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NOTES & CASES IN

CIVIL LAW 1 PERSONAL NOTES OF Atty. OLIVER R. GATCHALIAN

CIVIL CODE* ART 2. Laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette, unless it is otherwise provided. This Code shall take effect one year after such publication.

ART 13. When the laws speak of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty-five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-four hours; and nights from sunset Re&e(e !es to sunrise. If months are designated by their name, they shall be computed by the number of days which they respectively have. In computing a period, the first day shall be excluded, and the last day included.

I te('(e tati)e (e#ulati % s a " t$%se .e(ely i te( al i atu(e, t$at is, (e#ulati # % ly t$e 'e(s% el %& t$e a".i ist (ati)e a#e !y a " %t t$e 'u+li!, ee" %t +e

%& t$e P$ili''i es, 3usti!e E"#a("% Pa(as & Re)ie*e ( i Ci)il La*, 3usti!e D. 3u(a"% Wills & Su!!essi% V%l. III Ci)il C%"e %& t$e P$ili''i es, 3usti!e E"#a("% Pa(as & Le!tu(es %& P(%&. Da il% C% !e'! i% T$e !%"al '(%)isi% s a(e a((a #e " &%( easy (ea"i # a " .a(4 *it$ * t% #i)e e.'$asi /e t% t$e .%st !%..% s%u(!es %& 1AR 2uesti% s. T% +%((%* P(%&. A. D%.% "% 56 aut$%(i/e" use(s s$all +e 'u is$e" +y t$e la* %& 4a(.a a " t$ey *ill %t 'ass t$e e-a.i ati% t$ey s$all ta4e %( +e

L. R%"(i# ue/ 0 C%.. % S%u(!e s %& 1a( 2uesti % s

All statutes,Fa.ily i !lu"i # t$%seRelati% s %& l%!al P(%&. a''li!ati% a " Da il% '(i)ate la*s, C% !e' s$all +e !i% 'u+lis$e" as a Le!tu(e !% "iti% &%( s, t$ei( e&&e!ti)ity, Fa.ily *$i!$ s$all +e#i C%"e, 1, "ays a&te( 1y 'u+li!ati% 3usti!e A. u less a "i&&e(e t Si.'i%0 e&&e!ti)ity "ate is Diy & &i-e" +y t$e Re)ie* le#islatu(e. A".i ist(ati)e (ules a " (e#ulati% s .ust als% +e 'u+lis$e" i& t$ei( 'u('%se is t% e &%(!e %( i.'le.e t P(%'e(ty e-isti # la* V%l. II 'u(sua t als% t% Ci)il a )ali" "ele#ati% . C%"e

Pe(s% s a "

e( i Ci)il La*, 3usti!e D. 3u(a"%

u su!!ess&ul u $a''y i li&e7.

a "

'u+lis$e ". Neit$e( is 'u+li!at i% (e8ui(e" %& t$e s%0 !alle" lette(s %& i st(u!ti % s issue" +y a".i ist (ati)e su'e(i%( s !% !e( i # t$e (ules %( #ui"eli es t% +e &%ll%*e" +y t$ei( su+%("i ates i t$e 'e(&%(. a !e %& t$ei( "uties.

:&ill i t$e "etails: %& t$e Ce t(al 1a 4 A!t *$i!$ t$at +%"y is su''%se " t% e &%(!e. T$e 'u+li!ati % .ust +e i &ull %( it is % 'u+li!ati % at all si !e its 'u('%se is t% i &%(. t$e 'u+li! %& t$e !% te ts %& t$e la*s. ;TA<ADA ). T6VERA=

E)e t$e !$a(te( %& a !ity .ust +e 'u+lis$ e" %t*it$ sta "i # t$at it a''lies t% % ly a '%(ti% %& t$e ati% a l te((it%( y a " "i(e!tly a&&e!ts % ly t$e i $a+it a ts %& t$at 'la!e. T$e !i(!ula( s issue" +y t$e 9% eta (y 1%a(" .ust +e 'u+lis$ e" i& t$ey a(e .ea t %t .e(ely t% i te('(e t +ut t%

**ART 3. Ignorance of the law excuses no one from compliance therewith. ART 4. Laws shall have no retroactive effect, unless the contrary is provided. ART 6. Rights may be waived, 1. unless the waiver is 2. contrary to law, public order, public policy, morals, or good customs, or 3. prejudicial to a third person with a right recognized by law. ART 9. No judge or court shall decline to render judgment by reason of the silence, obscurity or insufficiency of the

laws. ***ART 19. Every person must, in the exercise of his rights and in the performance of his duties, act with justice, give everyone his due, and observe honesty and good faith. **ART 20. Every person who,

latter for the damage.


A(ti!le >1 "eals *it$ a!ts !% t(a +% us .%(es

contrary to law, wilfully or negligentlyART 26. Every causes damage toperson shall respect another, the 3. shall indemnify the 1. dignity, latter for the same. 2. personali ty, ***ART 21. Any person who 3. privacy wilfully causes loss or injury to and peace another of mind 1. in manner that is of his contrary to morals, neighbors good customs or and other public policy persons. 2. shall compensate the

1. 2.

The following and similar acts, 1. though they may not constitute a criminal offense, 2. shall produce a cause of action for damages, 3. prevention and other relief: 1. Prying into the privac y of anothe r's reside nce;
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NOTES & CASES IN CIVIL LAW 1 OLIVER R. GATCHALIAN

PERSONAL NOTES OF Atty.

2.

3.

4.

ART 36. Prejudicial ART 31. When the civil action questions, which is based on an obligation must be decided 1. not arising from before any the act or criminal omission prosecution may complained of as be instituted or a felony, may proceed, 2. such civil action shall be governed may proceed by rules of court independently of which the SC the criminal shall promulgate proceedings and and which shall regardless of the not be in conflict result of the latter. with the provisions of this **ART 33. In cases of Code. defamation, fraud, and physical injuries a civil action for damages, entirely separate and distinct from the criminal action, may be brought by the injured party. Such civil action shall proceed independently of the criminal prosecution, and shall require only a preponderance of evidence. ART 34. When a member

Meddling with or disturbing the private life or family relations of another; Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends; Vexing or humiliating another on account of his religious beliefs, lowly station in life, place of birth, physical defect, or other personal condition.

of a city or municipal police force refuses or fails to render aid or protection to any person in case of danger to life or property, such peace officer shall be primarily liable for damages, and the city or municipality shall be subsidiarily responsible therefor. The civil action herein recognized shall be independent of any criminal proceedings, and a preponderance of evidence shall suffice to support such action.

capacity, which is the fitness to be the subject of legal relations , is inherent in every natural person and is lost only through death. Capacity to act, which is the power to do acts with legal effect, is acquired and may be lost.
36RIDICAL CAPACIT? A!ti)e I $e(e t L%st % ly t$(%u#$ "eat$ CAPACIT? TO ACT Passi)e 9e(ely a!8ui(e" L%st t$(%u#$ "eat$ a " .ay +e (est(i!te" +y %t$e( !auses T$e e-iste !e %& *$i!$ al*ays i.'lies e-iste ! t$e e %& @u(i"i!al !a'a!ity

Ca e-ist *it$%ut !a'a!ity t% a!t

C I V IL P E R S O N A LI T ?

**ART 37. Juridical

T*% att(i+utes %( ele.e ts %& 'e(s%

1. 2.

The consequences of 3u(i"i!al !a'a!itythese circumstances %( 3u(i"i!alare governed in this 'e(s% ality Code, other codes, the Rules of Court, and in Ca'a!ity t% a!t special laws. Capacity I& t$ese t*%to act is not limited on att(i+utes !% !u(account of religious t$e e tity *$% is or political $%l"i # t$is t*%belief att(i+utes isopinion.
!% si"e(e" $a)e &ull !a'a!ity.

2. 3.

A married woman, twenty-one years of or over, is 1ut *$ile t$eage !%"e "%es %tqualified for all acts "e&i e *$% a atu(al 'e(s% is,of civil life, except in t$e Ci)il C%"eAscases specified by u "e(lyi # law. 40. Birth determines personality; but the T$e "e&i iti% %& conceived child shall a 'e(s% i t$e Ci)il C%"e "%es be considered born for %t a''ly t% t$e all purposes that are Re)ise" Pe al C%"e. favorable to it, provided it be born ART 38. Minority, insanity or later with the imbecility, the state of being a conditions specified deaf-mute, prodigality and civil in the following interdiction article. 1. are mere restrictions on capacity to act, and **ART 41. For civil 2. do not exempt thepurposes, incapacitated person 1. the foetus is from certain considered obligations, born 3. as when the latter 2. if it is alive arise from his acts or at the time it from property is relations, such as completely easements. delivered from the ART 39. The following mother's circumstances, among others, womb. modify or limit capacity to act: age, insanity, imbecility, theHowever, state of being a deaf-mute, 1. if the foetus penalty, prodigality, family had an relations, alienage, absence, intra-uterine insolvency and trusteeship.
'(i !i'le assu.es t$at a atu(al 'e(s% is**ART a $u.a +ei #.

t% !i)il

life of less than 7 months, it is not deemed born if it dies within 24 hours after its complete delivery from the maternal womb.
6 til a &etus is +%( it is %t a 'e(s% . It "%es %t a!8ui(e @u(i"i!al !a'a!ity. A &etus is .e(ely 'a(t %& t$e i te( al %(#a s %& t$e .%t$e(.
A &etus is !%.'letely se'a(ate" &(%. t$e .%t$e(As *%.+ *$e its u.+ili!al !%(" *as !ut %&& %( e)e t$%u#$ it *as %t !ut %&& t$e 'la!e ta t% *$i!$ t$e u.+ili!al !%(" *as atta!$ *as !%.'letely e-'elle" &(%. t$e .%t$e(s *%.+.
>

NOTES & CASES IN CIVIL LAW 1 OLIVER R. GATCHALIAN

PERSONAL NOTES OF Atty.


SEC. 1. E.a !i'ati% ta4es 'la!e +y t$e attai .e t %& .a@%(ity. 6 less %t$e(*ise '(%)i"e", .a@%(ity !%..e !es at t$e a#e %& ei#$tee yea(s. SEC. C E.a !i'ati% s$all te(.i ate 'a(e tal aut$%(ity %)e( t$e 'e(s% a " '(%'e(ty %& t$e !$il" *$% s$all t$e +e 8uali&ie" a " (es'% si+le &%( all a!ts %& !i)il li&e, sa)e t$e e-!e'ti% s esta+lis$e" +y e-isti # la*s i s'e!ial !ases.

***ART. 2. No T$e .i i.u.marriage shall be a*a(" &%( t$evalid, unless these "eat$ %& a 'e(s% essential "%es %t !%)e( t$e !ase %& a requisites are u +%( &etus t$atpresent: is %t e "%*e" Legal *it$ 'e(s% ality 1. a " i !a'a+le %& capacity $a)i # (i#$ts a " of the %+li#ati% s contractin ;GEL6B ). CA= g parties THE who must FA9IL? be a male CODE and a female; T%%4 e&&e!t % and Au#ust C, 1DEE. 2. Consent freely ***ART 15 CC. Laws given in relating to the 1.family rights and presence duties, or of the 2.to the status, solemnizi ng 3.condition and officer. 4.legal capacity of persons Esse tial binding uponRe8uisites %& citizens of the9a((ia#e Philippines, 1. Le#al Ca'a!it 6.even though living y abroad.

5.are

F(eely ART 1. Marriage is a special Gi)e contract of permanent union 1. between a man and aLEGAL woman CAPACIT? 2. entered into inEle.e ts 1. A#e accordance with law 3. for the establishment 2. Di&&e(e !e i of conjugal and sefamily life. e %& It is the foundation of the i.'e"i family .e t. 1. and an inviolable social institution A#e 2. whose nature, ART ,. A y %( consequences, and .ale &e.ale %& t$e incidents are governed a#e %& by law and not subject ei#$tee yea(s %( to stipulation, u'*a("s %t 3. except that marriage u "e( a y %& settlements may fix t$e the property relations i.'e"i.e ts .e ti% e" i during the marriage A(ti!les CF within the limits a " CE, .ay provided by this !% t(a!t .a((ia#e. Code. RA GEHD

2.

C% se t

3.

A+se !

*C% t(a!ti # .a((ia#e s$all (e8ui(e 'a(e tal !% se t u til t$e a#e %& t*e ty0% e. N%t$i # i t$is C%"e s$all +e !% st(ue" t% "e(%#ate &(%. t$e "uty %( (es'% si+ility %& 'a(e ts a " #ua("ia s &%( !$il"(e a " *a("s +el%* t*e ty0% e yea(s %& a#e .e ti% e" i t$e se!% " a " t$i(" 'a(a#(a'$s %& A(ti!le >1EH CC. SEC. I. 6'% t$e e&&e!ti)ity %& t$is A!t, e-isti # *ills, +e8uests, "% ati% s, #(a ts, i su(a !e '%li!ies a " si.ila( i st(u.e ts !% tai i # (e&e(e !es a " '(%)isi% s &a)%(a+le t% .i %(s *ill %t (et(%a!t t% t$ei( '(e@u"i!e. *ART. I,. A .a((ia#e .ay +e a ulle" &%( a y %& t$e &%ll%*i # !auses, e-isti # at t$e ti.e %& t$e .a((ia#eJ 1= T$at t$e 'a(ty i *$%se +e$al& it is s%u#$t t% $a)e t$e .a((ia#e a ulle" *as ei#$tee yea(s %& a#e %( %)e( +ut +el%* t*e ty0% e, a " t$e .a((ia#e *as s%le. i/e" *it$%ut t$e !% se t %& t$e 'a(e ts, #ua("ia %( 'e(s% $a)i # su+stitute 'a(e tal aut$%(ity %)e( t$e 'a(ty, i t$at %("e(, u less a&te( attai i # t$e a#e %& t*e ty0% e, su!$ 'a(ty &(eely !%$a+ite" *it$ t$e %t$e( a " +%t$ li)e" t%#et$e( as $us+a " a " *i&eK T$e(e is a "e&e!t i t$e !% se t %& t$e 'a(ty +e!ause t$e la* !% si"e(s % ly t$%se .%(e t$a >1 as $a)i # t$e !a'a!ity t% #i)e &ull !% se t t% .a((ia#e. I& a 'a(ty is +el%* >1 $e is %t !a'a+le %& #i)i # &ull !% se t t% $is .a((ia#e. F%( a 'a(ty t% $a)e !% t(a!te" a .a((ia#e, t$e !% se t .ust +e

!%.'le .e te" +y $is 'a(e ts . I& t$e(e is % !% se t &(%. t$e 'a(e ts t$e !% se t is "e&e!ti) e a " t$e .a((ia# e is )%i"a+l e.

Such consent shall be manifested

1.

2.

ART. 14. In case either or both of the contracting parties, 1. not having been emancipated by a previous marriage, 2. are between the ages of 18 and 21, 3. they shall, in addition to the requireme nts of the preceding articles, exhibit to the local civil registrar, 4. the consent to their marriage of their father, mother, surviving parent or guardian, or persons having legal charge of them, in the order mentione d.

3.

4.

in writing by the interested party, who personally appears before the proper local civil registrar, or in the form of an affidavit made in the presence of two witnesses and attested before any official authorized by law to administer oaths. The personal manifestati on shall be recorded in both application s for marriage license, and the affidavit, if one is executed instead, shall be attached to said application s.
Situati% L Su''%se t$e &at$e(, #a)e $is !% se t +ut +e&%(e t$e Ci)il (e#ist(a( issues a li!e se t$e &at$e( *e t t% t$e !i)il

(e#ist(a( a " $e t(ie" t% *it$"(a* t$e !% se t #i)e ea(lie(. Ca t$e &at$e( "% t$atM S%.e aut$%(s +elie)e t$at % !e !% se t is #i)e it !a % l% #e(

(e)%4e" %( *it$"(a * . 1ut T%le ti % +elie)es %t$e(*is e.

T$e 'a(e t !% se t .ust +e &%( t$e !$il" t% .a((y a s'e!i&i! 'e(s% .


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