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GSM RF Design and Planning Fundamentals
Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI
Cirta Consulting LLC
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During the 1980s, in Europe, Many Systems were used without any
Regulation, Standards, or Compatibilities. Most of them were Analog.
As a result :
* No Roaming between Countries
* Major Capacity Problems and Congestions
* Limited Market for each Technology
* Very high subscriber equipment cost...Further growth difficult !
In The USA and Canada DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone
Service) : Cheaper handsets, roaming, easy subscribing, etc
A. Introduction to Wireless Telephony
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Modern Systems are :
* Digital : The signal is Digitized through A/D Converters, Modulated, and
then sent via the Antenna
* High Capacity : They are able to simultaneously serve a large number of
customers
* Encrypted : Due to the fact that they are digital, they have full protection
against fraud. Also, they are highly securised
* High Speech Quality : Due to Technology advance and electronics
improvements
* Spectrum Efficient : They offer optimised frequency spectrum use
* Possibility to roam within the GSM Community Networks (provided a signed
Roaming Agreement)
A. Introduction to Wireless Telephony
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„ Role of the RF Design Engineer :
‹ Design the Network Architecture
‹ Select type of Antennas
‹ Analyze the Links : Downlink and Uplink
‹ Propose Solutions to Enhance the Capacity of a Base Station
‹ Consider Marketing Inputs and Propose Design accordingly
‹ Perform Drive Test to ensure Quality of the Link
‹ Use Radio Planning rules to install Antennas in different sites
‹ Use Radio Planning tools to assess the Coverage using Simulation
‹ Perform RF Propagation Model Tunning using measurements
‹ Selects the RF Infrastructure to fullfil the Link Budget requirements
‹ Calculates Propagation, Site Clearance, Link Quality using different
Hardware and Software Tools
A. Introduction to Wireless Telephony
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„ A GSM subscriber (Mobile) Should be able to :
‹ Receive and Transmit within a given geographical area
‹ Roam to other countries (If a Roaming Agreement exists)
‹ Have a continuous Quality of Service (QoS)
„ A Mobile Station should be able to :
‹ Change the Serving Base Station (BS) if the link is bad (or going to
become bad) on the actual BS. This is the Handover (or Hand-off)
‹ Recognize which country, Network, or Base Station the user is
attached to
‹ Inform the actual Network about the Identity of the User
‹ Prevent forthcoming Drop Calls, Quality Problems due to
Interference, or Signal Level (shadowing by obstacles)
A. Introduction to Wireless Telephony
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„ Notation in dBm, dBW, dBi, dBd, dB
‹ P (dBm) = 10Log
10
(P mW/1mW)
) Example : 100 mW power results in 10Log
10
(100)=20 dBm
‹ P dBW= 10Log
10
(P W/1W)
) Example : 15 W power results in 10Log
10
(15)= 11.76 dBW
‹ Relation between dBWand dBm :
) dBm = dBW+ 30
) Example : 100 mW = 20 dBm = -10 dBW
B. RF Fundamentals
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If an internal resistor is to be considered:
•Voltage
•Power
•Voltage
•Power
E
R
I
U
r
E
R
I
U
B. RF Fundamentals : DC CIRCUITS
RI U =
R
U
UI P
2
= =
E
r R
R
U
+
=
2
2
) (
E
R r
R
P
+
=
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e
r
i
u
R
•Voltage
• If
• Then
•Power
•RMS Notion = Root Mean Square
Ri u =
t E t e ω cos ) ( =
t U t
r R
R
E t e
m
ω ω cos cos ) ( ≡
+
=
t
R
U
t i t u t p
m
ω
2
2
cos ) ( ) ( ) ( = =

=
T
dt t u
T
U
0
2
) (
1
B. RF Fundamentals : AC CIRCUITS
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„ Suppose we have a voltage :
„ With a period of
„ Compute the RMS Voltage for U
m
= 50 V
„ Is the RMS dependent of the frequency ?
B. RF Fundamentals : Exercise
t U t u
m
ω cos ) ( =
ω
π 2
= T
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2 2 2
1 1 1
*
*
jy x z
jy x z
+ =
+ =
{ } ) ( ) (
1
( ) (
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
x y y x y y x x
y x
z
z z
z
z
x y y x j y y x x z z
y y j x x z z
− + − × = =
+ + − = ×
± + ± = ±
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = Θ
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = Θ


2
2
1
2 2
1
1
1
1 1
) arg(
) arg( *
x
y
tg z
x
y
tg z If
2 1
2
1
2 1 2 1
) arg(
) arg(
Θ − Θ =
Θ + Θ =
z
z
z z
Given
Compute
2 1
2 1
2 1
z z
z z
z z

+
2
1
z
z
2
1
Θ
Θ
( )
( )
( )
2 1 4
2
1
3
2 2
1 1
arg
arg
arg
arg
z z
z
z
z
z
= Θ
|
|
.
|

\
|
= Θ
= Θ
= Θ
3 1
2 1
2
1
j z
j z
+ − =
+ =
Exercise
Complex numbers
B.RF Fundamentals
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B.RF.Fundamentals
Exercise
Given
Given
Impedance
3 2
2
2
3
1
j
e
j
− = Ζ
= Ζ
π
( )
( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
arg , ) 3
arg , ) 2
arg , ) 1
Ζ Ζ Ζ Ζ Ζ Ζ
|
|
.
|

\
|
Ζ
Ζ
Ζ
Ζ
Ζ
Ζ
Ζ + Ζ Ζ + Ζ Ζ + Ζ
and
and
and
Compute
Show that
Υ + Χ = Ζ j
|
.
|

\
|
Χ
Υ
+ Υ + Χ = Ζ
−1 2 2
log log jtg
>
~ e
U
( )
1
2

• =
= Ζ
• Ζ =
s rad f
jL
I U
π ω
ω
where
resistor pure a for R
inductor an for jL
capacitor a for
C
j
= Ζ
= Ζ
− = Ζ
ω
ω
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Y
X
Real Part
Z
θ
ρ
j
e jY X Z = + =
θ
ρ
θ ρ
θ ρ
sin
cos
=
=
Y
X
B. RF Fundamentals : Complex numbers
Imaginary Part
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ε
Zin
I
U
Z
U=Z I
U, Z and I are all Complex Numbers
B. RF Fundamentals : Impedance
Z : The Impedance of the Load and Z
in
internal to the Generator
ω jL Z =
ω C j Z / − =
R Z =
for a Resistor
for an Inductive Component
for a Capacitor
A
B
In Low Frequencies, all the power delivered to Z is
absorbed or dissipated into heat
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„ Vertical Polarization
Refers to the
direction of the
Electric Field
„ Horizontal
Polarization would
be to configure the
dipole horizontally
„ Horizontal
Polarization Refers
to the direction of
the Electric Field
E
r
H
r
Π
r
Dipole
Antenna
Π
r
is the Poynting Vector (Power)
η
H E
r r
r
×
= Π
B. RF Fundamentals
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ε
Zin
I
U
Z
At RF domain, Energy flows
fromthe generator to the Load.
It can be fully absorbed by Z, or
Partly reflected and partly absorbed.
B. RF Fundamentals : High Frequency considerations
A
B
100
1
1
2
×
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
VSWR
VSWR
ρ
The % of Reflected Energy is
VSWR : Voltage Standing Wave Ratio ( 1:1 is ideal )
Acceptable VSWR = 1.5 : 1
Impedance Match : Z* = Zin
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„ EIRP or Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power :
„ The Power to supply to an antenna to obtain the same power in all
directions at a distance d :
„ We always consider the main lobe direction where no losses exist
„ dBi : Refers to an Isotropic antenna and dBd to the Dipole :
„ dBi = dBd + 2.15 dB
„ EIRP = ERP + 2.15 dB
„ Example : G = 16 dBi, so G = 13.85 dBd and if P = 33 dBm (2 W)
„ Then P
E
= 16 + 33 = 49 dBm in the main Lobe
B. RF Fundamentals
) , ( ) , ( ϕ θ ϕ θ
r E
L G P P − + =
G P P
E
+ =
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60
32.5
0
- 32,5
- 60
dB
60
32.5
0
- 32,5
- 60
dB
10
10
3
0 0
3
Horizontal Diagram Vertical Diagram
B. RF Fundamentals
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- 1 . 0 5
- 0 . 6 0
- 0 . 1 5
0 . 3 0
0 . 7 5
- 6 0 . 0 0
- 4 0 . 0 0
- 2 0 . 0 0
0 . 0 0
2 0 . 0 0
0 . 0 0 - 2 0 . 0 0
- 2 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 0
- 4 0 . 0 0 - - 2 0 . 0 0
- 6 0 . 0 0 - - 4 0 . 0 0
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Directivity : Figure of Merit to quantify the ability of an antenna to
concentrate the Energy in a particular Direction
„ Where W
max
is the Power Density at a distance d in the main lobe
direction
„ Generally, we use the Gain instead :
„ Where P
T
is the supplied power to the antenna, commonly known as
the output power (minus the cable and connector losses)
„ Given P
T
and G, we can compute the Power Density W
max
d ensity MeanPowerD
W
D
@
max
=
2
max
4 d
P
W
G
T
π
=
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Relation Between W and E (The Electric Field) :
„ Besides :
„ Maximum Useful Power :
377 120
2 2 2
E E E
W = = =
π η
d
G P
E
d
G P E
T T
T T
30
4 120
2
2
= ⇒ =
π π
120 2 4
.
120
2
2 2 2
R
R
G E
G
E
A
E
P
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
π
λ
π
λ
π η
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Effective Area of an Antenna (Reception) :
„ Received Power :
„ W : Power Density (Per Unit Area)
„ Finally, the received power reads :
„ Free Space Loss Between Isotropic Antennas (G
R
=G
T
= 1) :
G A
π
λ
4
2
=
WA P =
2
4 d
G P
W
T T
π
=
R
T T
R
G
d
G P
P
π
λ
π 4 4
2
2
=
km MHz
T
R
d Log f Log
P
P
Log dB L
10 10 10
20 20 44 . 32 10 ) ( − − − = =
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Propagation Over a Plane Reflecting Surface (Flat Earth Model) :
„ Assuming d >> Ht and Hr, the Path Loss (Iinear) :
Ht
Hr
Tx
Rx
δ jk
d d
e E E E

− =
d
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
H H
G G
P
P
r t
R T
T
R
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Reflection :
Ht
Hr
Tx
Rx
δ jk
d
e E E

Γ =
d
Γ is the Complex Reflection Coefficient
The value of Γ depends upon frequency,
Polarization and Electric Characteristics
of the reflecting surface
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A
B
C
A
C
B
P
Shadow region
B. RF Fundamentals
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B. RF Fundamentals
„ Diffraction :
Ht
Hr
Tx
Rx
δ jk
d
e DE E

=
d
D is the Complex Diffraction Coefficient
The value of D depends upon frequency,
Polarization, Geometry, and Angles of the
structure
h
D1
D2
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„ The Diffraction Loss is shown to be :
„ Where v, the Fresnel Parameter is given by :
B. RF Fundamentals
( )
( ) 4 . 2
4 . 2 1
1 0
0 8 . 0
/ 225 . 0 20
) ) 1 . 0 38 . 0 ( 1184 . 0 4 . 0 ( 20
)) 95 . 0 exp( 5 . 0 ( 20
62 . 0 5 . 0 20
) (
2
>
< <
< <
< < −
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
− − −


=
v
v
v
v
v Log
v Log
v Log
v Log
v L
2 1
) 2 1 ( 2
D D
D D
h v
λ
+
=
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B. RF Fundamentals
Hb
Hp
Hm
Ho
A
B
Compute L(v) for :
Hb = 20 m
Hp = 5 m
Ho = 15 m
Hm = 1.5 m
A = 1250 m
B = 4.5 m
Frequency = 900 MHz
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Bullington Model :
“equivalent” Knife - edge
T
R
01
02
D1 D2
d1 d2 d3
h1
h2
H
Ht
Hr
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Test : Bullington Diffraction Loss Model
„ Compute H, D1, D2, and then L(v) the Diffraction
Loss given the following data :
‹Ht = 25 m
‹Hr = 1.5 m
‹d1=d2=d3=1000 m
‹h1 = 30 m, h2 = 15 m
‹Frequency = 1880 MHz
‹Compare L(v) to the Free Space Loss
‹Please Conclude
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d1 x d2 x d3 x d4
T
R
The Epstein – Petersen diffraction construction
01
02
03
Propagation over irregular terrain
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d1 x d2 x d3 x d4
T
R
The Deygout diffraction construction
01
02
03
Propagation over irregular terrain
Main edge
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B. RF Fundamentals : Receiver Theory
Receiver
Demodulation
& Selective
Filtering
BS / MS
Receiver Input
Receiver Output
To operate properly the receiver has to receive
a minimum power : Sensitivity
The Sensitivity depends on the technology involved
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„ Receiver Sensitivity :
‹ Is the minimum acceptable input signal level in dBm, at the
receiver‘s low noise amplifier, required by the system for reliable
communication
„ Carrier to Noise Ratio CNR or C/N :
‹ For a given BER (Bit Error Rate) of about 10
-3
for example, C/N is
the required minimum signal to noise ratio
„ Thermal/Environment Noise :
‹ Is a combination of
) Antenna Noise (dBm)
) Receiver Noise Figure (NF) in dB
) Temperature and System Bandwidth
B. RF Fundamentals : Receiver Theory
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B. RF Fundamentals : Receiver Theory
(S/N)
in
(S/N)
out
Receiver
NF
NF
N
S
N S
NF
N
S
N S
NF
N
S
N
S
out
in in
out
in in
out in
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
|
.
|

\
|
= −
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
N
in
: Thermal Noise,
NF : Noise Figure
out
in
N
S
NF B T k Log S
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = ) . . ( 10
10
RECEIVER SENSITIVITY :
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B. RF Fundamentals : Receiver Theory
out
in
N
S
NF B T k Log S
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = ) . . ( 10
10
k : Boltzmann Constant ( 1.38 * 10
-23
J/°K)
T : System Operating Temperature (°K)
B : System Bandwidth (Hz)
T : 290 °K typical value
Exercise : Compute S
in
(dBm) for a GSM signal of 200 kHz
Bandwidth, with a receiver NF=6 dB and C/N = 9 dB
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B. RF Fundamentals : Intermodulation
Non-Linear
Device
IM is a non-linear process that generates an output signal
Containing frequency components not present in the input
signal
...
3
3
2
2 1 0
+ + + + x a x a x a a
x
Assuming x to be a two-carrier f1 and f2 sine wave :
) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) (
2 1
t f B t f A t x π π + =
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B. RF Fundamentals : Intermodulation
3 2 1 0
) ( y y x a a t y + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1 2 2
2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 cos 2 cos 2 2 cos 2 2 cos
2 2
f f f f AB a f B f A
a
B A
a
y − + + + + + + = π π π π
Spectral Characteristics of y2 Using
f
1
= 1800 MHz and f
2
= 1830 MHz, A=B=1, and a
2
= 1
f
1
f
2
0
DC f
2
-f
1
2f
1
2f
2
1800 MHz 1830 MHz
3600 MHz 3660 MHz
3630 MHz
f
2
+f
1
Cellular Band
30 MHz
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B. RF Fundamentals : Intermodulation
3 2 1 0
) ( y y x a a t y + + + =
Spectral Characteristics of y3 Using
f
1
= 1800 MHz and f
2
= 1830 MHz, A=B=1, and a
2
= 1
f
1
f
2
0
DC 2f
2
-f
1
1800 MHz 1830 MHz
1860 MHz
Cellular Band
1770 MHz
2f
1
-f
2
Six Different Frequencies are generated in IM3 :
3f
1
, 3f
2
, 2f
1
-f
2
, 2f
1
+f
2
, 2f
2
-f
1
, 2f
2
+f
1
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B. RF Fundamentals : Fade Margin
R
• Due to shadowing and terrain effects the signal level measured on a circle
around the BS shows radom behaviour around the predicted value given by the
Propagation Model
• This Random Signal level through the cell boundary has a Log-Normal
distribution
• Log-Normal variable is in fact a Gaussian Process when expressed in dB
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

− =
2
2
2
exp
2
1
) (
σ
π σ
m x
x p
x : is the received level
m: Mean value of x
σ : Standard Deviation of x
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( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

− =
2
2
2
exp
2
1
) (
σ
π σ
m x
x p
B. RF Fundamentals
Theory shows that to ensure 90 % of Surface Reliability,
One may push the received signal level requirement to
Higher values than m (50%).
This leads to a notion called :
Fade Margin : the additional margin to fullfil y % of surface
Covered.
PDF-Gaussian
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
-
1
1
0
.
0
0
-
1
0
4
.
0
0
-
9
8
.
0
0
-
9
2
.
0
0
-
8
6
.
0
0
-
8
0
.
0
0
-
7
4
.
0
0
-
6
8
.
0
0
-
6
2
.
0
0
-
5
6
.
0
0
-
5
0
.
0
0
PDF-Gaussian
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Fade Margin
50% is the median value. To achieve higher %, one may add
a Fade Margin to fullfil X%> 50%
The Probability that a Field Strength Exceeds a Threshold E
0
is :
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

− =
= ≥ =


2
1
2
1
) ( ) (
0
0
0
0
0
σ
E E
erf p
dE E p E E p p
m
E
E
E
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Fade Margin
„ The Lognormal Margin is defined as :
‹M
log
= E
m
– E
0
„ Hata Model has a general form :
„ The Contour Probability can be written as :
) / ( log 10 ) (
10 0
R r E r E
m
γ − =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
R
r
b a erf p
E
ln 1
2
1
0
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Fade Margin
„ The parameters a and b are :
„ The Area Coverage Probability over a Circle of Radius R is :
„ The contour probability depends only upon the radius r, which simplifies
the computation and leads to :
2
log 10
2
10
0
σ
σ
e
b
E E
a
m
=

=
∫∫
= θ θ
π
rdrd r p
R
P
E
) , (
1
0
2
cov
( )

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
− + =
b
ab
erf
b
ab
a erf P
1
1
1 2
exp 1
2
1
2
cov
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Contour and Area Coverage Probability Versus the Fade Margin
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Fade Margin (dB)
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
%
)
Cell Edge %
Area %
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Base fade Bldg Body m m up
up Fade Bldg body m m Base
RX M L L G PA Pl
Pl M L L G PA RX
− − − − + =
− − − − + =
CCC B
CCC B
L G
L G
− +
− +
Ms Antenna
Gain Loss
ERP
Body Loss
In-Building Car
Penetration Loss
Fade margin
Path Loss
Combiner
Cable &
Connector
Losses
RY
CCC
L
A
G
Gains and losses in uplink
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PA
Combiner
Cable &
Connector
Losses
Power
Amplifier
M Body Bldg Down Fade B CCC Mobile B
M Body Bldg Down Fade B CCC B Mobile
G L L PL M G L RX PA
G L L M M G L PA RX
− + + + + − + =
+ − − − − + − =
ERP
Fade margin
Path Loss
In-Building Car
Penetration Loss
Body Loss
MS Antenna
Gain Loss
CCC
L
B
G
RX
Gains and Losses in Down Link
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Maximum Allowable Path Loss
Starting with the reverse link UL
•Find the maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL)
- Start from MS maximum power
- Subtract all the losses in due to, RF components
- Subtract all the margins due to fading and interference
for a given target loading
- Add all the gains in the path e.g. antenna and diversity gains
- Subtract the receiver sensitivity of the base station
for a given FER
- The result is MAPL
base Up
RX AllGains AllLosses PL MAPL − + − =
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Balance Equation:
•Write the balance equation and see which terms
get cancelled
•Find the Base station and EIRP that results
in balanced paths.
•Changing which parameter jeopardizes the path
balance?
- Antenna Gain
- Antenna Height
- PA output
Up Down
M Body Bldg Mobile Fade B CCC B Down
CCC Div B Base Fade Bldg Body M m Up
PL PL
G L L RX M G L PA PL
L G G RX M L L G PA PL
=
+ − − − − + − =
− + + − − − − + =
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Cell Size / Count Estimation
• Objective
- To determine the number of cells required to provide
coverage for a given area
• Required Input:
- Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL)
- Propagation Loss Model
® Cirta Consulting LLC
MAPL
Path Loss
Range or
Cell Radius
Distance from TX
From MAPL to Cell Size
Propagation Loss Model
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Cell Size Information With Hata Model
•Using Hata’s Empirical Formula
CF h a R h h f PL
m b b c
− − − + − + = ) ( log ) log 55 . 6 9 . 44 ( log 82 . 13 log 16 . 26 55 . 69
10 10 10 10
•Solve it backward to find cell radius estimate
b
m b c
h
h a h f CF MAPL
R
10
10 10
10
log 55 . 6 9 . 44
) ( log 82 . 13 log 16 . 26 55 . 69
log

+ + − − +
=
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ BS Installation Requirements :
‹ A certain isolation has to be present between Tx and Rx antennas
‹ Radiation Patterns must not be distorted by obstacles or reflections
nearby the antennas
„ Isolation :
‹ Between 2 antennas : Attenuation from the connector of one
antenna to the connector of the other antenna when both
antennas are in their installation positions
‹ To avoid unwanted signals into the receiver Rx, the following
isolation values are required :
) 40 dB Between a Tx Antenna and a Rx Antenna
) 20 dB Between 2 Tx Antennas
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Isolation :
™ To obtain the Isolation values the antennas have to be placed at
certain minimum distance from each other
™ The distance depends on : Antenna types, configuration
™ Omnidirectional antennas require greater horizontal distance than
directional antennas
™ Vertical separation requires less distance than horizontal separation
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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a
k
Pre-condition : a > 1 m
Tx-Tx : 0.2 m minimum
Tx-Rx : 0.5 m minimum
As a General Rule :
Isolation :
For GSM 900, λ = 0.33 m
With A = 35 dB, k = 0.5 m
dB
k
Log A
V
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
λ
10
40 28
dB k Log A
V 10
40 47 + =
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Vertical Separation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
d
dB G G
d
Log A
H
) ( 20 22
2 1 10
+ −
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
λ
G1 : Gain of antenna 1 in dBd
G2 : Gain of antenna 2 in dBd
dB G G d Log A
H
) ( 20 31
2 1 10
+ − + =
General
@ 900 MHz
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Horizontal Separation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
3.0 m 28.0 m 10
2.5 m 22.0 m 9
1.0 m 11.0 m 6
1.0 m * 5.5 m 3
1.0 m * 3.0 m 0
Tx-Rx distance
(20 dB)
Tx-Rx distance
(40 dB)
Omni Antenna
Gain (dBd)
Could be less for Tx-Tx but 1.0 m is a conservative option to
avoid shadowing effects
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Horizontal Separation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
d
k
α
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Combined H/V Separation
( )
H H V
A A A A +
°
°
− ≈
90
.
α
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h
D
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 distance(m)
4
3
2
1
Step function
First Fresnel zone
Antenna height
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Mast
a
2 m is recommended
The mast is allowed
to swing 1° at a wind
velocity of 30 m/s
1 ±
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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® Cirta Consulting LLC
k
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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d
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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Forward direction
o
90
o
Max. 15
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d
k
α
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Ground level
H
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

d
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
A
x
i
s
a
RxA RxB
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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h
D
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 distance(m)
4
3
2
1
Step function
First Fresnel zone
Antenna height (m)
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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Wall
Top view
Forward direction
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
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Top view
Forward direction
Maximum
Cell sector
including
safety margin
° ± 75
° 15
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Top view
Forward direction
More than
Cell sector
including
safety margin
° ± 75
° 15
Wall
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„ Definition
‹ Diversity is the statistical improvement of the received signal when
more than one signal is used.
‹ To improve the overall received signal level, due to multipath
phenomenon, it is interesting to use more than one antenna and
consider internally the best received signal.
‹ Diversity in cellular is used only at the Base Station end, although it is
theoretically possible for mobiles, it is quite cumbersome to have two
antennas moving with the subscriber !
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Diversity
® Cirta Consulting LLC
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Diversity
Mobile
Station
(MS)
Base Station
(BS)
Antenna #1
Antenna #2
The Receiver uses different
combining techniques. The most
popular is the Maximum Combining
Ratio Technique
d
® Cirta Consulting LLC
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Diversity
R
e
c
e
i
v
e
d
s
i
g
n
a
l
Time
Signal Level Received by Antenna 1 (RxA)
Signal Level Received by Antenna 2 (RxB)
Improvement due to Antenna Diversity
Typical Diversity Gains : 3.5 dB for Cross-Polarised antennas, 4.5 dB for Space
Diversity. The maximum theoretical value is 6 dB.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Correlation vs distance
C
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
Normalized Distance 10λ
0.7
40λ
d
Antenna #1
Antenna #2
) . (
2
0
d k J α
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Ground level
a
RxA
RxB
a = distance between
Rx antennas
H = height of mast
plus building
(Effective antenna height)
H
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation : Diversity Requirements
10
H
a ≥
® Cirta Consulting LLC
° 90
a
Maximum diversity
RxA
RxB
Minimum diversity
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Optimum
diversity
Coverage area
RxB
RxA
H. Guidelines for interference Minimisation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Urban
Suburban
Rural
Market Boundaries
•Usually a midsize market covers heterogeneous areas,e.g.
- Downtown,Urban or dense urban areas
- Suburban, Light residential areas
- Rural, open areas, farmland…
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Radio Planning Methodology
Business Planning
Coverage Requirement &
Demand Forecasts from
Marketing
Computer-Based
Modelling
Design Nominal Cell Plan
Acquire Sites and Implement Cell Plan
Optimise Network
Define Design Rules and Parameters
Produce Frequency Plan
Set Long Term Plans and Performance
Targets
D
e
s
i
g
n

I
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Market Boundaries
® Cirta Consulting LLC
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( )
( ) ( ) | | ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | | ( )
( ) | | ( ) 94 , 35 33 , 18 78 , 4
94 , 40 33 , 18 78 , 4
4 , 5 28 / 2
97 , 4 75 , 11 2 , 3
8 , 0 56 , 1 7 , 0 1 , 1
55 , 6 9 , 44 82 , 13 16 , 26 55 , 69
2
2
2
2
− + − =
− + − =
− − =
− =
− − − =
− + − − + =
f Log f Log L L
f Log f Log L L
f Log L L
h h Log h a
f Log h f Log h a
d Log h Log h a h Log f Log L
u rqo
u ro
u su
m m m
m m
b m b u
Hata RF Propagation Model for Urban Environments
For a MidiumSize City
For a Big Size City and f > 400 MHz
For Suburban Environments
For Rural Environments
For Semi-Rural Environments
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Hata Model is valid under certain conditions :
„ Frequencies between 150 and 1000 MHz
„ Base Station Antenna Height between 30 an 200 m
„ Mobile Station Antenna Height between 1 and 20 m
„ BS-MS Distance between 1 and 20 km
„ As a Result, it is suitable for GSM900 only and NOT
GSM1800 or PCS1900 !!!
Hata RF Propagation Model for Urban Environments
® Cirta Consulting LLC
| |
| | | | 8 , 0 ) ( 56 , 1 7 , 0 ) ( 1 , 1 ) (
) ( ) ( 55 , 6 9 , 44 ) ( ) ( 82 , 13 ) ( 9 , 33 33 , 46
− − − =
+ − + − − + =
f Log h f Log h a
C d Log h Log h a h Log f Log L
m m
m b m b u
COST231-Hata RF Propagation Model for Urban Environments
dB C
m
0 =
dB C
m
3 =
For Medium Size Cities and Suburbs
For Big Metropolitan Centers
Validity : Frequencies between 1500 MHz and 2000 MHz
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Table of Penetration Losses
In Building penetration (dB) 15 - 25
In Car penetration (dB) 3 - 10
Body Loss (dB) 2 - 5
For all receiving environments
a loss associated with the effect
of users body on propagation
has to be included.
This effect is in the form of a
few dB loss in both uplink and
downlink directions.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Tower Mounted Amplifier :
Effect on Coverage and Quality
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BTS
BTS
TMA
3 dB cable loss
4 dB Gain
in the UL
Static Sensitivity=-110 dBm Static Sensitivity=-110 dBm
S(without TMA) = -110 + 3 = -107 dBm* S(with TMA) = -110 + 3-4 = -111 dBm*
* Body Loss and Lognormal Fading have to be added
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„ Cell Range R computed using :
‹ MAPL=A+B*log(R)
‹ MAPL : Maximum Allowed Path Loss
‹ MAPL = EIRP-Effective Sensitivity
‹ Example :
) Given EIRP=P
out
+G
ant
-CableLoss
) with P
out
=40 dBm; G
ant
=18 dBi; Cable Loss=3 dB
) EIRP=40+18-3=55 dBm
) MAPL =
• 55 - (-107+7+5) = 150 dB without TMA
• 55 - (-111+7+5) = 154 dB with TMA
‹ MAPL : The higher the bigger the cell radius
) log(R) = (MAPL-A)/B ⇒R = 10^((MAPL-A)/B)
Overview on Linkbudget Impact (1/2)
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„ Numerical Example :
‹ Assume we use a Rural Propagation Model PL = 135 + 30*log(R)
‹ Cell Radius R=
) 10^( (150-135)/30 )= 3.2 km without TMA
) 10^( (154-135)/30 )= 4.3 km with TMA !
Overview on Linkbudget Impact (2/2)
Path Loss (dB)
Distance (km)
135+30*lod(d)
MAPL=150 dB without TMA
MAPL=154 dB with TMA
3.2 km 4.3 km
4 dB due to TMA
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Uplink Coverage
Downlink Coverage
TMA Improves Uplink vs Downlink: To balance the Linkbudget
the BTS output power has to be raised by 4 dB ! (the TMA gain)
Directional
Antenna
Due to linkbudget imbalance
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
Three Types of measurement equipment are commonly used :
1. Narrowband measurements (CW)
a) Prior to starting the design
b) For calibrating the prediction model
c) For verification of critical and borderline coverage areas
2. Test Mobile Measurements
a) Once the Network has been built
b) For analysis of System Parameters and Handover behavior
c) For Network Optimization
3. Reflection Measurements (channel sounder)
a) As a research tool
b) For analysis of Multipath Propagation and Delay Spread
c) Normally only necessary in mountainous regions
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
Measurement requirement for Tool Calibration
- To measure out to the cell radius, requires typically 145 dB (MAPL)
- To measure out to the point where interference is significant, requires typically
another 20 dB (i.e. a total of 165 dB dynamic range)
- The measuring equipment should handle this range easily, i.e. should have a
dynamic range of the order of 175 dB
- To achieve this dynamic range, narrowband CW measurements are necessary
Wideband Receivers and Test Mobiles (Based on a
modified subscriber handset – measuring GSM RXLEV) are
unsuitable for model calibration but may be used later for
confirmation of coverage
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
Trigger Wheel
Antenna
Amplifier
Transmitter
Tx Antenna
Rx/Computer
Navigation
Rx Antenna
Storage
Trigger
MS
BTS
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
For CW measurements it is important to record an averaged value of
instantaneous measurements
1. Rayleigh Fading makes instantaneous measurement
unrepresentative
a) Aim to eliminate the Rayleigh fading, but not the shadow fading
b) Average over an interval which is less than the magnitude of streets and
buildings. Some refereneces speak about a distance of 40λ
2. Averaging interval should be greater than the Rayleigh Fading
interval, but shorter than the building interval
a) 13 m outdoors
b) 6.5 m indoors
3. Separation of instantaneous measurements should be :
a) More than 36 per interval to reduce averaging variation to less than 1 dB
b) Corresponds to 0.36 m (1.1λ at 900 MHz)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
Sampling Rates
4.44 9 2.00
3.40 12 1.75
2.50 16 1.50
1.74 23 1.25
1.11 36 1.00
0.63 64 0.75
0.28 144 0.50
Resulting
Sampling Interval
(λ)
Number of
averaged samples
in 13 m
RMS Error (dB)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
Guidelines for CW Measurements
1. The Survey Route should include various road directions and street
widths in built up areas
2. Special features relevant to propagation such as tunnels, bridges, etc.
should be clearly marked in the case of calibration measurements
3. If possible, measurement antennas should be the same as the planned
antenna in type and installation
4. Measurements must be conducted and documented accurately,
especially regarding antenna installation and transmitter height
5. Only measure within 3 dB beamwidth (antenna aperture)
The pattern outside the main beam may not correspond to the stored antenna
pattern, due to local obstructions, such as the mast and other antennas
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
* To effectively calibrate a propagation model, many measurements
are needed :
1. About 10 different base stations in each city
2. At least 75 km of survey route for each city
3. At least 1000 km of route in total
* Measurements at each point are compared to the predictions at
each point and the error statistics analyzed
Errors may be broken down by :
1. Clutter class
2. LOS/NLOS
3. Within a given range
4. Outside a given range
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Measurements and Propagation Model Calibration
• Error Analysis Statistics
• The Error is commonly defined as the difference between the
predicted value (Propagation Model) and the measured value. At
a given distance of index i, the error is noted ε
i
• Root Mean Square Error and Mean Error are given by :
N
N
RMS
N
i
i
N
i
i


=
=
=

=
1
2
1
) (
ε
ε
ε ε
The target is to ensure a mean error=0
and an RMS < 9 dB (The Lower the Better)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Non-uniform Propagation Types
• Each area has a different correction factor.
• Also the coverage objectives are usually different for
urban, suburban and rural areas.
• Therefore MAPL and the corresponding cell size has to
be calculated for each region and cell count is:
• For each area: where R is
the cell radius and A is the area of the
corresponding hexagon.
2
6 . 2 R A =
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
Km A
Km RuralArea
Km A
Km ea SuburbanAr
Km A
Km UrbanArea
CellCount
Rural Urban
Suburban
+ + =
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Introduction
•Definition of Outdoor signal level design threshold to be
used in prediction tool.
•Insure good quality communications.
•Threshold important because it is the basis for the
design, and cell size and no. of cells depend on this.
•Aim: understand the different elements in the determination
of the threshold.
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Introduction 2
• Receiver Sensitivity (from vendor or standard)
Use of Different Margins
• Outdoor coverage design threshold
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Receiver sensitivity margin (1)
•Sensitivities defined in GSM Rec. 05.05
Portable: -104 dBm
Handheld: -102 dBm
DCS1800: -100 dBm
•Sensitivity : Min required signal level at receiver to meet
performance requirements
•Sensitivities defined for mobiles in an urban environment
traveling at 50 km/h (TU 50)
•These sensitivities with a C/I of 9dB correspond to error
rate of 10% or RxQual =6
•These values include a margin for Rayleigh Fading
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Receiver sensitivity margin (2)
•Today many handsets used at walking pace or static
•At 50 km/h effect of fading is averaged but”static”
mobiles will remain in fading “holes” longer.
•Measurements show that for a handheld moving at 3
km/h (TU3) then for an acceptable audio quality we need:
- RxQual = 4 ( system without frequency hopping)
- RxQual = 5 ( system with frequency hopping)
Quality margin must be introduced
® Cirta Consulting LLC
50 Km/h
5 dB
3 Km/h
Receiver sensitivity margin (3)
• Measurements campaign by CNET to link C/N, C/I and
Rxqual
• With no interference, without frequency hopping a
Rxqual = 4 is obtained with C = -97 dBm
• Quality margin = 5 dB
• (FT 3 dB, Cellnet 4 dB)
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Prediction/Lognormal Margin (1)
• Propagation model predicts mean signal level
• Characteristics: Mean error (0) and standard deviation
• Shadow fading (obstacles) not taken into account
• Model this shadow fading by a probability following a
lognormal law
• Introduce Margin to guarantee a certain percentage of
cell surface area is covered
( ) σ
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Prediction/Lognormal Margin (2)
Standard Deviation of
Prediction model
Level of guarantee
Required (probability)
Lognormal Margin
• To calculate the margin we use coverage probability
at cell border which corresponds to the required
coverage probability over the surface of the cell.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Prediction/Lognormal Margin (3)
•Typical values:
- Urban environment (Typical distance exponent = 3.5 )
- Standard Deviation of prediction model = 7 dB
Margin in dB Coverage probability
on cell bordure %
Coverage
Probability
Over cell surface %
0 50 77
5 75 90
7 84 95
9 90 97
12 95 99
- GSM Rec 3.30
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Head Effect
•The human body creates loss for handheld mobile.
•Loss due to distortion of antenna diagram
•Some suggested values :
•Recommendations GSM 03.30 = 3 dB.
•Dr. Lee proposes 5 dB in worst case ( mobile on belt)
•Most operators use 6 dB.
•Motorola proposes 9 dB head effect, 15 dB at belt.
•Telemate suggested value is 5 dB.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Other Margins
• Hand – Over: Some Operators use a 2 dB margin to ensure a
good HO to neighboring cell
• Material imperfections: we take a 1 dB margin to account
for the tolerance in MS and BTS output power
• Interference Margin: Some vendors use an interference
margin to overcome interference impairments
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Example Calculation of Outdoor coverage
threshold for 2W GSM handheld
Sensitivity ( GSM Rec. 5.50 )
Sensitivity margin
Lognormal margin ( for 90% area
coverage probability)
Head Effect Margin
Outdoor Coverage Threshold
- 102 dBm
5 dB
7 dB
5 dB
- 85 dBm
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Indoor Threshold (1)
• Different types of Indoor Threshold corresponding to
different services
- Indoor Window: Near to window
- Indoor: In room with windows
- Indoor Deep : In corridor (loss through 2 walls)
• Penetration loss varies greatly. Depends on type of
materiel, architecture (no. of windows…), floor within
building etc.
• Mean penetration loss must be determined from
extensive measurement campaigns
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Indoor Threshold (2)
•To determine an Indoor threshold from the penetration
loss there are two methods:
- Use the distribution function of the measurements to find
the loss corresponding to 90 % of the samples
- Use the mean penetration loss and increase the
lognormal margin to take into account the standard
deviation of the indoor measurements.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Use of margins
• Understand what goes into the determination of coverage
thresholds.
• Make sure that all margins are included but only once!
• Translate the clients requirements for service quality into
margins
• Thresholds must be validated by the client.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
TEST : Link Budgets
Balanced link budgets show Maximum Allowable Path Losses for the
coverage objectives shown below. Drive tests have shown the following
propagation equations are valid. Determine the cell radius for each
coverage objective.
Coverage objectives: Rural on-street MAPL = 147 dB
Suburban in-car MAPL = 135 dB
Urban in-building MAPL = 125 dB
Propagation equations:
Rural: path loss = 110 + 32 log d
Surburban: path loss = 115 + 37 log d
Urban: path loss = 120 + 48 log d
® Cirta Consulting LLC
The Cellular Concept
„ Urban Areas : High Interference Amounts
‹C/(N+I)=C/I, The System is Interference-Limited
‹Coverage is not a problem (in General)
‹Service Criterion : C > I
„ Rural Areas : Low Interference Profile
‹C/(N+I)=C/N, The System is Noise-Limited
‹Interference is not a problem (in General)
‹Service Criteria : C > N
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Frequency Planning aims at :
‹ Optimising the Allocated Spectrum
‹ Guaranteeing a seamless coverage
‹ Ensuring minimum interference
„ Main Difficulty of Frequency Planning is :
‹ Limited Number of TRXs (Available Channels)
„ The concept of Frequency Re-Use overcomes the
Spectrum Limitations. Caution has to be made concerning
the risk of generating co-channel and adjacent channel
interference
The Cellular Concept
® Cirta Consulting LLC
GSM Spectrum
„ Allocated GSM1800 Band comprises two sub-bands :
‹ 1710 – 1785 MHz for Uplink (MS->BTS)
‹ 1805 – 1880 MHz for Downlink (BTS->MS)
‹ Each Sub-band = 375 Channels of 200 kHz associated to a given
carrier
‹ 95 MHz are necessary to ensure the isolation between Up and
Down Links Duplexing
‹ Each Operator is allocated a DL/UL band
‹ GSM uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
) 1 Physical Channel = 8 Logical Channels
) 1 Logical Channel = TCH or Signalling Channel (SDCCH,
FCCH, SCCH, AGCH, RACH, etc...)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Interference
„ Definition of the Signal to Noise Ratio irrespective to the co-
or adjacent channels
‹C/I = P
useful
/P
harmfull
„ Co-Channel Interference
‹Interference Due to a Signal using the same Frequency :
‹C is the useful Signal, I
1
and I
2
are co-channel interferers
using the same frequency as C
‹C, I1 and I2 are linear units (i.e. Watts or mW)
0
2
0
1
I I
C
I
C
channel co
+
=
|
.
|

\
|

® Cirta Consulting LLC
Interference
„ Adjacent Channel Interference are due to out-of-band
spurious transmission
„ GSM RF Mask is based upon the GMSK Modulation
Scheme (GMSK = Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)
N I I I
C
I
C
sulting
+ + + +
=
|
.
|

\
|
...
2 1 0
Re
GMSK RF Mask
0.5 dB
-30 dB
-60 dB
f
f+200 kHz f+400 kHz f-200 kHz f-400 kHz
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Interference
„ Interference = Impossible to identify and extract the wanted
and interfering signal (noise included)
„ GSM Specifications require C/I to be higher than 9 dB
58 0.0000125 -49 3
rd
Adjacent
50 0.0000794 -41 2
nd
Adjacent
18 0.125 -9 1
st
Adjacent
0 7.94 9 Co-
Channel
Protection C/I C/I (dB) Protection
Recommendation GSM
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Traffic Theory : Erlang B
„ Poisson Input with mean of λ arrivals/sec.
„ Mean Service Time = 1/u
„ Traffic Intensity = A = λ. 1/u
„ Number of Serving Trunks (Channels) = S
„ Blocked Calls Abandoned

=
= =
S
k
k
S
b
k
A
S
A
A S B P
0
!
!
) , (
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Traffic Theory : Erlang B
Etc.
48.7 59 8
42.1 52 7
34.7 45 6
28.3 37 5
21.0 29 4
14.9 22 3
8.2 14 2
2.3 7 1
Erlang Nb TCH Nb Carriers
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Traffic Theory : Erlang C
„ Poisson Input with mean of λ arrivals/sec.
„ Negative Exponential Service Time with mean = 1/u
„ Traffic Intensity = A = λ. 1/u
„ Number of Serving Trunks (Channels) = S
„ Blocked Calls held until served
| | 0 ) , ( ) ( Pr > = =
D
P A S C Delay ob τ


=
+


=
1
0
!
.
!
.
!
) , (
s
i
i S
S
i
A
A S
S
S
A
A S
S
S
A
A S C
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Traffic Theory : Erlang C
„ Probability of Delay Greater than t :
„ Average Delay :
t s A
D
e A S C t P
u
τ
) 1 (
) , ( ) (
− −
= >
u
τ
S A
A S C
E
D
) 1 (
) , (
] [

=
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Traffic Theory : Poisson
„ Poisson Input with mean of λ arrivals/sec.
„ Negative Exponetial Service Time with Mean = 1/u
„ Traffic Intensity = A = λ. 1/u
„ Number of Serving Trunks (Channels) = S
„ Blocked Calls Held


=

= =
S k
k
A
b
k
A
e A S P P
!
) , (
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Capacity Planning
„ Aims of Capacity Planning
9 To allocated Sufficient Channels to support the expected traffic load
9 To ensure future sites are planned and implemented in time to meet
subscriber growth (Business Plan)
9 To provide Traffic Loading Figures on which the fixed network can be
based
„ Traffic Unit
9 Traffic is measured in Erlang : E
tot
= E
sub
*N
subs
9 E
tot
is the total Traffic
9 E
sub
is the average traffic per subscriber
9 N
sub
Number of Subscribers
„ Example : E
sub
= 25 mE* and N
sub
= 100, then E
tot
= 2.5 Erlangs
*25 mE = 1.5 minutes of occupied TCH per Hour
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Capacity Planning
„ Procedure for Calculating Number of Required Channels
„ First Compute Busy Hour Traffic per Subscriber (Erlangs) :
9Average Daily Number of Call Attempts × Average Call Length
9Plus Number times length of Incoming Calls
9Times Proportion of Total Calls made in the Busy Hour
„ Then Calculate Total Traffic as Average Traffic Times Number of
Subscribers
„ Finally Use Erlang B Tables to determine the number of Channels
required for a given Blocking Level
„ Example : For GSM, 2 % is the typical blocking rate used
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Capacity Planning
TEST ON DIMENSIONING USING CAPACITY DEMANDS
„ Given a Dense Urban Area of about 35 km
2
and a penetration rate estimated
to 9 % over a total population of 500.000 inhabitants
„ Assuming 4 TRX 3-sector BTSs will be used,
„ Each sector (using 4 TRXs) has a cell radius of 0.45 km
„ Each Subscriber will require a 25 mE traffic
„ Compute the total required Traffic (Erlang) within this dense urban area,
along with the required number of 3-sectorial BTSs
„ What would be these numbers if the unit traffic increase to 40 mE ?
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Tower Mounted Amplifier :
Effect on Coverage and Quality
® Cirta Consulting LLC
BTS
BTS
TMA
3 dB cable loss
4 dB Gain
in the UL
Static Sensitivity=-110 dBm Static Sensitivity=-110 dBm
S(without TMA) = -110 + 3 = -107 dBm* S(with TMA) = -110 + 3-4 = -111 dBm*
* Body Loss and Lognormal Fading have to be added
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Cell Range R computed using :
‹ MAPL=A+B*log(R)
‹ MAPL : Maximum Allowed Path Loss
‹ MAPL = EIRP-Effective Sensitivity
‹ Example :
) Given EIRP=P
out
+G
ant
-CableLoss
) with P
out
=40 dBm; G
ant
=18 dBi; Cable Loss=3 dB
) EIRP=40+18-3=55 dBm
) MAPL =
• 55 - (-107+7+5) = 150 dB without TMA
• 55 - (-111+7+5) = 154 dB with TMA
‹ MAPL : The higher the bigger the cell radius
) log(R) = (MAPL-A)/B ⇒R = 10^((MAPL-A)/B)
Overview on Linkbudget Impact (1/2)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Numerical Example :
‹ Assume we use a Rural Propagation Model PL = 135 + 30*log(R)
‹ Cell Radius R=
) 10^( (150-135)/30 )= 3.2 km without TMA
) 10^( (154-135)/30 )= 4.3 km with TMA !
Overview on Linkbudget Impact (2/2)
Path Loss (dB)
Distance (km)
135+30*lod(d)
MAPL=150 dB without TMA
MAPL=154 dB with TMA
3.2 km 4.3 km
4 dB due to TMA
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Uplink Coverage
Downlink Coverage
TMA Improves Uplink vs Downlink: To balance the Linkbudget
the BTS output power has to be raised by 4 dB ! (the TMA gain)
Directional
Antenna
Due to linkbudget imbalance
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Problem Statement (1/2)
No Coverage Tunnel
High Penetration Loss
added to propagation loss
Base Station
In Car Coverage Threshold not reached
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Problem Statement (2/2)
Base Station
MS
High Diffraction and Shadowing Loss : Hills, Blockings, etc.
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Design Issues
Repeater = Bidirectional Amplifier used to
* Provide Coverage to “shadowed” rural areas
* Provide Coverage to Tunnels
* Provide Coverage to Indoor Areas where Capacity is not an issue
Repeater comprises :
* A High Gain Amplifier
* A Duplex-filter for Up and Downlink Service
* A Donor Antenna : From the Repeater to the Donor Site
* A Re-Radiating Antenna : From the Repeater to the Area to be
covered
Repeater Features :
* High Amplifier Gain
* High Isolation Between the Repeater Ends to avoid oscillation
* High Channel or Band Selectivity
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Components
BPF
BPF
Donor Antenna (BTS)
High Gain, Very Directional
Re-Radiating
Antenna (MS)
Lower Gain, Wide Beamwidth
High Gain Amplifiers
up to 85 dB
Band-Pass High Rejection Filters :
Channel or Band Selective
To donor Cell
To poor area
coverage
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Typical Antennae Mounting
R
To a valley
wide bandwidth
antenna
To donor
cell
R
To donor
cell
To Tunnel
Uni- or Bidirectional
High Gain Antenna
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Design Tricks
1. Donor Antenna should be :
a. Preferably in LOS with the Donor Cell
b. High Gain and High Directional
c. Mounted in a location so that the RxLev > its static sensitivity
d. Dip Fades have to be avoided : RF Measurements done prior to
installation (Go or not Go)
2. To avoid interference between Donor and Re-Radiating antennas, an isolation is
required : this should prevent the Repeater to oscillate.
3. Never have LOS between Re-Radiating antenna and Donor Cell
4. Depending on the application : Re-radiating antenna has to be chosen accordingly
a. Tunnels : High gain (uni- or bidirectional)
b. Valley or “shadow” : wide beamwidth and typical antenna gains
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Antennae Location
R
To donor
cell
NOT RECOMMENDED
R
To a valley
wide bandwidth
antenna
R
To a valley
wide bandwidth
antenna
To donor
cell
RECOMMENDED
® Cirta Consulting LLC
RF Repeater : Powerbudget (1/3)
„ Allgon Indoor Repeater Technical Specs :
‹ Gain : 45 - 70 dB
‹ Noise Figure : 5 dB
‹ Maximum input power : +13 dBm
„ Assumptions :
‹ Donor BTS @ 4.5 km from the Repeater : Free Space and LOS
assumed. BTS Donor Antenna EIRP : 48 dBm
‹ Donor Antenna to Repeater cable loss : 1.5 dB
‹ Re-radiating Antenna to Repeater cable loss : 0.5 dB
‹ Donor Antenna Gain : 18.5 dBi
‹ Re-radiating Antenna Gain : 14 dBi
„ Task : Balance the UL and DL, then compute the repeater cell
radius
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Received Power at the donor antenna connector :
‹ Pr(donor)=EIRP(donor BTS)-PL = -56.6 dBm
) PL = 32.44+20*log10(4.5*900) = 104.6 dB (free space loss)
) EIRP(donor BTS) = 48 dBm
„ Input Power at the Repeater (Downlink) :
‹ Pin = Pr(donor) - Cable Loss(DL) + G(donor)
) Pin = -56.6 -1.5 + 18 = -40 dBm
„ Repeater Output power (downlink) :
‹ Pout(min) = Pin + Gmin(Repeater) = -40 + 45 = 15 dBm
‹ Pout(min) = 15 dBm > 13 dBm (need a 2 attenuation)
„ EIRP(Re-Radiating) = Pout - Cable(to antenna) + G(Re-Radiating)
‹ EIRP(Re-Radiating) = 13 - 0.5 + 14 = 26.5 dBm
„ Without a repeater the penetration loss of 15 dB leads to :
‹ Rxlev (indoor) = -56.6 - 15 = -71.6 dBm !!! @ the vicinity of the lossy wall
RF Repeater : Powerbudget (2/3)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Received Power at the Re-radiating antenna connector :
‹ Pr(Re-Rad.)=EIRP(MS)-PL = 33 - 106.5 = - 73.5 dBm
) PL = 120 + 45*log(0.5) = 106.5 dB (e.g. Okumura-Hata Model)
) EIRP(MS) = 33 dBm (no Power control considered)
„ Input Power at the Repeater (Uplink) :
‹ Pin = Pr(Re-Rad) - Cable Loss(UL) + G(Re-rad)
) Pin = -73.5 - 0.5 + 14 = -60 dBm
„ Repeater Output power (Uplink) :
‹ Pout(min) = Pin + Gmin(Repeater) = -60 + 45 = -15 dBm
‹ Pout(min) = -15 dBm < 13 dBm (OK)
„ EIRP(Donor) = Pout - Cable(to antenna) + G(Re-Radiating)
‹ EIRP(Donor) = -15 - 1.5 + 18 = 1.5 dBm
‹ Uplink Power Amp. Of repeater must be raised to maximum 75 dB
‹ EIRP (donor) = 1.5 + 30 = 31.5 dBm
RF Repeater : Powerbudget (3/3)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Hybrid Combiners : Possible Usage
-3 dB
TX1 TX2
To Antenna
Matched Load
-3 dB -3 dB
-3 dB
TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4
To Antenna
50 Ω 50 Ω
50 Ω
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Hybrid Combiners : Features
„ Hybrid Combiners :
‹ 4-Port Balanced Passive Devices
‹ Reciprocal : Tx/Rx
„ Disadvantage :
‹ High insertion loss : 3 to 3.3 dB
‹ Not suitable for large Number of Transmitters : High Losses
„ Advantage :
‹ Linear Device : Sufficient isolation between Transmitters
‹ Cost-effective combining solution for small number of Transmitters
‹ Being relatively Wide-band, permits Transmitter Frequency Hopping :
Synthesized or Baseband
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Slow Frequency Hopping
„ Radio Propagation Channel :
‹ Dynamic : Mobility and Scattering problems
‹ Fast Fading : Frequency Selective (dispersive)
) Some frequencies are more or less affected by Multipath fast fading
(Reighley Fading)
) Fast Moving mobiles less sensitive to Multipath : GSM Standard define
TU3 and TU50 and a Sensitivity margin of 4 dB is considered.
) Effective Receive Sensitivity improved for Fast Mobiles
„ Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) :
‹ Allows an effective “Frequency Diversity”
‹ SFH statistically improves the overall signal receive power
‹ SFH “diversity” gain : between 3 and 6 dB (ref. W.Y. Lee)
® Cirta Consulting LLC
„ Synthesized Frequency Hopping :
‹ The processor controlling the Tx retunes it to a new frequency on a per
time-slot basis, according to a predetermined pattern or sequence
‹ The Output from the Tx varies across a wide range of frequencies :
Handled by the Hybrid combiner (wide-band device)
„ Baseband Frequency Hopping :
‹ The Digital baseband signal is applied to what is effectively a fast electronic
switch, which is controlled by a processor in the Tx.
‹ The Switch is connected to a number of Txs, each being fixed-tuned to a
different frequency
‹ On a per time-slot basis, baseband digital signal is switched between
different transmitters
‹ Cavity Filter Combiners or Hybrid Combiners can be used
Slow Frequency Hopping : Implementation
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Synthesized and Baseband Frequency
Hopping : Comparison
„ Synthesized FH :
‹Offers a versatile solution for multiple channels
‹Cost-effective : No Cavity Filter Combiners required
‹Few Transmitters can be used for more channels
hopped
„ Baseband FH :
‹Low losses when Cavity Filter Combiners are used
‹Hopping can only occur over the same number of
frequencies as there are Transmitters
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Slow Frequency Hopping : Implementation
Hybrid
Combiner
TX1
TX2
TX
Processor
11001101110
0110110110
T
u
n
n
i
n
g
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
To Antenna
Varying Frequency
Varying Frequency
Baseband Data
Baseband Data
Synthesized
Frequency Hopping
Baseband
Frequency Hopping
TX
Processor
Baseband Data
11001101110
TX1
TX2
TX3
BPF
BPF
BPF
f1
f2
f3
T
o

A
n
t
e
n
n
a
Electronic
Switch
Matching Stub
Cavity Filters
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Receiver Multicoupler
RECEIVER MULTICOUPLER
RX1 RX2
Rx
Antenna
A
Rx
Antenna
B
AC/DC POWER
SUPPLY
RX A RX A RX B RX B
® Cirta Consulting LLC
DUPLEX FILTER
From TX
To RX
Passes DL
Frequencies only
Passes UL
Frequencies only
DUPLEX
FILTER
Common TX/RX
Antenna
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Typical Antenna Connection : X-POL
Diversity
Duplex
Filter
Receiver
Multicoupler
Tx Rx
Tx Rx
Hybrid
Combiner
Matched Load
Bandpass Filter
Tx/Rx A Rx B
Cross-Polarized
Antenna Assembly
Rx B
Rx A
Rx A
Rx B
Rx A
Rx B
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Polarization Diversity Systems
Using Separate Tx Antenna
Without Duplex Filter
d
RxARxB
Tx
BTS Equipment
Tx
2 Rx
2 Rx
2 Rx
Tx
Tx
Top View of 3-sector site
with Vertical Polarization Diversity
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Polarization Diversity Systems
Duplexer
Tx
Rx A Rx B
Vertical
Tx/Rx Antenna
Horizontal
Rx Antena
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
® Cirta Consulting LLC
Polarization Diversity Systems
Tx Rx A Rx B
d1
d2 d2
Horizontal separation d1 for diversity = 10λ
Horizontal Separation d2 for 30 dB Isolation = 2λ
Rx
Rx
Rx
Rx
Tx
Rx Tx
Tx

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