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**A Novel High Adaptability Out-door Mobile Robot with Diameter-variable Wheels*
**

Lan Zheng1, 2, 3, Peng Zhang1, 2, &, Ying Hu1, 2, Gang Yu3, Zhangjun Song1, 2, Jianwei Zhang4

Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 2 The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 3 Mechanical Engineering and Automation, HIT Shenzhen Graduate School 4 TAMS, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany & Author for correspondence, Email: peng.zhang1@siat.ac.cn or starzhly@163.com

Abstract – A novel high adaptability out-door mobile robot with diameter-variable wheels was proposed in this paper. The robot has advantages of good climbing obstacle capability, high terrain adaptability and stability for the self-adapting suspension and walking wheel combining the efficiency of wheels with the climbing mobility of legs. The mechanism structure and working principle were described. The kinematics model and dynamic model are presented of the folding and unfolding of the wheel and interaction between wheel and terrain respectively. A simulation in MSC.ADAMS has been carried out to verify the operation and the reality of the prototype. The simulation results show that the robot with diameter-variable wheels has good performance of climbing obstacles in the rough terrain. Index Terms – outdoor mobile robot; diameter-variable wheel; unstructured environment; high adaptability

1

Based on the two aspects discussed in front, a novel high adaptability out-door mobile robot is proposed in this paper, which has four diameter-variable wheels and passive swinging suspension. In this case, wheeled and legged structures are combined in order to keep their respective advantages. There is another advantage that the suspension is able to adapt to terrain automatically and thus can ensure the stability of robot moving in rough unstructured terrain. The typical useful application [6] can be the use of mobile robotic systems in rough, unstructured environment, such as underground mines, community, pipeline detection, disaster sites, and planetary explorations. II. STRUCTURE DESIGN OF THE MOBILE ROBOT A. Structure Scheme Fig.1 shows a kind of retractable polyhedron institution based on single-degree of freedom. Its basic unit structure is a kind of planar linkage mechanism. The mechanism is driven by the center triangle’s rotation. Based on retractable polyhedron institutions discussed in the front, a kind of new wheel (Fig.2) that has foldable ability and good obstacle-surmounting performance is proposed.

I. INTRODUCTION Wheeled mobile robots have advantages of good performance of moving smoothly and fast, but its obstacle surmounting performance and adaptability are a little poor [1] [2]. Considerable research has been done on wheel structure to improve the trafficability of wheeled robot. A typical method that improves capability of climbing obstacle is to change the wheel diameter such as triangle fork mechanism. The radius of the wheel and the length of triangle fork are equal, as well as their centers are in the same height level. Clearly the triangle fork has good obstacle-climbing performance. The Case Western Reserve University of United States developed a mobile robot which adopts such a structure [3] [4]. This structure enlightened by the crawling movement of cockroaches has a good bionic and a strong capacity to cross the obstacle. Another way to improve the capability of climbing obstacle is to change suspension system into other institutions such as legged structures. A typical way that can support this method is Leg-Wheel walking robot [5] which designed by C. Tavolieri and E. Ottaviano in University of Cassin. The leg structure that mentioned has one DOF (degree of freedom) and it is possible to have one actuator moving both legs while wheels are passive.

*This work is partially supported by Science and Technology Planning

Program of Shenzhen City (grant No.JC201005270361A), Shenzhen key projects of basic research (grant No.JC201005270375A), Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No.51005227) and CAS Knowledge Innovation project (grant No.KGCXZ-YW-128).

Fig.1 Planar polygonal mechanism

Fig.2 Foldable wheel

The wheel suggested in the paper has two basic functions, one in normal flat terrain, the traditional circle wheel can realize its high speed, smooth, and stability performance, and the other is in rough terrain with varying characteristics, the foldable wheel unfolds to realize good performance of obstacle-surmounting. In order to improve the robot’s terrain adaptive capability, we eventually designed the outdoor mobile robot as shown in figure 3. There are four combined foldable wheels as well as a passive swinging suspension. Each wheel is driven independently. The swinging suspension helps to make robot

978-1-61284-4577-0270-9/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

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E A θ O L B β C D X F Fig. yD ) = ( L sin θ + l AD sin β .L cos șȦ L sin șİ ) (3) G Among which: Ȧ is the velocity of trigeminal stem OB . point O. can we get the coordinate of point D through the information above. Linkage OB is a rod of a trigeminal stem. the foldable wheel folds to normal wheel. Each part structure is shown in Fig. Kinematics equation could be obtained by studying any point of the blade ACD . Ȗ = 13L . which can reflect the ability of the robot with diameter-variable wheel structure climbing obstacle and getting through rough unstructured terrain.8028. and so on. As the institution is centrally symmetric. all the connecting rods are the same and the length is L .3 The whole 4-wheeled out-door mobile robot B.2 L cos cos ) = ( L sin ș . B and C are in the same line. the mechanism is decomposed into three branch chains. meanwhile. OE .2 is simplified to ordinary wheel-leg structure (see Fig. Points A. Studying the obstacle-navigation performance of robots on one hand leads us understand obstacle-surmounting principle theoretically. The ability of anti-overturning is enhanced. C are two connecting points of the blade while D is its endpoint. 4 Structure schematic of foldable wheel The coordinate of point A is: ș ș ș ș (2 L cos sin .3. Next we can get the folding rate by calculation. G and İ is its acceleration. the foldable institutions spread out into leg-wheel structure to improve ability of climbing obstacles. the gravity provides the whole flip torque so as to speed up trespassing. (4) Each point of the blade move translational parallel to the stationary bar respectively. Among them. Kinematical Analysis To study the kinematics of the foldable wheel easily. we can get the whole motion situation of this mechanism through the analysis of any article of branch institution. L + L cos ș ) (1) 2 2 2 2 G G G ȣ A = ( L cos șȦ.adapt to rough terrain.L cos șȦ 2 ) the modulus of velocity and acceleration of point A respectively are: 170 . the gravity center move ahead slowly. a A = (L sin șȦ 2 . terrain adaptive.4. the max length of OD has relationship with the variable value ș . It is the outline of the middle state of unfolding process. Method 1: The equation of line AD is: (5) y − L cosθ − L = − cot β ( x − L sin θ ) Knowing l AD = 2 3 L and the coordinate of point A beforehand.L sin șȦ) (2) G G K K2 K2 a A = (L sin șȦ + L cos șİ . It includes the obstacle surmounting ability. the gravity center goes upwards. C. and the other geometric method. the obstacle-surmounting performance is one of the most important indexes. β = 30 the limitation situations of ș are 0 degree. the angle between the line connect the center of front and back wheel and the horizontal getting greater and greater. the wheel in Fig. under the effect of the friction from terrain. As shown in Fig. OF with angle 120are the components of the same part. The principle of obstacle-navigation is that when the front leg contact with obstacles. the coordinate can be described directly as: ( xD . on the other hand it is the basis reference of designing the robot. The final way is to get the coordinate of point D . point O is the center of the foldable wheel. the stability. In climbing over the obstacle. Method 2: By the relationship of geometric. The angle between OB and OE is ș . So the motion of blade ACD is a translational motion. one analytical method. On rough terrain.5). the necessary for success is in the moving direction the gravity center “beyond” the climb fulcrum. G G K K As İ = 0 . smooth. constant value ȕ and l AD . Ȗ = 2 L (8) When ș =120o. Obstacle-navigation performance analysis Mobility or trafficability is the most important and basic performance of out-door mobile robots [7]. When K ȣ A = LȦ . K a A = LȦ 2 Fig. In this situation. when ordinary circle wheel can’t pass through obstacles with height greater than the radius of the wheel. 4. the most important task is studying the motion of the blades. Y l AD = 2 3 L . From Fig. and line AC is parallel to line EF which doesn’t move while unfolding. steering sensitivity. So that: ș =0o. the wheel diameter reach the maximum value. The folding rate of the wheel could be 1. There are two methods. For simplicity. L cosθ + L − l AD cos β ) (6) 2 lOD = 2 L2 (1 + cos θ ) + l AD − 2 Ll AD [cos β + cos(θ + β )] (7) From equation (7).

656r1 (15) So the limitation of height that foldable wheel can climb is 1. 171 .97times as long as the radius of original wheel. l : The distance between the center of front wheel and point A . according to geometric relationship. N1 comes from the force between terrain and front wheel. Suppose every part of the institutions has no deformation. the distance along the length of robot between the center of front wheel and the center of gravity is L3 . from Fig. the value of torque of front wheel becomes maximum. leg 1 tangent with obstacle surface.8. While in this article the folding rate is 1. the distance between gravity and wheel center attachment is b . At the moment as long as the value of torque satisfies the requirement of trespassing. robot can climb the obstacle eventually. see Fig. That is affected on the whole robot’s overturn from the position of gravity center. D.6. Ȗ : The angler between the line that connect with point A and the center of front wheel and x direction.Fig. which means when the instance that the front wheel raised.6 we get: M 1 ≈M 2 (9) Take point B as the reference point. Fig. the orientation angler ș has not changed. the force analysis when robot connect with terrain is shows in Fig. b sin ș + e cos ș < ȕ : The angler between adjacent wheels.5 The simplified model of diameter-variable wheel unfolded Wheel-leg structure has stronger obstacle-climbing capability compared to common wheeled structure. r1 : The diameter of wheel-leg.7 The impact of center of gravity on overturning of bodies The limitation situation is 1 L cos ș (16) 2 2 Where point O is robot center of gravity. so the height of robot can climb over is 2. the other is increase the value of L2 . Į : The angler between the anti-force and y direction. there is torque balance that: ( f1 sin α + N1 cos α ){l cos γ + [ L2 − r1 cos( β − γ )] cos θ } + (10) ( f1 cos α + N1 sin α )[l sin γ + L2 sin θ + r1 sin(β − γ )] = 0.6 times radius of wheel-leg institution. Stability analysis There is another problem-stability analysis.6 shows can we get the height of obstacles that robot can climb theoretically: h≈ l cos(120° − 90° − γ ) + l sin γ = 3l sin(30° + γ ) (13) Suppose the front of robot won’t touch the obstacle surface.6. This moment is the critical one.5G[( L2 − L3 ) cos θ − r1 cos(β − γ )] + M 1 + M 2 The force balance: N1 cos Į + f1 sin Į + N 2 = G (11) The torque of front wheel is: M 1 = ( N1 cos Į + f1 sin Į )l cos Ȗ + ( N1 sin Į + f1 cos Į )l sin Ȗ (12) = N1l cos(ĮȖ) + f1l sin(Į + Ȗ) Among which. We can approximately calculate the limit height of obstacles that the robot can climb. hmax ≈ 1. the height of obstacle that robot can climb is h . ș : The angler between the line which connect with centers of front and back wheels and x direction. The static stability condition is the projection of the center of mass falls in the projection polygon formed by the supporting points [8]. When ș = 0 degree M 1 gets its biggest value.6 Force analysis when robot contacts with an obstacle Suppose the values of torque of all motors are the same. Fig. So one of ways to improve ability of robot’s climbing obstacle is decrease the value of b and e . the length of the line connect the center of front and back wheel is L2 . the limit position is that leg 2 connect with obstacle surface. From the geometric relationships Fig. we know that Ȗmax ≈ 43° l max = r1 (14) Take (14) into (13) we get the limitation height of obstacle that robot can climb. the length of the whole robot is L1 . e is the distance that gravity away from the vertical surface that through wheel centers.

ș . CB are radius and transverse damping coefficients of wheel respectively. I y . mz ]T șȥ sin ĳ Ȧ = ĳ cos ș + ȥ cos ĳ sin ș ȥ cos ĳ cos șĳ sin ș So șȥ sin ĳȥĳ cos ĳ (20) Ȧ3 0 Ȧ1 Ȧ2 Ȧ1 0 {H c } : Relative derivative matrix of {H c } I x .sin ȥ cos ș sin ȥ sin ș + cos ȥ sin ĳ cos ș sin ȥ sin ĳ cos ș . bi . Fsi . with XY plan superposed to the plan which decided by the centers of four wheels. From above all. In the figure. transverse force. and supporting force from ground respectively for the ith wheel ( i=1 2 3 4).III. Newton-Euler’s equations of the four-wheel robot can be expressed as following [m]{ac } = {F } (26) {H c } + [ w]{H c } = {m} (27) Where m 0 0 [ m] = 0 m 0 0 0 m Ix {H c } = 0 I xy 0 Iy 0 (19) The relationship between angler orientation and angular velocity is {F} = [ Fx .8 dynamic model The conversion matrix from body fixed coordinate to ground coordinate is cosȥcosĳ cos ȥ sin ĳ sin ș . Fti .8 is the dynamic model of this four-wheel robot. and C A . m y . the force imposed on robot can be expressed in body fixed coordinate system by Fixmg sin ĳ i =1 4 (17) ĳ. The torque imposed on robot in body fixed coordinate system is bi Fizci Fiy mix mx 4 4 ci Fixai Fiz miy + my = mz i =1 (24) miz i =1 ai Fiybi Fix Fig. K B are the radius and resilient rigid coefficients of wheel respectively. y and z shaft I xy : Inertial product corresponding to x.cos ȥ sin ș cos ĳ cos ș Q1 = sin ȥ cos ĳ cos ȥ cos ș + sin ȥ sin ĳ sin ș . Values K A .sin ĳ cos ĳ sin ș Ignoring windward resistance and accidental disturbance force. ci ) . can be expressed in body fixed coordinate by Fix FitFif T Fiy = Q1 Fis Fiz N i (22) Q1T : The transposed matrix of Q1 Ignoring the influence of elastic deformation of wheels. N i are driving force. F fi . The coordinate of wheel center in xyz system is (ai . there is ȖOG X cos ȥ cos ĳ + Y sin ȥ cos ĳ . the torque of Fix . I z : The inertia corresponding to x.cos ȥ sin ș ) + Z cos ĳ cos ș Fx Fy = Fz Fiy + mg cos ĳ sin ș Fiz + mg cos ĳ cos ș i =1 i =1 4 4 (25) m. y shaft Ȧ = ĳ cos șĳș cos ș + ȥ cos ĳ sin ș + ȥș cos ĳ cos șȥĳ sin ĳ sin ș (21) ȥ cos ĳ cos șȥș cos ĳ sin șȥĳ sin ĳ cos șĳ sin șĳș cos ș 172 . Fz ]T . Fiy and Fiz around the driven shaft respectively is ( RH sin Į ) Fiy mix miy = ( RH sin Į ) FixRH cos ĮFiz miz RH cos ĮFiy (23) RH : The length of wheel leg. {m} = [mx . ȥ : The orientation angler of robot in fixed coordinate system. rolling resistance. The coordinate of gravity center of this robot in fixed coordinate system can be expressed as Ȗ OG = XI + YJ + ZK (18) Derivate (18) and convert it into body fixed coordinate system. g : The mass of the robot and gravity acceleration. xyz Coordinate system fixed on the robot with its origin superposed to the gravity center of the robot. Fy .Z sin ĳ = X (cos ȥ sin ĳ sin ș . The force effected on wheel.sin ȥ cos ș ) + Y (cos ȥ cos ș + sin ȥ sin ĳ sin ș ) + Z cos ĳ sin ș X (sin ȥ sin ș + cos ȥ sin ĳ cos ș ) + Y (sin ȥ sin ĳ cos ș . NEWTON-EULER’S EQUATIONS Fig. I xy Ȧ1 0 Ȧ2 I z Ȧ3 0 [ w] = Ȧ3 Ȧ2 . XYZ Coordinate system fixed on the ground.

[bi Ȧ3 . in uneven terrain we use the state of unfolded wheel.36 0.1 shows the parameters of variable obstacles. Fig.(ci + R H sin Į ) cos ȥ sin ș ] + C B {Y [(ci + R H sin Į )Ȧ2 . In order to avoid this situation. the cost of developing product reduced. Therefore. the foldable wheel is designed-in flat terrain we use the state of folded wheel. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.38 0.35 0 5 10 15 time(s) 20 25 Fig. Using this technology. In the process of simulation. we simplify the robot as show in Fig.d).10 (only obtain the simulation of the process of climbing obstacles). The superiority of the foldable wheel this paper mentioned can be well proved by ADAMS simulation compared to legged wheel.9 the mass center curve along vertical direction relevant to time Research of the dynamic equations respect to the whole robot can be divided into two situations [9]. the other it provides the bases for robot control. while the later wheel is still normal (see Fig.11 The process of climbing uneven ground 173 . As a result. design process of mechanical structures simplified. In this project the simulation of both the process of unfolding of single wheel and that of climbing variable obstacles of the whole robot are carried out to verify the operation and the reality of the prototype. in doing obstacle-navigation simulation of mobile mechanism. In the simulation of foldable wheels. it requires a lot of calculation and time because of numerous links.11.1 PARAMETERS OF OBSTACLES Style of Obstacle Uneven Terrain Stairs Entrenchment Parameters Index (mm) Maximum Height :180 Height:120 Width:140 Depth:150 Width:200 A.R H sin Į] sin ĳ + [(ai + R H cos Į )Ȧ3 . adding gravity. one it can be applied into studying the dynamic behavior.a) and vice versa (see Fig.37 0. In the first situation.4 0. for the study of convergence. There are congenital deficiencies that it moves jumpily in legged robot. locking constraints etc. optimized and innovated product design is obtained.9 the mass center curve of robot along vertical direction.( a i + R H cos Į )Ȧ2 + R H cos Į ] cos ĳ cos ș } 0.10. the dynamic equations can be solved. after importing the model that built in Solidworks to ADAMS. These are designed to test the obstacle-climbing capability of four-wheel robot.( ai + R H cos Į) sin ĳ + bi cos ĳ sin ș + (ci + R H sin Į ) cos ĳ cos ș ] + C A {Z .[(ci + R H sin Į)Ȧ2 . Along with initial conditions. In ADAMS environment. As shown in Fig. The process of climbing uneven terrain is shown in Fig.bi Ȧ3 .( a i + R H cos Į )Ȧ 2 + R H cos Į ] cos ĳ cos ș} Fis = K B [Y + ( a i + R H cos Į ) sin ĳ . In this situation it is jumping moved and is advantageous to climbing obstacles. In the process of simulation.10 Simplified Simulation Model TABLE. the wheel is unfolded to wheel-legged. each anti-force according to the information from the terrain is obtained. virtual terrain with uneven ground. In the second case. All the value of parameters is equal or larger than the radius of the original folded wheel. the dynamic equation can be necessarily simplified in order to study the power. IV.R H sin Į ] sin ĳ + [(a i + R H cos Į )Ȧ3 (ci + R H sin Į)Ȧ1 ] cos ĳ sin ș + [bi Ȧ1 .11. the robot will climb these obstacles respectively.The reverse force and transverse counterforce from terrain can be expressed respectively are N i = K A [ Z .39 0. climbing uneven terrain Due to uneven terrain-the tongue and sag distributed randomly.027 m from Fig.11. the kinematics simulation analysis of the foldable wheel is obtained.(ci + R H sin Į )Ȧ1 ] cos ȥ . The fluctuation is ±0.bi Ȧ3 . stairs. SIMULATION The key of Virtual prototype technology is kinematics and dynamics simulation of some mechanical system. The front wheel changes bigger when it comes up with obstacle. entrenchment and other special obstacles is established. the vibration of vertical angle and stability of walking orientation. rotating vices. and helps to select the structure parameters. we can easily see the relationship between curve point and animation state since it is real-time controlled. TABLE. Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System (ADAMS) developed by the company of MDI in American is the most excellent mechanical system simulation software.

on Robotics and Automation (ICRA).12 Span the Vertical Obstacle (b) (a) Fig. pp. D. J. R. E. Watson. and Ritzmann. R. “A Small Insect Inspired Robot that Runs and Jumps. It is surely guarantee the stability of left-right motion. Barcelona. April 2004. 5769-5774. impact. Switzerland. Quinn. SUMMARY REFERENCES [1] Jin Yan. [7] Osamu Matsumoto. It helps to inspect the accuracy of theoretical calculation through dynamic analysis.. D. [3] Lambrecht.. W.13). IEEE International conference on robotics &automation New Orleans. Fig. “Design of a New Leg-Wheel Walking Robot”.. [9] Ch. R.2599-2604. Conf. R. In order to test the capability of moving performance of this robot. Lausanne. “Abstracted Biological Principles Applied with Reduced Actuation Improve Mobility of Legged Vehicles. A. “Design of an innovative unfoldable wheel with contact surface adaptation mechanism for planetary rovers”. USA. [5] Jack. “Obstacle Avoidance Behavior for a Biologically-inspired Mobile Robot Using Binaural Ultrasonic Sensors.” IEEE Int. Ottaviano and M.” IEEE Int. J.. Spain.. 174 . A. . International Journal of solids and structures. Conf. Beijing. Shuuji Kajita.pp.“a type of radially retractable plate structures”. [6] C.1-8. G. the limitation height of obstacle that the robot can climb has been analyzed as well as the stability of this robot and last illustrated by simulations in ADAMS software. 2006. The robot can adjust its rotation angle of driven motor in order to adapt to different obstacles and the sway suspension self-adapting to different terrain guarantee its stability moving. “Flexible Locomotion control of a self-contained Biped Wheel-leg system”.. Greece. After climbing these obstacles.Grand. 1240-1245. 1370-1375. A. Athens. 2005.(a) Fig. A. 2007. pp. 2007. and Quinn.12. Sunil K. pp. T. Conf. R. B. conference on intelligent robots and systems EPFL. 2. pp. and table gait”.3452-3467. In this paper the kinemics and dynamics analysis with respect to a high adaptability outdoor mobile robot have been investigated. E. climbing entrenchment The process of climbing entrenchment is similar to that of climbing stairs (see Fig. all wheels of robot are folded in order to move in flat terrain and realize their characteristics of high speed and high efficient. 2006. climbing stairs Before contact barriers. vol. The dynamic analysis method is based on Newton-Euler’s equations. Horchler. Tavolieri. October 2002. D. [8] Yaozhi Luo. Quinn. Bachmann. D. the two-side wheels were adjusted into same phase (see Fig. Ph. Ceccarelli. “Rimless Wheel with Radial Expanding Spokes: dynamics. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)..Jones. By simulation the conclusion that this novel robot has high adaptability to terrain with varying characteristics is obtained. pp. M.14 Torque diagram of motors that drive vehicle running Fig.a) so as to insure the wheels contact barriers at the same time. Las Vegas. C. November 28-30. China. 90027 USA. Proceeding of the 2002 IEEE/RSJ Intl. “Inflatable Robotics for Planetary Applications” Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology... Decan Maoon.14 shows Torque diagrams of motors that drive vehicle running. [2] Lewinger. Future works will be devoted to propose the control method for trajectory tracking works and design Mechanical arms in order to make the robot do some grasping and detecting tasks. Proceedings of the 9th ESA workshop on advanced space technologies for robotics and automation ‘ASTRA 2006’ESTEC.13 climbing the entrenchment (b) B.2633-2638. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).” IEEE Int.2003. Proceedings of the 15th Mediterranean conference on control &automation. July 27-29. The Netherlands pp. [4] Allen. S..Bidaud et al.

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