Transportation Sector in India


•Ashish Baijal (3) •Mihir Jana (14) •Sorabh Marwah (25) •Ritambhar Roy (38) •Sandeep Sreenivasa (50)

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16th century: Sher Shah Suri, commissioned the Grand Trunk Road .

British India Era: infrastructure focused on colonial requirements.
1853: Boribunder to Thane. Lobbied by mill owners in Lancashire. Railway Network: 0 km in 1850 to 10,500 km by 1875

Independent India: Top down infrastructure vision. Government trying to prove to the world what India was capable of. 1950-70: traffic increased thirty fold, road length went up only five times. Rail network increased – 0.5% in 1950s, barely detectable growth of 0.2% in 1960s, 70s. 6th Five year plan: ‘power, coal, and transport plan. 750 km Konkan railway: First major project since British left. Unstable Governments => Infrastructure investment - lose-lose option. Vajpayee’s Government - made infrastructure politically fashionable.





Source: Planning Commission, 10th five year plan

Comprehending Transport

Difficult to comprehend the significance of transport.

Problems in the power or water, immediately visible

Lights go off or taps run dry –the public immediately knows – medical analogy is a heart attack

Transport sector grinds to a halt slowly –like lung disease –slowly crippling the body

Public comes to accept poor transport as a way of life –the economy runs slow, quality of life bad, people die in accidents.



Golden Quadrilateral, 5846 km North South, East-West Corridor, 7300 km Upgrade 12,109 km of NHs. 2 laning of remaining roads. 6 laning of selected roads Chennai-Bangalore, Kolkata-Dhanbad Expressway.



NHDP-1 Golden Quadrilateral5846 km


NHDP-2 North-South, EastWest Corridor, 7300 km.
NHDP-3 km of NHs. Upgrade 12,109

NHDP-4 2 laning of remaining roads NHDP-5 roads 6 laning of selected


Ring Roads, Grade Separators

NHDP-6 ChennaiBangalore, Kolkata-Dhanbad Expressway. NHDP-7 Separators Ring Roads, Grade

Expressways Shimla-Chandigarh Expressway

Ganga Expressway
Bangalore-Mysore Infrastructure Corridor.


One of the longest network in the world – 63,327 km, 6300 stations.

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18 million passengers. 2 tonnes of freight.

RORO(Roll On Roll Off) service: road-rail synergy.

Konkan Railway. Major project after independence.

Tariff policies: overcharge freight to subsidize passenger travel

Kashmir Railway – second highest in the world.
Mumbai- Delhi, MumbaiHowrah Rail Corridor.

Intra-City: Public Transport
• 90 % of public transport • Low floor A/C buses (Volvo, Marco Polo) – 2006 in Bangalore. • Bus Rapid Transit System – Delhi, Pune.

• Metro: Kolkata, Delhi • Suburban trains: Mumbai, Chennai.

Water and Sea
Main Gateway are 12 Major Ports Share of Indian Trade 95% by quantity. And 77% by value.
Before liberalization about 165 (1991) vs 520 (2004) million tons navigable length is 14,500 km

Traffic Inland water way

Under developed. Total Cargo movement is just 0.1%, compared to 21% in US


PPP Model, Green field airportsBangalore, Hyderabad.

Airlines connect more than 80 cities.

System remains untapped.

Around 90 million passengers annually. Equal to Railways in 5 days.

Privatization of Delhi and Mumbai Airports

Mumbai-Delhi air corridor, ranked 6th busiest routes

Institutional Arrangement

Source: ADB - Indian transport profile

Share of Transport Sector
Year Share of Transport in Overall GDP(%) 5.7 Share of Transport in Total Expenditure (%) 3.2


2000–2001 2001–2002
2002–2003 2003–2004

5.8 5.8
6 6.2

4.5 4.8
4.1 3.9




Comparison with China
Units Length of Roads Main Roads Highways Expressways Rail Track Length No. of Ports Major Km. Km. Km. Km. Km. INDIA 3,516,452 666,452 66,590 200 63,327 197 12 CHINA 3,300,000 770,265 130,000 60,300 76,000 2000 130

Turnaround time
Airports International


80 11

467 40

PPP model, IIFCL

Role of IIFCL  IIFCL is a SPV to provide long term finance to infrastructure projects
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Overriding priority to PPP projects Finance projects in sectors like roads, airports, ports, power, urban infrastructure etc

Way Forward
Expanding Construction Capacity
Construction industry capacity already overstretched – quality, price affected

Improving Contract Management On average publicly financed road construction contracts suffering 35% cost over-runs Poor quality of designs and site investigations. Land acquisition.

Media must do its part to increase the accountability of public institutions, examples:

Report cards on delivery of services by PWDs

New programs/projects public consultations

Performance statistics, e.g. road accidents by public transport buses

Regular columns responding to citizens queries about transport


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