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Scimeanna Marcla

Scrduithe Ardteistimireachta, 2007

Matamaitic Fheidhmeach Ardleibhal


Marking Scheme Leaving Certificate Examination, 2007

Applied Mathematics

Higher Level

Coimisin na Scrduithe Stit State Examinations Commission

LEAVING CERTIFICATE APPLIED MATHEMATICS

HIGHER LEVEL

MARKING SCHEME

M32

Coimisin na Scrduithe Stit State Examinations Commission

Scim Marcla Matamaitic Fheidhmeach

Scrduithe Ardteistimireachta, 2007 Ardleibhal

Marking Scheme Applied Mathematics

Leaving Certificate Examination, 2007 Higher Level

General Guidelines 1 Penalties of three types are applied to candidates' work as follows: Slips Blunders Misreading - numerical slips - mathematical errors - if not serious S(-1) B(-3) M(-1)

Serious blunder or omission or misreading which oversimplifies: - award the attempt mark only. Attempt marks are awarded as follows: 5 (att 2).

The marking scheme shows one or more approaches to solving each question. In many cases there are other equally valid methods of solution.

Page 2 of 27

1.

(a)

A particle is projected vertically downwards from the top of a tower with speed u m/s. It takes the particle 4 seconds to reach the bottom of the tower. During the third second of its motion the particle travels 29.9 metres. Find (i) (ii) the value of u the height of the tower.

t=0 t=2 29.9 m t=3

(i)

2 s = ut + 1 2 ft

h = u (2) + 4.9(4) h + 29.9 = u (3) + 4.9(9) 29.9 = u + 24.5 u = 5.4 m/s (ii)
2 s = ut + 1 2 ft

5 5

= 5.4(4) + 4.9(16) = 100 m

20

OR
(i) Third second : s = ut + 1 ft 2 2 29.9 = u (1) + 4.9(1) u = 25 First two seconds : v = u + at 25 = u + 9.8(2) u = 5.4 m/s

5 5

Page 3 of 27

(b)

A train accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed v m/s. It continues at this speed for a period of time and then decelerates uniformly to rest. In travelling a total distance d metres the train accelerates through a distance pd metres and decelerates through a distance qd metres, where p < 1 and q < 1. (i) (ii) Draw a speed-time graph for the motion of the train. If the average speed of the train for the whole journey is find the value of b. v , p+q+b

(i)

speed v t1 t2 t3 time 5

(ii )

1 2 1

t v = pd

5 5 5

t2v = d pd qd
1 2 3

t v = qd d t1 + t2 + t3 d 2 pd d pd qd 2qd + + v v v v p + q +1 b =1

Average speed =

5 30

Page 4 of 27

2.

(a)

Ship B is travelling west at 24 km/h. Ship A is travelling north at 32 km/h. At a certain instant ship B is 8 km north-east of ship A. (i) (ii) Find the velocity of ship A relative to ship B. Calculate the length of time, to the nearest minute, for which the ships are less than or equal to 8 km apart.

(i )

r r r VA = 0 i + 32 j r r r VB = 24 i + 0 j r r r V AB = V A VB r r = 24 i + 32 j magnitude : direction : 40 km/h

5 5

5
East 53.13 North

VAB X 8.13 8 A (ii ) time = = 2 AX r V AB 5 5 B

16 cos 8.13 40 = 0.396 hours = 24 minutes

30

Page 5 of 27

(b)

A man can swim at 3 m/s in still water. He swims across a river of width 30 metres. He sets out at an angle of 30 to the bank. The river flows with a constant speed of 5 m/s parallel to the straight banks. In crossing the river he is carried downstream a distance d metres. 3

30 m 5 30

Find the value of d correct to two places of decimals.

Time to cross =

30 3 sin 30

= 20 seconds

d = (5 3 cos 30 ) 20 = (2.402 ) 20 = 48.04 metres

20

Page 6 of 27

3.

(a)

A particle is projected with a speed of 7 5 m/s at an angle to the horizontal. Find the two values of that will give a range of 12.5 m.

rrj = 0
2 7 5 sin .t 1 =0 2 gt

5
14 5 sin g

t =

Range = 7 5 cos .t 14 5 sin = 7 5 cos . g = 50 sin cos = 25 sin 2 Range = 12.5 25 sin 2 = 12.5 sin 2 = 1 2 2 = 30 or 150

= 15 or 75

25

Page 7 of 27

(b)

A plane is inclined at an angle 45 to the horizontal. A particle is projected up the plane with initial speed u at an angle to the horizontal. The plane of projection is vertical and contains the line of greatest slope. The particle is moving horizontally when it strikes the inclined plane. Show that tan = 2 .

rj = 0
2 0 = u sin ( 45).t 1 2 g cos 45.t

2u sin ( 45) g cos 45

vi = u cos( 45) g sin 45.t 2u sin ( 45) = u cos( 45) g sin 45. g cos 45 = u cos( 45) 2u sin ( 45) v j = u sin ( 45) g cos 45.t 2u sin ( 45) = u sin ( 45) g cos 45. g cos 45 = u sin ( 45) Landing angle = 45 tan45 = 1= vj vi

u sin ( 45) u cos( 45) 2u sin ( 45) u sin ( 45) = u cos( 45) 2u sin ( 45) tan ( 45) = 1 3 tan 1 1 = 1 + tan 3 3 tan 3 = 1 + tan tan = 2

5 25

Page 8 of 27

4.

(a)

A particle slides down a rough plane inclined at 45 to the horizontal. The 3 coefficient of friction between the particle and the plane is . 4 Find the time of descending a distance 4 metres from rest.

R = mg cos 45 mg sin 45 R = mf mg sin 45 3 (mg cos 45) = mf 4 f = g 4 2 m/s 2

2 s = ut + 1 2 ft

1 g 2 4 = 0+ t 24 2 t= 32 2 g 5 20

= 2.15 s.

Page 9 of 27

(b)

A light inextensible string passes over a small fixed pulley A, under a small moveable pulley B, of mass m kg, and then over a second small fixed pulley C. A particle of mass 4 kg is attached to one end of the string and a particle of mass 6 kg is attached to the other end. The system is released from rest.

B 4 kg
(i) (ii) (iii)

6 kg

On separate diagrams show the forces acting on each particle and on the moveable pulley B. Find, in terms of m, the tension in the string. If m = 9.6 kg prove that pulley B will remain at rest while the two particles are in motion.

T
(i)

T 5,5

4g (ii )

mg T 4g = 4 p T 6 g = 6q

6g 5 5

1 mg 2T = m ( p + q ) 2 m T T g + g 2 4 6 48mg T = 5m + 48 = (iii ) m = 9.6 T = 47.04 or 4.8 g T acceleration of 4 kg mass = p = g = 0.2 g 0 4 T acceleration of 6 kg mass = q = g = 0.2 g 0 6 1 acceleration of pulley B = ( p + q ) = 0 2 pulley B will remain at rest while the two particles are in motion.

5 30

Page 10 of 27

5.

(a)

A smooth sphere P, of mass 2 kg, moving with speed 9 m/s collides directly with a smooth sphere Q, of mass 3 kg, moving in the same direction with speed 4 m/s. The coefficient of restitution between the spheres is e.
(i) (ii)

Find, in terms of e, the speed of each sphere after the collision. Show that the magnitude of the momentum transferred from one sphere to the other is 6(1 + e) .

(i ) PCM NEL

2(9 ) + 3( 4 ) = 2v1 + 3v 2 v1 v 2 = v1 v2 = = e (9 4 ) 30 15e or 6 3e 5 30 + 10e or 6 + 2e 5

5 5

(ii )

Impulse = 2(9 ) 2(6 3e ) = 6 + 6e = 6(1 + e) OR Impulse = 3(4) 3(6 + 2e) = 6 6e = 6(1 + e)

20

Page 11 of 27

(b)

A smooth sphere A, of mass 4 kg, moving with speed u, collides with a stationary smooth sphere B of mass 8 kg. The direction of motion of A, before impact, makes an angle with the line of centres at impact. The coefficient of restitution between the spheres is Find in terms of u and
(i) (ii) (iii)


u
1 . 2

the speed of each sphere after the collision the angle through which the 4 kg sphere is deflected as a result of the collision the loss in kinetic energy due to the collision.

(i )

PCM NEL

4(u cos ) + 8(0 ) = 4v1 + 8v 2 v1 v 2 = 1 (u cos 0) 2 1 u cos 2

5 5

v1 = 0

and

v2 =

Speed of A = u sin 1 Speed of B = u cos 2 (ii ) Angle = 90 KE before = KE after = 1 (4)u 2 = 2u 2 2 1 1 (4){u sin }2 + 1 (8) u cos 2 2 2
2

(iii )

= 2u 2 sin 2 + u 2 cos 2 Loss in KE = 2u 2 2u 2 sin 2 u 2 cos 2 = 2u 2 (1 sin 2 ) u 2 cos 2 = u 2 cos 2 5 5 30

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6.

(a)

A particle of mass m kg is suspended from a fixed point p by a light elastic string. The extension of the string is d when the particle is in equilibrium. The particle is then displaced vertically from the equilibrium position a distance not greater than d and is then released from rest.
(i) (ii)

Show that the motion of the particle is simple harmonic. Find, in terms of d, the period of the motion.

(i )

Equilibrium position : T0 = kd Displaced position :

mg = kd

Force in dirn. of x inc. = mg k (d + x) = mg kd kx = kx kx Acceleration = m S.H.M. about x = 0 with = 2 k m

(ii )

Period =

m k d g 5 5 25

= 2 = 2

Page 13 of 27

(b)

A bead slides on a smooth fixed circular hoop, of radius r, in a vertical plane. The bead is projected with speed 10 gr from the highest point c. It impinges upon and coalesces with another bead of equal mass at d. cd is the vertical diameter of the hoop.

Show that the combined mass will not reach the point c in the subsequent motion.

Let v be the speed of c : when it reaches d Total energy at c = Total energy at d 1 1 m(10 gr ) + mg (2r ) = mv 2 + mg (0) 2 2 2 v = 14 gr Let v1 be the speed of : the combined mass at d mv + m(0) = 2mv1 v1 = 1 v 2 5 5 5

For the combined mass : to reach c with speed v 2 1 1 (2m)(v1 ) 2 + (2m) g (0) = (2m)(v 2 ) 2 + (2m) g (2r ) 2 2 2 v 2 m 4 = m(v 2 ) + 4mgr 14 gr 2 = (v 2 ) + 4 gr 4 1 2 (v 2 ) = gr 2 This is not possible the combined mass will not reach c .

5 5 25

Page 14 of 27

7.

(a)

aob and cod are two uniform rods, each of weight W, freely hinged at o. ao = co = 2l and ob = od = 5l . The rods are in equilibrium in a vertical plane. The ends b and d rest on a smooth horizontal plane and are connected by a light inextensible string of length 5 l . Find the tension in the string.

a o

a o R1 d T W W T

R2 b

R1 + R2 = 2W

= 60
Take moments about d for system : 5

3l 7l W cos60 + W 5l + cos 60 = R2 (5l ) 2 2 R2 = W and R1 = W Take moments about o for od :

3l W cos60 + T (5l sin 60 ) = R1 (5l cos 60 ) 2 5l 3 5l 3l =W W + T 4 2 2 T= 7W 10 3 0.40W

or

25

Page 15 of 27

(b)

A uniform disc of radius 25 cm and mass 100 kg rests in a vertical plane perpendicular to a kerb stone 10 cm high. A force F is applied to the disc at an angle to the horizontal, where tan =
(i) (ii)
4 . 3

10 cm

Draw a diagram showing all the forces acting on the disc. Find the least value of F required to raise the disc over the kerb stone.


10 cm 100g

sin =

15 3 = 25 5

horiz

Rcos = F cos 3 R= F 4 Rsin + F sin + N = 100 g N =0 3 3 4 F + F = 100 g 4 5 5 F = 80 g or 784 N

vert

25

Page 16 of 27

8.

(a)

Prove that the moment of inertia of a uniform square lamina, of mass m and 1 side 2r, about an axis through its centre parallel to one of the sides is mr 2 . 3

Let M = mass per unit area mass of element = M{ 2r dx} moment of inertia of the element = M{ 2r dx} x 2 moment of inertia of the lamina = M 2r

-r

x 2 dx
r

x3 = M 2r 3
4 =4 3 Mr

2 =1 3 mr

20

Page 17 of 27

(b)

(i)

A uniform square lamina abcd of side 2r oscillates in its own plane about a horizontal axis through a , perpendicular to its plane. 8 If the period of small oscillations is 2 , find the value of r. 3g

a
(ii)

If the lamina is released from rest when ab is vertical, find the maximum velocity of corner c in the subsequent motion.

(i)

4 (m )r 2 + 4 (m )r 2 3 3 8 = (m )r 2 3 Mgh = mgr 2 I = I Mgh

T = 2

8 (m )r 2 = 2 3 mgr 2 = 2 8r 3g 2 5

r= 2 (ii) Gain in KE = Loss in PE


1 2

I 2 = mgh 5 30

18 2 2 (m )r = mg (r 2 r ) 23 = 1.467 v = 4 = 5.87 m/s

Page 18 of 27

9.

(a)

A U-tube whose limbs are vertical and of equal length has mercury poured in until the level is 26.2 cm from the top in each limb. Water is then poured into one limb until that limb is full. The relative density of mercury is 13.6. Find the length of the column of water added to the limb.

26.2 cm

26.2 + x 2x A B

Let the length of column of water =

26.2 + x

Pressure at A = Pressure at B 1000 g (26.2 + x )10 - 2 = 13600 g (2 x )10 x = 1 cm Length of column of water = 27.2 cm. 5 20
-2

5 5

OR Let the length of column of water = 0.262 + x Pressure at A = Pressure at B 1000 g (0.262 + x ) =

5 5 5

13600 g (2 x )

x = 0.01 m or 1 cm Length of column of water = 27.2 cm.

Page 19 of 27

(b)

A uniform solid sphere is held completely immersed in 500 cm3 of water by means of a string tied to a point on the base of the container. The tension in the string is 0.0784 N. When 300 cm3 of another liquid, of relative density 1.2 is added and thoroughly mixed with the water, the volume of the mixture is 800 cm3 and the tension in the string is 0.1078 N. Find (i)
(ii)

the relative density of the mixture the mass of the sphere.

(i )

mass of water + mass of liquid = mass of mixture 1000 500 10 6 + 1200 300 10 6 = 1000 s m 800 10 6 sm = 43 or 1.075 40 5 5

(ii )

B = T + mg

water

(1000Vg

or )

mg (1) = 0.0784 + mg s

mixture

(1075Vg

or )

43 mg 40 = 0.1078 + mg s

43 (0.0784 + mg ) = 0.1078 + mg 40 m = 0.032 kg. 5 30

Page 20 of 27

10.

(a)

Solve the differential equation

given that y = 1 when x =

dy = y 2 sin x dx

dy = y 2 sin x dx dy y 2 = sin x dx 1 = cos x + C y y = 1, x =

C = 1

1 = cos x + 1 y y = 1 1 + cos x 20

Page 21 of 27

10

(b)

The acceleration of a racing car at a speed of v m/s is v2 2 1 3200 m/s The car starts from rest. Calculate correct to two decimal places
(i) (ii)

the speed of the car when it has travelled 1500 m from rest the maximum speed of the car.

(i )

dv dx

v2 1 3200

v 0

3200v dv = 3200 v 2
2 v 0

1500 0

dx

[ 1600 ln(3200 v )]
(

[x] 1500 0

1600 ln 3200 1600 ln 3200 v 2 3200 3200 v 2

= 1500 =
15 16

v = 44.12 m/s

(ii )

acceleration = 0 v2 =0 3200 v = 56.57 m/s

5 30

Page 22 of 27

Some Alternative Solutions


2 (b)

5 30 3

30

x 2 = 3 2 + 5 2 2(3)(5) cos 30 x = 2.832 sin sin 30 = 3 2.832 = 31.985 tan 31.985 = d = 48.04 m 30 d 5

5 5 20

3 (b)

r j = 0 on inclined plane 2u sin ( 45) g cos 45 Consider horizontal plane vj = 0 t = 0 = u sin gt u sin t = g t =t
2 0 = u sin ( 45).t 1 2 g cos 45.t

5 5

u sin 2u sin ( 45) = g g cos 45 1 1 sin = 2 2 sin cos 2 2 sin = 2 sin 2 cos tan = 2

5 25

Page 23 of 27

3 (b)

r j = 0 on inclined plane
2 u sin ( 45).t 1 2 g cos 45.t = 0

2u sin ( 45) g cos 45 2u{sin cos 45 cos sin 45} = g cos 45 2u {sin cos } = g =

tan 45 =

vj vi 5

v i = v j

u cos( 45) g sin 45.t = u sin ( 45) + g cos 45.t u sin ( 45) + u cos( 45) = 2 .g.t

u{sin cos 45 cos sin 45 + cos cos 45 + sin sin 45} = 2 .g.t 2 .u sin = 2 .g.t gt sin = u g 2u sin = {sin cos } ug = 2 sin 2 cos 2 cos = sin tan = 2

25

Page 24 of 27

5 (b)
r Take loss of kinetic energy in the i direction 1 KE before = (4 )u 2 cos 2 = 2u 2 cos 2 2 KE after 1 1 1 2 = (4 ){0} + (8) u cos 2 2 2 = u 2 cos 2 Loss in KE = 2u 2 cos 2 u 2 cos 2 = u 2 cos 2
2

(iii )

5 5 10

6 (b)
Let v be the speed of c : when it reaches d Total energy at c = Total energy at d 1 1 m(10 gr ) + mg (2r ) = mv 2 + mg (0) 2 2 2 v = 14 gr Let v1 be the speed of : the combined mass at d mv + m(0) = 2mv1 v1 = At maximum height 1 v 2

5 5

: Gain in PE = Loss in KE ( 2 m) g ( h ) = 1 (2m)(v1 ) 2 2 14 gr 2 gh = 4 7r h= 4 As h < 2r the combined mass will not reach c .

5 5 25

Page 25 of 27

7 (a)

a o R1 d 7 W 6 7 W

R2 b

Lengths in ratio : 7 x, 13x, 20 x Take moments about b for system :

R1 (20 x ) = W (13x ) + W (7 x ) R1 = W

5 15

7 (b)


10 cm 100g

F cos (0.15) + F sin (0.20 ) = 100 g (0.20 ) F (0.6 )(0.15) + F (0.8)(0.20 ) = 100 g (0.20 ) F = 80 g or 784 N

5,5 5 5 25

Page 26 of 27

10(b)
(ii ) dv dt = v2 1 3200

v 0

3200 dv = 3200 v 2
v

t 0

dt

40 2 + v 20 2 ln 40 2 v 0

40 2 + v 20 2 ln 40 2 v 0 = 40 2 + v 40 2 v =

t 20 2

(40

2 v 40 2 + v ( 1) dv 2 dt 40 2 v

) (

1 20 2

t 20 2

40 2 v dv = dt 80 2 dv For maximum speed =0 dt 0 =

) )

1 20 2

t 20 2

(40

2 v

1 20 2

80 2

t 20 2

v = 40 2 v = 56.57 m/s

10

Page 27 of 27