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1.) How do you know that a protein is a protein molecule? Explain in any way you want.

=We will know that a protein is a protein molecule if it is a large molecule made up of numerous amino acids linked by amide bonds.
= A protein is a protein molecule if it is any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. And any large molecule containing chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds In which they are fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies that are necessary for the proper functioning of an organism. =Before knowing that it is a protein molecule we should know if its a protein. It is a protein if it is a biochemical compounds that consist of one or more polypeptides that is folded into a fibrous form that facilitating a biological function. And a polypeptide should have a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. In which the sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. But sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can is called a prosthetic groups or cofactors in which they can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable protein complexes. =One of the most distinguishing features of polypeptides is their ability to fold into a globular state. In which proteins fold into a defined structure varies widely. It folds into a highly rigid structure with small fluctuations and are therefore considered to be single structure. Other proteins undergo large rearrangements from one conformation to another. This conformational change is often associated with a signaling event. Thus, the structure of a protein serves as a medium through which to regulate either the function of a protein or activity of an enzyme. Not all proteins require a folding process in order to function, as some function in an unfolded state. =Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. Proteins are also necessary in animals' diets, since animals cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that are then used in metabolism.

2.) Genes code for proteins. What is so special about proteins in that respect? Explain.

=Genes code for proteins and proteins are gene expressions. In the simplest sense, expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein. The genes provide the genetic code in order for the proteins to be synthesized. The flow of information from the genes determines the protein composition and thereby the functions of the cell. The genetic code conveys all the instructions needed for the synthesis of proteins which includes the exact sequence of the amino acids in a particular protein. And that sequence allows the protein to carry out its function, whatever it may be. The particular sequence of amino acids on the chain enables the whole chain to fold and curl in such a way as to assume its final shape. Without its particular three-dimensional shape, a protein cannot function.
= Genes contains the coded formula needed by the cell to produce proteins in which proteins are special in that respect because it is the most common of the complex molecules in your body. In which they are special because types of proteins include structural proteins, such as those which form hair, skin and muscle. The messenger proteins, such as hormones, which travel around your body controlling such things as the sugar content of your blood. The enzymes, which carry out most of the life processes inside your body, for example making haemoglobin for your red blood cells. =Proteins are special because for example, when you wish to send information to a friend who lives far away, you write the information in a letter and send the letter to them this is a bit like how genes instruct other parts of a cell to do their work for the body in which this is the first step in the process is transcription in which the information from the gene is copied onto the messenger RNA that takes the information to other parts of the cell to process.

3) A proteins monomer is an amino acid (aa). Each amino acid is composed of an amino group and a carbocyl group. If you are to restructure the design of an amino acid, draw all and explain each and all.