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PID Controllers in BESTune

The following PID controllers can be optimized by using the excellent PID auto-tuning software
BESTune see http!""bestune#$%megs#com" for details&# Theoretically' BESTune is able to
optimize any PID controllers' as long as the PID e(uations implemented in them are )nown# In
order to include more PID controllers in BESTune' I am as)ing you to gi*e me more information
about other well-)nown brands of industrial PID controllers brand names' PID e(uations
implemented' units of the three PID constants' etc&# +our help will be *ery much appreciated#
In the following PID e(uations'

,-! ,ontroller -utput also called -utPut and denoted by -P&


P.! Process .ariable
SP! SetPoint
e/SP-P.

There are three types of PID controllers! Type 0' Type B' and Type ,# It is strongly
recommended that type , be used# 1or more about this' please ta)e a loo) at
http!""bestune#$%megs#com"type0B,#htm# 0 method of desinging type , PID is gi*en at
http!""bestune#$%megs#com"piddesign#htm# 1or a (uic) loo) at a type , PID loop' ta)e a loo) at
this picture#

BESTune#,om
Email! bestune2netzero#net
333! http!""bestune#$%megs#com"
Standard Independent PID Controller
There are three types of independent PID control e(uations!
Type 0!

+ +
dt
de
K edt K e K CO
d i p
Type B!


+ +
dt
PV d
K edt K e K CO
d i p
&
Type ,!


+ +
dt
PV d
K edt K PV K CO
d i p
&
&
3e strongly recommend type , 4nfortunately' most industrial PID controllers use either type 0
or type B e(uations&# Differentiating both sides of type , e(uation gi*es!
dt
PV d
K dPV K edt K dCO
d p i
5

Discretization of the abo*e e(uation with sampling period Ts gi*es the following form that can be
implemented in a digital computer!
&6 5 & 7 5 & 8 &6 7 & 8 & & 7 & + + k PV k PV k PV
T
K
k PV k PV K T k e K k CO k CO
s
d
p s i
where
Ts! Sampling period seconds
9p! Proportional gain :o unit
9i! Integral grain 7"second&
9d! Deri*ati*e gain seconds
The last important thing that is often ignored but can ne*er be ignored is to bring ,- bac) to the
upper or lower limit *alues whene*er it is outside these limits' i#e#' whene*er ,-)&;,-<s upper
limit *alue' we must set ,-)&/,-<s upper limit *alue= and whene*er ,-)&>,-<s lower limit
*alue' we must set ,-)&/,-<s lower limit *alue#
1or example' if ,-)&/7%% means the control *al*e is 7%%? open and ,-/7% means the control
*al*e is @ust closed' then whene*er the *alue of ,-)& calculated by the abo*e PID e(uation is
larger than 7%%' we must set ,-)&/7%% and whene*er the *alue of ,-)& calculated by the
abo*e PID e(uation is less than 7%' we must set ,-)&/7%#
Standard Dependent PID Controller
Similarly' there are also three types of dependent PID e(uations!
Type 0!
1
]
1

+ +

dt
de
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
7
Type B!
1
]
1


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
& 7
Type ,!
1
]
1


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
PV K CO
d
i
c
& 7
&
3e strongly recommend type ,' i#e#'
1
]
1


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
PV K CO
d
i
c
& 7
&
where
9c! Proportional gain :o unit
Ti! Aeset time min"rep&
Td! Aate time min&

Allen Bradley Logix5550 Independent PID


dt
PV d
K edt K e K CO
d i p
&
+ +

where
9p
!
Proportional gain :o unit
9i! Integral gain 7"second&
9d
!
Deri*ati*e gain seconds&
Allen Bradley Logix5550 Dependent PID

,
_


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
& 7
where
9c! Proportional gain :o unit
Ti! Aeset time min"rep&
Td! Aate time min&
Allen Bradley PLC5 Independent PID - Using Integer Blo!s
dt
PV d
K edt K e K CO
d i p
&
+ +

where
9p
!
Proportional gain %#%7&
9i! Integral gain %#%%7" second&
9d
!
Deri*ati*e gain seconds&
Allen Bradley PLC5 Independent PID - Using PD Blo!s
dt
PV d
K edt K e K CO
d i p
&
+ +

where
9p
!
Proportional gain :o unit
9i! Integral gain 7" second&
9d
!
Deri*ati*e gain seconds&
Allen Bradley PLC5 ISA PID - Using Integer Blo!s

,
_


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
& 7
where
9c! Proportional gain %#%7&
Ti! Aeset time %#%7min"rep
&
Td! Aate time %#%7min&
Allen Bradley PLC5 ISA PID - Using PD Blo!s

,
_


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
& 7

where
9c! Proportional gain :o unit
Ti! Aeset time min"rep&
Td! Aate time min&

Allen Bradley SLC5"0#$SLC5"0% and SLC5"0& ISA PID

,
_


+ +

dt
PV d
T edt
T
e K CO
d
i
c
& 7
where
9c! Proportional gain %#7&
Ti! Aeset time %#7min"rep
&
Td! Aate time %#%7min&
Bailey 'untion Code 'C() *it+ ,-(

,
_

+ +

dt
de
K edt
K
e K K CO
d
i
p
B%
B%
where
9! Cain multiplier :o unit
9p
!
Proportional gain :o unit
9i! Integral reset 7"min
9d
!
Deri*ati*e rate
action
Din

Bailey 'untion Code 'C(5. Independent 'orm *it+ ,-(

,
_

+ +

dt
de
K edt
K
e K K CO
d
i
p
B%
B%
where
9! Cain multiplier :o unit
9p
!
Proportional gain :o unit
9i! Integral reset Aesets"mi
n
9d
!
Deri*ati*e rate
action
Din

Conept PID( - PID Controller
The e(ui*alent continuous time e(uation the ,oncept PID7 PID algorithm implements is!

,
_

+ +

dt
de
TD edt
TI
e Gain CO
7
where
Cain! Proportional gain :o unit
TI! Aeset time milliseconds&
TD! Deri*ati*e 0ction time milliseconds&
Conept PID(P - PID Controller *it+ parallel struture
dt
de
KD edt KI KPe CO + +


where
9P! Proportional gain :o unit
9I! Integral rate 7"milliseconds&
9D! Differentiation rate milliseconds&
'is+er / Porter DCU %#00 C01 Ideal *it+ ,P - (

,
_

+ +

dt
de
TD edt
TR
KPe KC CO
7

If 9p / 7' the abo*e e(uation reduces to!

,
_

+ +

dt
de
TD edt
TR
e KC CO
7
where
9,! Cain constant :o unit
TA! Aeset time min"rep
&
TD! Deri*ati*e term min&

'is+er / Porter DCU %#00 C01 Parallel ,P 2aria3le *it+ ,C-(

,
_

+ +

dt
de
TD edt
TR
KPe KC CO
7

If 9,/7' the abo*e e(uation reduces to!

+ +
dt
de
TD edt
TR
KPe CO
7
where
9P! Proportional gain :o unit
TA! Aeset time min"rep
&
TD! Deri*ati*e term min&

4E 'anu Series )0-%0 and )0-50 Independent 'orm PID
dt
de
K edt K e K CO
d i p
+ +

where
9p
!
Proportional gain %#%7&
9i! Aeset time %#%%7rep"second&
9d
!
Deri*ati*e gain %#%7 seconds&

6artmann / Braun 'reelane #000 PID

,
_

+ +

dt
de
TD edt
TR
e CP CO
7

where

,P! Proportional correction *alue :o unit
TA! Aeset time milliseconds&
TD! Aate time milliseconds&
6oney*ell TDC %000 AP7 1on - Interati2e PID

,
_

+ +

dt
de
T edt
T
e K CO 5
7
7
where
9! Cain :o unit
T7! Integral time constant min"rep&
T5! Deri*ati*e time constant min&
7odion )8& PLC PID# E9uation

,
_

+ +

dt
de
K edt K e
PB
CO E 5
7%%

where
PB! Proportional band :o unit
95! Integral mode gain constant %#%7min"rep&
9E! Deri*ati*e mode gain constant %#%7min&

Siemens S5 PB&( C01T:C PID

+ +
dt
de
TD edt
TI
e Gain CO
7
F
where
Cain! Proportional gain :o unit
TI! Aeset time seconds&
TD! Deri*ati*e time seconds&

;o!oga*a 'ield Control Station <'CS= PID

,
_

+ +

dt
de
T edt
T
e
PB
CO
d
i
7 7%%
where
PB! Proportional band :o unit
Ti! Integral time seconds&
Td! Deri*ati*e time seconds&