red coats WESTCHESTER COUNTY TORY MILITIA: town militia WEST FLORIDA ROYAL FORESTERS: probably frontier dress on campaigns or a Lgt Drgn uniform with a Green Jacket. ? facings. white waistcoat and breeches. facings WEST JERSEY VOLUNTEERS: town militia YORK VOLUNTEER RIFLE COMPANY: Green coats with all three units .STARCKLOFF'S HESSIAN TROOP OF LIGHT DRAGOONS: Green Coats TRYON'S VOLUNTEERS: red coats VOLUNTEERS OF NEW ENGLAND: Red coats.

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