MARKETING MANAGEMENT BY PHILIPKOTLER ANALYZED BY JAGADISH Defining marketing in the 21st century (chapter 1 ) Q) How is marketing important ?

in todays 21st century marketing is becoming the backbone of companies. even though we see financial officers becoming ceos this trend can change in near future. for the simple reason being without cmo or marketing wing the company cannot run. one may argue that cfo help in making financial decisions and allotment of money is important for a company. but one has to see that even after financial allocation cfo stills depends upon revenue generation. this means he has to go back to marketing wing to generate revenue . without marketing wing financial wing cannot survive. but without financial wing marketing can survive. Q) what is the scope of marketing ? The state of the environment in which a situation exists copied from wordweb i define scope as jurisdiction beyond which marketing is not tied up. what can be the scope of marketing jagadish says their are 2 things beyond which the scope of marketing ends. one is financial monetary aspect the other is non monetary or case analysis of marketing problems. Q) what are some fundamental marketing concepts ? some fundamental concepts coined by jagadish concepts are spiritual marketing concept : under this concept companies help each other in developing strategies for each other and try to cooperate in developing competition and cooperation in their respective industries the basis of foundation of this concept would be on 3 layers 1 trust 2 perfect relationship management 3 participative marketing management

perfect relationship management : it can be defined as something when 2 or more parties come together and think for on behalf of their companies and come out with better solutions either through collaboration or through cooperation collaboration : this is defined as 2 or more companies considered competitors in the market, come together to solve industry problems perfect relationship management : a relationship where companies 2 or more join hands together for a common cause trust : it is something which binds people together without arousing resentment while working with each other participative marketing concept : it is a conceptual tool to determine the complementors, competitors for the company and help company to provide solutions to the existing problems in the industry it represents job entry : any entry made by the employee on the job that she has been enrolled while joining at the first date in the company job enhancement : any job which is done by an employee which enhances the reputation of the employee and the company is job enhancement job rotation ; any job which an employee does on rotational basis by taking up different tasks in the company is job rotation job enlargement : any job taken up by the employee of a company which is done in addition to the job he has been assigned to is job enlargement job work: any job taken by the company employee is job work brand : it is defined as something which personifies the personality of the product of the company it represents product : anything which highlights the companies inner strength is called as product marketing : meeting needs profitably needs : anything which satisfies the normal desires of a person is called as needs want : anything which satisfies the entire portion of desires either fully or partially which can also be future desires of a person is called as want

private label : any product designed by the retail industry segment not in tie up with the companies is called as a private label Q) how has marketing management changed ? It can be seen that retail segment has come up with private labels in competition with company products marketing management has become a commonsense approach. it is through commonsense that problems are being solved through case studies. if you take into consideration premier management schools case study analysis commonsense has become the sole moto in solving current and future problems on the basis of secondary data. Q) what are the tasks necessary for successful marketing management ? in to days scenario trust , commitment and truth have become the foundation on which necessary marketing management principles are based upon. end of chapter one Developing marketing strategies and plans (chapter 2) Retention strategies for 21st century In the 21st century two areas in India Bpo and Software has come into existence and through which Indians are becoming a popular destination for work and fun.A very hot topic that is being discussed since a long time that their is a lot of retrenchment taking place in these two areas of job. HR executives are having a tough time to stop this retrenchment but due to various reasons this problem is not able to solve and every one is looking for ways to stop this . it is even seen in developed nations also. Now discussion and solution for this by jagadish is as follows: 1 USA is preferred destination for many young executives for learning curve . the problem with this is that they employees after learning leave the job and take up another job in USA. solution is that company should sign a bond with the trainee to come back and pursue his career in the company as per the HR rules . I would say another 5 years after learning which gives the company scope to use the learning for its benefit and the employee also feels satisfied that their is a possibility for looking at greener pastures after completing

the bond agreement 2 money is another problem which a Hr executive manager faces when dealing with employees who leave the job so that they are getting another job with a higher pay. solution is that give the employee a scope of say 3 to 5 years to stay in the company and give them employee stock option plan to those employees who stay back. if the other company also has the same strategy. the second solution would be debit cards to the employees depositing a certain portion of cash for every year either as bonus awards, other ways are staying in foreign locations with family members, food coupons, articles to be written by the employees which if published in company journal would be gifted a booklet, education loan to be provided by the company at cheaper rates than prevailing in the banks to the employees, for star performers in the company their children would be given free mba education by the company, every night on saturday coupons of 5 star hotel to be given to weekly performers in the company, star performers performance would be highlighted in company brochures and websites, live discussion every friday with star performers for other employees to understand and this live discussion would be made into a video format to be highlighted in the company website, every week management books to be given to company strategists which is related to the company profile Q) How does marketing affect customer value ? Ans) customer value : any value which benefits the customer and increases his aspiration to purchase the product again which he has purchased

marketing helps the customer in selecting the product which he aspires to purchase. a customer doesn't have idea what is important for himself. he checks out through products which are marketed in the product and purchases them by tallying with what is suitable to him and how the product is useful in his daily activities. Q) How is strategic planning carried out at different levels of the organization ? Ans) strategic planning has to be carried out by both middle management and top level management. it is so because middle management is in touch with entry level marketing executives which makes the middle management understand the pulse of the customers. middle management and top level management understand both strategic and man management principle. hence strategic management has to be carried out by both middle management and top level management . how many people has to be their from middle management? depends upon how big the organization. jagadish feels that all the middle management who make strategic decisions has to be included in the decision making process . it is so because they are 1 touch with the marketing executives 2 touch with the customers, who interact with front line executives. problems of front line executives with customers are also sorted by the middle management Q) what does a marketing plan include ? Ans) marketing plan should include a) vision of the company b) mission of the company c) aim of the company in next 5 to 10 years deadline d) tactics of the company to solve the mission e) problems that company would face in near future and how it can solve the problem f) how stockholders would be handled by the company g) what would happen to products supply chain management in near future. g) financial projections of the company and also what to expect from the company in near future h) future projects being taken up by the company in near future end of chapter 2

Gathering information and scanning the environment (chapter 3) Q) what are the components of a modern marketing information system ? Ans) components that are expected in a modern marketing information system is same as above question Q) what are useful internal records ? Ans) useful internal records should include as same as above question and below question Q) what is involved in a marketing intelligence system ? Ans) marketing intelligence system should include a) supply chain management system b) vision and mission of company c) secondary data of the company products d) future projections and aim of the company e) competitors and complementors decision making information and their product information and how it would affect the company. Q) what are the key methods for tracking and identifying opportunities in the macro environment ? Ans) a) secondary data of the company b) market place and market space c) complementor and competitor websites d) government regulations to respective industries Q) what are some important macro environment developments ? Ans) a) government regulations b) market space control c) supply chain management rules d) multilevel marketing e) service industry development in near future f) spirituality being introduced in management

end of chapter 3 Conducting marketing research and forecasting demand chapter 4 Q) what constitutes good marketing research ? Ans) good marketing research should include a) good secondary data b) perfect segmentation, targeting and positioning c) knowledge management about the product that is being researched d) correct primary data questions to get the correct information Q) what are good metrics for measuring marketing productivity ? Ans) good metrics for measuring marketing productivity are a) correct primary data and secondary data b) sales being generated through the product in the locality (Demographic and geographic) c) repeat purchase by customer with the help of MIS (management information system) ERP(Enterprise Resource planning) Q) How can marketers assess their return on investment of marketing expenditures ? Ans) marketers assess their ROI of marketing expenditure through various ways like 1 repeat purchase by customer 2 development of market space by company 3 number of complementors developed because of ROI 4 reduction of competitors in the market 5 increase in profit in the place market expenditure was incurred. Q) How can companies more accurately measure and forecast demand ? Ans) The companies can accurately measure and forecast demand through different ways 1 Management Information System 2 secondary data research about the product -6months 3 market space questionnaire 4 constant repeat purchase by customers in specified localities. end of chapter 4

chapter 5 of Philip kotler Creating customer value, satifaction and loyalty analysed by jagadish

Q) what are customer value , satisfaction and loyalty, and how can companies deliver them ? Ans) customer value : any value which creates satisfaction in a product by its consumption either company or customers i.e B2B, B2C customer satisfaction : any satisfaction enjoyed by customers through usage of products produced by the company is called customer satisfaction customer loyalty : it is defined as something by which customers through products, through repetition, purchase, products because of its overall satisfaction enjoyed by its consumption by customers through repetition. companies can deliver customer value , satisfaction and create loyalty for their products in different ways . they are through 1 Customer stock option plan for repeat purchasers 2 supply chain management removed through company outlets by getting information by interacting directly with customers eg Hindustan Lever Limited outlets 3 by focusing their attention on opinion leaders by recruiting them in the company payrolls 4) through 4c by tying up relationship between companies to do marketing research on their respective companies brands in similar industry Q) what is the lifetime value of customers for a company ? Ans) how to calculate it lifetime value of customers can be analysed by

sales generated by company products in the year --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * 50 (life time age of customers) number of products sold in a year B2B or B2C TO BE DISCUSSED LATER

Q) how can companies both attract and retain customers ? Ans) companies can both attract and retain customers through different ways. they are 1) CSOP (customer stock option plan) 2) websites by giving offers to customers who log in into the website (bonazas) 3) 4c concept through combos 4) education training booklets to use products purchased to optimum level, how to use products through alternative uses by customers which can benefit them Q) how can companies cultivate strong customer relationships ? Ans) companies can cultivate strong customer relationships through ways like 1) CSOP (customer stock option plan) 2) free gifts/ tour packages/ books to those shareholders who have stayed for 3 or more years with the company 3) company factory tour package to those stakeholders who have stayed with the company 4) articles by customers on company brouchers with photo Q) how can companies deliver total quality ? Ans) companies can deliver total quality by various ways 1) 4c concept by tying up relationship with company known for quality service and product and through other areas 2) CSOP (customer stock option plan) 3) through good supply chain management 4) through quality products to be manufactured with good raw materials Q)what is database marketing ? Ans) database marketing is defined as anything which produces database for the products for which marketing is designed

end of chapter 5 Analysing consumer markets (chapter 6) Q) How do consumer characteristics influence buying behavior ? in the 21st century people buy products out of want instead of need needs : anything which satisfies the normal desires of a person is called as needs want : anything which satisfies the entire portion of desires either fully or partially which can also be future desires of a person is called as want it is also seen that consumers purchase through impulse buying in 21st century,. this type of purchase has become more common than other style of purchase. (market place and market space) it is seen evident because their is too much of excess money with consumers because of revolution that has taken place in Information technology and business process outsourcing which is seen even in both developed and underdeveloped countries. money circulation has become excess than required so people are going for want instead of need. but this type of spending by consumers is still not evident than in streams other than the two above.(Information technology and bpo) retail segment and hospitality are only the other streams which is fast picking up on par with information technology and BPO. consumer characteristics do influence decision making of an individual. if a person likes to play sports his purchasing capacity to a larger extent be restricted to sports. now problem here is that if a company wants to sell its products either the company is new or old it doesn't matter . the only thing left out how would the company know the characteristics of an individual to which it wants to target the solution is 1 survey in organized retail stores 2 survey in cinema halls at the time of purchase of tickets by family unit. 3 survey in newspapers and gift wraps attached on the following day for giving important information to the company which did the survey in the newspaper survey cannot be done in magazines,billboards

1 they are costly affair 2 only few consumers purchase compare to newspapers 3 mostly in 21st century people buy on impulse Q) what major psychological processes influence consumer responses to the marketing program ? 1) impulse buying 2) gifts/products which are free and gifts/products which have novelty in them 3) fast money generating programs of marketing 4) any product which solves their daily problems quickly Q) How do consumers make purchasing decisions ? 1) impulse buying 2) gifts/novelty products 3) anything which consumers can get atleast double the investment they have invested in money 4) any product or item which makes peoples life easy and comfortable .Q) How do marketers analyze consumer decision making ? Ans) marketers can analyse consumer decision making through different ways 1) information technology : market space and organised retail stores in both developed and developing countries in those areas where countries work on unorganised retail stores information can be got through wholesalers and distributors 2) in those areas where multi level marketing (mlm) is prominent way of generating sales it can be solved through retail outlets who sell to these individual people who use mlm

end of chapter 6 Analysing business markets (chapter 7) Q) What is the business market and how does it differ from the consumer market ? Ans) business market can be defined as any business which is done through b2b (business to business) segment. it differs from consumer market as consumer market is defined as any business which is done under b2c (business to consumer) segment and c2c(consumer to consumer) segment Q) what buying situation do organizational buyers face ? Ans) buying situation organizational buyers fall under 1) technical, non technical recruitment staff 2) knowledge capital 3) manufacturing and non manufacturing components 4) market place and market space buying Q) who participates in the business to business buying process ? Ans) 1) purchasing department 2) finance department .3) marketing department 4) ceo, cfo , cmo , coo and board of directors if price of purchasing is beyond the hr policy of above 3 departments Q) How do business buyers make their decisions ? Ans) business buyers purchase from others based upon future and present projects they are going to undertake. based upon these projects they tie up with respective companies , industries which are related to those projects they are going to undertake.

Q) How can companies build strong relationships with business customers ? Ans) companies build strong relationships based upon the projects they undertake and profits and also on the projects which are shared on the basis of contribution given by respective industries and companies .in the project they have undertaken 1) contract basis relationship is maintained 2) quality control mechanism at regular projects 3) knowledge sharing between partners 4) regular service and interaction between partners Q) How do institutional buyers and government agencies do their buying ? Ans) 1) market place and market space 2) company gatherings 3) multi level marketing by respective employees of the company for the company he represents 4) through the aid of complementors end of chapter 7

Identifying market segments and targets chapter 8 Q) what are the different levels of market segmentation ? Ans) 1) segmentation on the basis of countries 2) segmentation on the basis of demographic locations 3) segmentation on the basis of geographic locations 4) segmentation on the basis of population

5) segmentation on the basis of culture 6) segmentation on the basis of religion 7) segmentation on the basis of issues 8) segmentation on the basis of generations Q) how can a company divide a market into segments ? Ans) same as above Q) How should a company choose the most attractive target markets ? Ans) 1) the most attractive target markets can be chosen based upon the income earned and expenditure being spent by the locality in which the people stay. the more they earn the more they spend 2) based upon the locality in which people stay 3) population based upon sex, male dominated or female dominated locality Q) what are the requirements for effective segmentation ? Ans) to do an effective segmentation requirements are 1) company product 2) population sex .3) earning capacity in that particular locality 4) housing rent end of chapter 8 questions on 4c concept Q) how can a company promote a product in collaboration with its competitor complementor? a company can promote a product in collaboration with competitor and complementor on sharing basis of 50:50 for future projects, if the product is big , if the product is in small denominations it can be purchased in the form of combos.

trust on which 4c concept is based has to be tested first on small contracts between companies in its industry together, if successful can be spread to other product areas Q) what are the ingredients company should look out for in a product when designing it along with complementor/competitor ? ingredients that a company should look out for in a product when designing product along with competitor and complementor are 1 profit sharing ratio 2 quality standards of the product of which both companies are promoting 3 cost of production of the product 4 life cycle of the product that is being promoted by the companies in collaboration with each other 5 ability of the product that is being promoted by the companies , can it be promoted through market space (internet)

Q) how can a company enhance brand value of a product in accordance with complementor competitor ? A company can enhance brand value of product in accordance with competitor and complementor 1) by producing quality products 2) by maintaining good supply chain management 3) by having a well developed full fledged marketing team 4) by developing a good goodwill in the market through consistent performance Q) how much goodwill has the product brought to the company ? how can it be calculated ? A good goodwill can be calculated by the company by choosing areas which are manageable. these areas are consistent repeat purchases in the specific locality , calculated by the money earned and

increase in money supply in the same locality over a period of time say quarterly basis. repeated positive decisions made by the corporate CEO and board of members which resulted in increase in price of share goodwill percentage = cash increase or decrease in comparison to previous quarterly in previous year --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------by share price increase or decrease compared to previous quarterly in previous year to be checked again through discussion Q) which products are useful to the company and which are not while designing it along with complementor ? any product that is designed and is performing exceptionally well need not be shared with competitors but can be shared with complementor. suppose the product that is launched is new then it can be shared with competitor because company doesn't know whether the new launch is profitable to the company or not now question arises is that what would happen that the new product has been a success. company wants to enjoy the success but that success has to be shared with the competitor because competitor gave you support when product was new. this problem can be solved with contract . jagadish says that after success of the product share profits with competitor for some years with it on mutual understanding complementors are not discussed because complementor is always advantageous for companies .Q) how can a product be useful to the company in accordance with competitor and complementor? existing products are always useful to the company because of their successful track record. new products are the only way one can launch that is future projects in accordance with competitor Q) what are successful traits of a product which exist in the market and also those products which enhance the reputation of complementor or competitor ?

any product whose life cycle is beyond the perception of the companies either company or competitor product that is being launched by both can be termed as a successful product. those product that are perishable cannot be termed as a successful trait for both parties companies involved Q) what guarantees a product to be successful in relation to a company to other products which are successful ? any product which satisfies the following areas mentioned below guarantees product to be successful. they are 1) quality of the product 2) successful supply chain management of the company 3) good goodwill of the company 4) good brand value of the products launched by the company 5) constant repeat purchases of the products of company by consumers Q) what are the vehicles required for a company to promote its product? the different vehicles required for a company to promote its product are 1) mass media 2) market space (internet) 3) pamphlets 4) books 5) cds- games 6) magazines 7) video conference for b2b business 8) newspapers 9) multi level marketing 10) educational dvd Q) when should a company stop promoting its product along with competitor ? their are different ways by which company can stop promoting its product along with competitor . for complementor you need not stop because he always brings good luck to the company 1) contract based strategy 2) during losses to both companies or to one company 3) when product life cycle is at dying stage or mature stage( cash cow) 4) during financial year, it is because during financial year any problems that occur during that months solutions cant be found out because of busy schedule

Q) when should a company promote it's product with competitor ? the company can promote its product with competitor when 1) company feels that the product that is being launched can incur loses to the company because its new to the market 2) competitor and company feels they can share the profit if both feels that combination of them would give them more profits Q) which competitor companies are useful to the company and which are not ? any competitor who satisfies the following areas is fit to come as a collaborator with the company. the following are 1) company should be of similar industry 2) both company and competitor must give value addition to each other products in both market place and market space 3) any company which is good in supply chain management field 4) any company which has good track record in launching good products 5) any company which has similar culture as a competitor Q) which qualities of a company should a company look out for in relation to its competitor (culture) ? same as above Q) how to prioritize a company in relation to other companies which are number1 number2 number3 ? prioritizing a company is based upon performance in related fields in 21st century . they are 1) good product knowledge 2) good supply chain management 3) good product life cycle 4) good quality and after sale service 5) good in selling both at market place and market space

6) good successful line extention of products Q) how can a company be useful in comparision to other companies ? for any successful company to be successful when in 4c should possess following characteristic features. they are same as above Q) how do we define a competitor and a complementor ? any company products which adds a value addition to the existing list of products of the company and enhances the reputation of the products when sold in combo is called as a complementor company any company which is their to grab away the profits of the company in the similar industry field is called as a competitor end of 4c concept questions mergers and acquisitions jagadish A general term used to refer to the consolidation of companies. A merger is a combination of two companies to form a new company, while an acquisition is the purchase of one company by another with no new company being formed. while discussing about mergers and acquisitions following points have to be noted down . they are .1 whether the company has a bad record say 3 years of losses. it is so to know the success rate of the board of members to decide whether to change them or not 2 how much loss was incurred by the company and how low the share price came down during those loss years 3 was the losses consistent or it was periodical 4 during discussion of acquisition discussion can be done about whether management gurus can be talked or not. if talked how many management gurus are needed in times of

crisis to the company 5 another discussion to be made is what would be the role of cmo, ceo, cfo, coo in the new company, any changes and what were their contributions during losses as well as profits earned during financial years for the company 6 discussion can also be made as to star performers in the company , as to their contribution and how company developed because of their contributions. also how many are their presently working under the company 7 how much of intellectual capitalism available to the existing companies and what their strengths and weakness is their of the employees regarding this area of intellectual capitalism measuring of intellectual capitalism can be determined based upon the new strategies that were implemented in space gap of say 5 years at a stretch end of mergers and acquisition of the company Chapter 9 (creating brand equity) Q) what is a brand and how does branding works ? Ans) brand : it is defined as something which personifies the personality of the product of the company it represents branding helps and works in different ways a) it helps in removing barriers between nations (glocalisation) b) brands help in making two or more competitors come together to solve their financial, marketing etc problems (spiritual marketing concept) .spiritual marketing concept : under this concept companies help each other in developing strategies for each other and try to cooperate in developing competition and coopreation in their respective industries c) brands help advertisors think innovatively d) brands help supply chain management making them both efficient and effective in performance

e) brands help consumers in creating image in society for themselves Q) what is brand equity ? Ans) it is how effectively and effficeintly brand can be monitored and used for answers companies benefit Q) how is brand equity measured and managed ? Ans) brand equity is built upon a) good supply chain management b) word of mouth, advertising c) quality d) differentiation e) cost focus f) how efficiently retained earnings are used for measuring brands (Research and Development) Q) How is brand equity measured ? Ans) it is measured on basis of ROI invested on brand produced by the company ROI = returns ----------------investments 2) based upon creativity how can it be measured changes made to the brand at regular intervals to catch hold of new generation with old generation jagadish feels that change should happen once in 3 months becasie age gap or generation gap; is getting decreased with introduction of information technology with feedback .mechanism with target questions to both separately new or old generation (market space) internet creativity questions (sample) 1) what changes have you obsessed in past brand in connection with revised brand (VIBGYOR) * 100

2) was the brand introduced newly satisfied your taste buds [1 to 5] 3) which areas should company touch while designing the product (color, appearance, usage, mobility) 4) what is the best way to advertise the brand ( mass communications, communication channels, service channels ) 5) what were the weaknesses of brand when introduced last time ( packages, service, communications , distributions) 6)according to new introduction of brand who should be the target audience age group (0-19, 20-35, 36-50, 50-90) how is brand equity managed ? managing the brand can be done through a) mass communication b) service channel c) distribution channel d) market space Q) what are the importance decisions in developing a branding strategy ? Ans) a) feasibility of the project brand b) availability in Research and Development (money) c) usage of channel partners efficiently and effectively d) segmentation, targeting , positioning of brand e) glocalisation of the brand end of chapter 9 . CHAPTER 10 (Crafting brand positioning) Q) how can a firm choose and communicate an effective positioning in the market ? ans) A firm can choose and communicate effective positioning in the market through

a) quality b) good supply chain management c) channel partners d) focus e) cost f) differentiation g) retail outlets (organised, unorganised) Q) how are brands differentiated ? same as above Q) what marketing stategies are appropriate at each stage of the product life cycle ? Ans) introduction ( word of mouth) growth ( advertising ) maturity ( advertising and market space (internet) decline ( quality improvement and lots of advertising) Q) what are the implications of market evolution for marketing strategies ? Ans) a) development of new out of box thinking b) products mature early but remain their for long period of time c) usage of higher end technology (ERP) end of chapter 10 chapter 11 Dealing with competition Q) how do marketers identify primary competitors ? Ans) on the basis of a) market share b) repeated purchases of competitors products known through organised retailers technology c) supply chain management d) communication channels Q) how should we analyse competitors strategies objectives strengths and weaknesses ? Ans) 1) observing supply chain management of competitors

2) survey by giving it to distributors, retailers, wholesalers 3) body shopping 4) trade unions Q) how can market leaders expand the total market and defend market share ? Ans) 1) by setting up factories 2) by coordinating with complementors 3) setting up company outlets 4) multilevel marketing how to defend market share 1) by setting up dwelling in Research and Development 2) creating market space 3) by creating gift bonazas 4) csop (customer stock option plan for repeat purchasers) Q) how should market challengers attack market leaders ? Ans) 1) guerilla warfare 2) attack the strengths by making comparative analysis between challengers and leaders 3) by setting up company outlets where competitors has and hasn't touched 4) Flank attack Q) How can market followers or nichers compete effectively ? Ans) same as above chapter 12 setting product strategy Q) what are the characteristics of products and how can they be classified ? Ans) characteristics of products are : 1) product should have saleability 2) product should have good easy name 3) product should have good communication channels 4) product should satisfy to a larger extent desire of consumers 5) product should possess repeat purchases

.how are products classified ? a) perishable b) non perishable c) stable ( satisfying customers on the spot with consumption) eg tea d) non stable : (product that takes longer time to satisfy consumers) eg : reading a book Q) how can companies differentiate products ? Ans) same as above Q) how can a company build and manage its products mix and product lines ? Ans) product : through communication channels place : through segmentation, targetting, positioning price : through cost, focus,differentiation, retained earnings promotion : through communication, service , distribution channels Q) how can companies combine products to create strong co-brands or ingredient brands ? Ans) through 4c concept (told at the starting of this information) Q) how can companies use packaging, labelling , waranties and gaurantees as marketing tools ? Ans) companies can use packaging to bring about novelty - eg kurkure warranties and gaurantee if lengthened can help consumers to purchase more of the product labeling helps consumers pick up easily the product with smart names eg : Rajnigandha end of chapter 12 chapter 13 Designing and managing services Q) how are services defined and classified and how do they differ ? services is defined as any return which paid back by the company for services rendered by it back to consumers classification of services

a) services rendered through word of mouth b) services rendered through technology c) services rendered through manual labor d) services rendered through money word of mouth is rendered by explanation of product technology is rendered through after sale service (defective technology manual labour is rendered through after sale service money is rendered by buy back offer eg: pressure cookers Q) how are services marketed : ? Ans) same as above Q) how can service quality be improved ? Ans) a) job enlargement b) job rotation c) job enhancement Q) How do services marketers create strong brands ? Ans ) a) after sale service b) word of mouth c) communication channels d) market space e) help desk f) research and development g) booklets Q) How can goods producing companies improve customer support services ? Ans) a) business process outsourcing b) telecallers c) information booths [kiosks] d) industrial fairs e) Customer relationship management f) market space [ emails ] g) surveys end of chapter 13 .chapter 14 Developing pricing strategies and programs

Q) how do consumers process and evaluate prices ? Ans) a) competitor price b) segmentation, targeting , positioning c) salary earned by respective family target audience d) number of family members e) break even point f) replacement of products quickly Q) how should a company set prices initially for products or services ? Ans) a) break even point b) decision takers as to how quickly board of members want profit c) competitor pricing d) effect on market space money e) technology at hand f) supply chain management usage and cost factor Q) how should a company adapt price to meet varying circumstances and opportunities ? Ans) a) inflatiion : stop advertisement, use distribution channels to promote product b) deflation : use market space (internet), communication channels, combos c) stagflation : unemployment + inflation, word of mouth through employees of company Q) when should a company initiate a price change ? Ans) 1) change in competitor price affect company into losses 2) when demand for a product is high or low compared to supply of the product into market 3) when inflation , deflation , stagflation occur in the market 4) when product enhancement taken into consideration Q) how should a company respond to a competitors price change ?

Ans) 1) outsourcing the areas where company can reduce money 2) core competency keep it to oneself 3) increase research and development expenditure by reducing communication channels [through focus, differentiation] 4) retained earnings to be decreased by giving it shares to shareholders end of chapter 14 chapter 15 Designing and managing value networks and channels Q) what is marketing channel system and value networks? Ans) marketing channel system : it is systematic process of channelising product from starting point to end user Q) what works do marketing channels perform ? Ans) 1) bring brand closer to consumer 2) make brand awareness possible 3) helps in promoting products under B2B, B2C,C2C 4) help brands in STP Q) how should channels be designed ? Ans) 1) on the basis of segmentation,targeting, positioning 2) on the basis of innovation 3) on the basis of creativity 4) on the basis of brand equity Q) what decisions do companies face in managing their channels ? Ans) a) what type of channel to decide to promote brand b) if marketing channel fails what the back up c) what type of channel to use to do segmentation, targeting, positioning d) which channel is effective under situation like 1) inflation 2) deflation 3) stagflation Q) what major types of marketing intermediaries occupy this sector ? Ans) Retailing - organised, unorganised wholesale - all types of products handling similar types of products handling logistics - transportation,. warehousing

Q) what marketing decisions do these marketing intermediaries make ? Ans) 1) type of products to store 2) quantity of products to store 3) cost factor involved 4) usage of Enterprise Resource Planning Q) what are the major trends with marketing intermediaries ? Ans) unorganized to organized retailers end of chapter 16 chapter 17 Designing and Managing integrated marketing communications Q) what is the role of marketing communications ? Ans) 1) To create brand equity for the product 2) to do segmentation , targeting, positioning for the product 3) to make consumers aware of the product 4) to find complementors for the company Q) how do marketing communications work ? Ans) through 1) mass media 2) market space 3) networking 4) supply chain management 5) B2B, B2C, C2C 6) segmentation , targeting, positioning 7) branding .Q) what are the major steps in developing effective communication ? Ans) 1) vision of the company 2) brand equity 3) mission of the company 4) segmentation , targeting , positioning 5) feedback Q) what is the communication mix and how should it be set? Ans)

communication mix : it is considred to be a mixture of conglomerate of selected channels to get right promotion of product brand into making without creating hurdles for the company the brand represents how should it be set 1) on the basis of objective of the brand 2) on the basis of the life cycle of brand 3) on the basis of competition with competitors 4) on the basis of help got from complementors Q) what is an integrated marketing communications program ? Ans) to determine whether communication are truly integrated 1) on the basis of channels marketing 2) on the basis of coverage of brand 3) on the basis of cost End of chapter 17 Chapter 18 managing mass communication , advertising, sales promotion events public relations Q) what steps are involved in developing an advertising programs ? ans) 1) vision of the company 2) mission of the company 3) segmentation, targeting, positioning 4) type of communication channels 5) frequency of promotion activity 6) investment by company

.Q) how should sales promotion decisions be made ? Ans) a) input from marketing executives b) objectives of mission and vision of the company c) investment to be made by company Q) what are the major ways of entering a foreign market ? Ans) 1) mergers and acquisitions

2) own outlets 3) technology 4) saving price 5) quality standards 6) demographic population 7) geographic advantage 8) better communication channels Q) what factors should a company review before deciding to go abroad ? Ans) 1) target population 2) segmentation, targeting , positioning 3)which product to introduce 4) pricing of the product 5) change of name plate of brand it is making Q) how can companies evaluate and select specific foreign markets to enter ? Ans) 1) similarity in culture 2) friendship between countries 3) population demographics 4) manpower 5) pricing end of philip kotler chapters TRUST JAGADISH trust : it is something which binds people together without arousing resentment while working with each other in today's 21st century can we ever find trust among people. This trust in people was founded way back in 1995 under the heading called as corporate governance. then the .discussion starts as to why it corporate governance could not be utilized by government bodies properly. why did it went or still gone into the backdrop without any notice ? In the 4c concept I jagadish prasad tried to show that trust generates lot of revenue for both government bodies and companies. still jagadish believes that trust has still only germinated , it hasn't come into with any full swing of a bat. it still works in bits and pieces. according to jagadish trust can only be developed by meeting commitments on regular basis , the chance being given to opposition based upon the number of trusts an individual wants to give to other party.

this giving up chances is again dependent upon how much the party believes in trust for example if the individual believes in 50% of time in trust , he gives 50% commitment to his whom he wants to assign the task . how much should a person trust a person in 21st century. again it is left to individual of how much trust he has on himself. it is very interesting to note that if a person trusts himself and his commitment towards the task he has undertaken is to his full satisfaction automatically his trust on others also increases because of his belief and commitment he expects from others as he is also committed and expects the same commitment from others as he individually has shown on others. why do people not show the same commitment which people expects? people by nature are always want to show that they are busy in their schedule., they are not committed towards work as others are. they want to complete the task as quickly as possible. people have different taste buds, some want to watch movies whenever they get time others in their own interest pursuits. based upon this psychology if we assign a task which the person is least interested in automatically his commitment either trust or work gets depleted. if you have observed how job interview vacancy is given. it is to be noted that they specify that we want marketing executives who are self motivated and who has commitments high enough to get work done without any support. he should have to develop contacts by himself and generate revenue for the company what we can gauge from here is that in today's scenario trust is getting depleted day by day in the reverse way. companies are giving scope to people to develop their passions. job enlargement is one way of knowing what employees can achieve by working for their respective companies. trust if has to truly shine can only be shined if people are ethical . and how to judge ethics of people if by showing regularly the commitment levels by people on a consistent basis. if people are ethical companies can prosper exceptionally well which in return helps the society develop good citizens, ethical citizens and ethical society for the new generation to follow on good path set by elders and present middle aged generation for the new generation to follow. .why did Gandhi says that truth , trust in others is difficult to follow. it was seen in Hindi film lage raho munna bhai. Gandhi said " my path is very difficult to travel " almost something like this . why did Gandhi even whole society feels that truth is difficult to follow. why? while speaking truth and having trust should be a normal game . one only has to do is to speak whatever activities he has done in a truthful manner. my mother in my childhood used to say tell white lies if it benefits others. i always used to debate that even white lies

is a lie. why to speak white lie? if one questions that you were lying people say it was a white lie. how come Gandhi's truth is difficult to follow i haven't still understood. people don't want to commit themselves. in the olden generation of Indian mythology people of war clan used to commit and used to kill themselves if they hadn't shown commitment towards their words spoken. if spoken they have to be followed word to word amazingly this path was abandoned because jagadish feels that after British east India company came to India. east India company took advantage of this i wouldn't say flaw but Indian realized it later . east India company must have felt happy that Indians were stupid in killing themselves for simple reason of showing commitment towards words spoken with commitment. later on Indians became smart and stopped and started changing their commitments regularly. the biggest advantage which India gained because of east India company was its giving away language English to Indians without their knowledge thus helping small part of the country independently making them united as one single nation called India bharat. what happens if commitments are honoured by citizens of respective countries and companies 1 confidence level among people increases 2 people develop faith . quotation says faith moves mountains 3 commitment towards work increases 4 knowledge can be shared between nations very quickly with faith trust can also be developed through collaboration/coordination between government bodies and companies. why to develop coordination.? it is to meet unforeseen contingencies in respective industries by their respective companies so that the industry doesn't collapse just like that. i call it spiritual marketing concept. spiritual marketing concept : under this concept companies help each other in developing strategies for each other and try to cooperate in developing competition and cooperation in their respective industries the basis of foundation of this concept would be on 3 layers 1 trust 2 perfect relationship management 3 participative marketing management perfect relationship management : it can be defined as something when 2 or more parties come together and think for on behalf of their companies and come out with better solutions either through collaboration or through cooperation collaboration : this is defined as 2 or more companies considered competitors in the market, come together to solve industry problems

perfect relationship management : a relationship where companies 2 or more join hands together for a common cause participative marketing concept : it is a conceptual tool to determine the complementors, competitors for the company and help company to provide solutions to the existing problems in the industry it represents The following is the article written with gusto feeling and ended it with participation of various companies. it is my sincere request to anyone who has seen this article think for themselves whether trust, confidence. truth, commitment can be incorporated in the companies and government bodies or not. end of trust information

Marketing warfare Alries and Jack trout analysed by jagadish I) principles of defensive marketing warfare 1) only market leader should consider playing defense this cannot be true it is so because even a new entrant who enters into the industry also has to play defensive role to protect himself from the onslaught of existing players in the industry in which new entrant is existing into if a new entrant is entering into new industry segment then defensive strategy is not needed because he is the only player in the new segment . a new entrant would play defensive strategy when he encounters a competitor in the industry segment he is into everyone in industry plays defensive strategy and not just market leader 2) the best defensive strategy is the courage to attack yourself this jagadish would agree because if you don't attack yourself someone would come (competitor) to smash your own concept. if you don't have the habit of smashing your own concept. on regular basis your cannot improve your own quality staff. in the process you would lose your own product. you must have the habit of cannibalizing your own product so that you

can stay ahead in comparison to your competitors. 3) strong competitive moves should always be blocked it is difficult to find what strong competitive moves can be every move can be called a Strong competitive move if looked in perception angle through different people. so best strategy is cannibalise your own product frequently to stay ahead of your competition invest lot in research and development cannibalise your own product in best defensive strategy II) principles of offensive marketing warfare 1) the main consideration is strength of leaders position when you attack a competitor in any industry segment you have to come up with what your strength are and what are your weak point once you know your strength it comes easy for your to attack your competitors based on your strength eg suppose a company strength is quality start advertising your strength with the help of your employees. that is the easiest way to promote companies product. 2) find a weakness in the leaders strength and attack at that point it is true for competitors to attack leader at his weakness but on other hand if you start attacking at leaders strength also in near future their is a likelihood of leader strength becoming weal k and a good s entry for competitor to become leader so jagadish advised that both strength and weaknesses have to be attacked eg if company strength is quality highlight by comparing competitor leader strength with its quality strength comparison 3) launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible for a new entrant if it wants to compete with leader first attack on those geographical locations where leader hasn't entered or has least penetration if this policy is adopted by new entrant it can gauge how comfortable it is to fight against the leader for a leader it is very simple strengthen those areas first where there is least penetration has been done Defensive marketing warfare continued 4) by placing people at right places : the question here arises as to how company board members know where employees fit in

the organization. it can be known only by job enlargement job enlargement : any job taken up by the employee of a company which is done in addition to the job he has been assigned to is job enlargement 5) by attacking your competitor : it is always said that attack is best defense . how do you attack your competitor go for flank warfare by attacking those areas where companies are weaker . make those areas of market economies strong which in return would benefit in long run principles of guerrilla warfare : 1) find a segment of market small enough to defend . jagadish prasad also adds offense how do you defend a small segment by satisfying the demands , needs of consumers . how do you know the needs of people by attacking focus opinion leaders of segment which are dominant in those geographical location in which company is planning to either enter or new area it is choosing for itself to enter how do you go for an offense in company strategy by targeting opinion leaders in advance and accepting them in company roles and giving them salary to influence decision of masses opinion leaders take pulse of masses because of their regular interaction with masses of their own nature 2) no matter how successful you become never act like a leader if company doesn't act like a leader company would always be in a defensive mood so if you act like a leader you would always feel like improving standards of your product would you like to promote your product aggressively or would you like to be in defensive mood of facing threatening moves from leader always being in afraid position which would at last force you to withdraw the product from the market so jagadish advises that act like a leader not as a follower either guerrilla or offensive marketing warfare attack is best defense because under defense their is a possibility of product being withdrawn even if it is doing very good for defensive mood psychology 3) be prepared to buyout at a moments notice under guerrilla warfare you bug out at a moments notice because under guerrilla you are under defensive strategy . if you change the strategy into offensive also then logical thinking takes place in your mindset where you exist out not out of fear but out of good logical thinking with both for or against tactic.

so bug out not out of fear but with logical thinking 4) under guerrilla warfare you save time and money if you save money and time you get benefit of helping your product , reach masses which need the most. you can spread this product later to other areas eg nirma started out with small segments went on to become a big mnc , even ghadi detergent of india principles of flanking warfare 1) a good flanking move must be made into uncontested area 2) tactical surprise out to be an important element of plan it is true without tactical surprise element product cannot be launched , tactical mover should be their either in cost, quality or in focused area (niches) 3 the pursuit is as critical as the attack itself it is true without pursuit against a competitor you cannot be eliminate his products in market so pursuit , attack and defense against competitors is required it has to be noted that in marketing warfare we talk about only competitors and how to destroy or eliminate products of competitors but marketing warfare Can also be used to support complementors principles of complementor 1) complementor and his added advantage to respective companies 2) complementor and product development 3) complementor and product life cycle 4) complementor and brand value 5) complementor and its risk returns end of marketing warfare with above questions to be solved later

Brand Report Card

Kevin Lane keller analysed by jagadish

the worlds strongest brands share these ten attributes 1 the brand excels at delivering the benefits customers truly desire : it is to be noted that brands excel at delivering only by satisfying the customers by finding out what makes the brands unique in satisfying their desires in a complete sense. eg starbucks how to know whether brand is delivering to the end consumer for which brand is meant to deliver it is by conducting surveys across the globe through market space (internet) and also by conducting inhouse training to both marketing channels and stakeholders 2 brand stays relevant : for any brand to stay relevant it has to get updated information on current trends which customers are enjoying and what they expect from brands in the category they are interested in. question now arises as to how to make the brand stay relevant . it can be made relevant by a) market surveys through market place and market space b) customer stock option plan by looking at which stocks are popular or not c) selling products through employees (amway) d) kiosk that too at shopping places

3 pricing strategy is based on consumers perceptions of value : actually pricing is done by companies on the basis of cost of production and added by adding up supply chain management . now question arises as to what price has to be charged. it is decided not by customers but by the usability of product the company manufactures. how can companies chose whether the product that is being sold has usability more of less it is done by

a) daily sales report by marketing executive geographically through management information system b) number of houses and families report through census of government c) checking out the staple food of the particular locality through national distributors network report 4 brand is properly positioned : how can you say that brand is properly positioned as per companies point of view is seen. it can be known through a) market space questionaire b) opinion leaders and focus group interview or recruitment of them on commission based based upon correct assessment of their ideas how to locate opinion leaders and focus groups in a particular locality/state/country opinion leaders and focus groups can be found out through database generated by the internet usage who are giving solutions to the magazines , newspapers etc in india it is economic times, business standard etc database which are management newspapers and in management magazines business world, business today etc are being used by the people who are giving answers to the newspaper/magazines c) frequent usage saleability of product through organised retail stores database mis(management information system) 5 brand is consistent : brand can only be consistent till preferences of the customers don't change. till preferences of customers don't change the ad should remain the same. how to find out preferences have changed is to find out a) market space questionnaire b) focus group / opinion leaders information and their advise through commission c) cost of house rent in a particular locality determines standard of living of families in that locality d) setting up of organized retail stores and survey daily through fast sales of products . 6 brand portfolio and hierarchy make sense :

actually brand portfolio has to have some categories. like whom to cater to. they can be children teenagers adults aged people geographical segmentation Demographic segmentation nature friendly products type of consumers and where to find them is through c2c (customer to customer) and b2b (business to business) eg : amway, tupperware products 7 the brand makes use of and coordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity what type of marketing activities are required to build brand equity (managing the brand) they can be a) managing marketing channels (communication, distribution, service channels) b) good daily sales report of the brand assigned to the team c) managing stakeholders of the company through quarterly report of the progress of the company so that companies brand name remains intact 8 the brands managers understand what the brand means to consumers for a brand manager to understand consumers mentality managers have to be constant contact with grassroot level marketing executives. vertical execution is horrible compared to horizontal execution in 21st century how can you make consumers understand what the brand means to them a) through explanation of brands being produced to consumers in magazines and also in management newspapers of companies brand represents b) kiosk c) promotional campaign of company websites by respective industries under 4c 4c concept :under this concept companies help each other in developing strategies for each other and try to cooperate in developing competition and cooperation in their respective industries the collaboration of different companies promoting each other in

similar industry background by having trust between respective companies while doing promotional campaign 9 the brand is given proper support and that support is sustained over the long run how sustainance of support to the product or brand is given is through profits earned over the period of time by the company for satisfying the desires of the consumers. how much profits has to be earned to sustain the product is left to the decision of the board members. how can company promote brand and support it in its long run. what arsenal is needed to do that a) marketing channels b) word of mouth c) employee promotional campaign d) market space promotion cross usage of websites e) retained earnings to be stored up for doing research and development to promote products development for future 10 the company monitors sources of brand equity : how does company monitors sources of brand equity can be said by looking at a brand audit report prepared by the company. this brand audit has to be maintained on quarterly basis where it is tested by the investors to know the pulse of the company they are investing at. how to design a brand audit it can be designed by a) secondary data/history of company brands b) strategies designed by the company (SWOT) c) stakeholders/brand problems and how they were solved (recent) d) research being done on the brand and how it can be made useful for the end consumers who are interested in the brand/products made by the company e) this information of brand audit be passed on to the end consumer through market space (internet) to all stakeholders and employees of the company

ansoff model 1 under 4c concept spiritual marketing concept 4c : under this concept companies help each other in developing strategies for each other and try to cooperate in developing competition and cooperation in their respective industries

the basis of foundation of this concept would be on 3 layers 1 trust 2 perfect relationship management 3 participative marketing management customer here is defined as both b2b customer and end user customer. end user (new or old customer) can be termed as company going to new or old geographical areas where products are being sold old price can be defined as the price origanally fixed by the company 3 to 6 months back for the products sold . here new customer is new areas or b2b where company can cater to old price just to make the area geographically strong existing price is defined as the products being priced without any change and sold at current price sold regularly average price is defined as price quoted for the similar products sold at their market rate taken averagely by similar products price tag new price is defined as price fixed by changing the existing price tag for the products sold by the company Ansoff models to be discussed new customer old competitor/company -------- old price/existing price old customer new competitor/company ------- existing price new customer new competitor/company ------- average price old customer old competitor/company -------- new price

ansoff mode 2 4c concept old competitor old company ----- existing price new competitor old company ----- new price new competitor new company ----- average price old competitor new company -----old price/ existing price

ansoff model 3 4c concept new complementor old company --------- existing price old complementor new company --------- old price/existing price old complementor old company ---------- average price new complementor new company ------new price

MODEL 1 rural employment through localised manufacturing unit 1 construction of localised manufacturing unit 2 employment being given to villagers, being controlled by the company for example 5 villages 3 control of villages, by the company would be for a duration not less than 20 years 4 decision regarding selection of villages would be done or taken voluntary by the companies themselves 5 central government has to come up with tax free exemption for a minimum period till the company starts producing profits for itself 6 role of employee villagers is to sell its (companies) manufactured products and earn entire commission by selling products till a proper transportation is provided for the companies to reach the villages 7 after 20 years another quotation of proposed by the companies would be taken by state or central government. the government would then make the decision of whom the respective villages have to be given after the completion period of 20 years MODEL 2 OIL CRISIS 1 reduce the price of petrol oil to white goods companies

2 increase the price of money to be paid by customers to white goods companies 3 reduction of oil price to white goods must be lesser than increase in price offered to customers by white goods companies 4 price of amount profit earned must be shared between the oil petrol company and white goods companies 5 this strategy can be applied to other industries also 6) both companies and oil petrol companies are complementary to each other and comes under 4 c concept 4c concept believes in working of companies together in similar industries with complementors MODEL 3 NON COLLATERAL PAYMENT 1 choose 5 to 10 people 2 ask them to invest in small amount of money of say 20 rs per day 3 monthly it comes to 600 rs per person 4 overall monthly it comes to say 10 people 6000 5 this strategy is for those who do not have anything for security aspect to be given or to be taken loan from banks 6 this amount can also be given by companies who are working in the village background 7 a minimum amount of money has to be kept as security by these 10 people so that default can be taken care off MODEL 4 SAP TRAINING 1 selection of IIM say IIM ahmedabad for coaching of sap to all students who are interested 2 duration gap be 1 to 2 years training

3 minimum strength to be kept as 20 students per batch 4 only those subjects which are commonly used by companies to be taught not all types of subjects in SAP 5 half year training in a corporate atmosphere and to be absorbed into the company 6 from the corporate perspective SAP training to be given to training and development wing in IIM ahmedabad training institute for corporate sector which they can share it with the employees MODEL 5 FISHERMAN PROBLEM 1 in radius of say 5 kms export import office should be set up for purchasing fishes for village communities 2 truck would pick up daily fishes and transport it to export import office with the help of ice used in sugarcane juices MODEL 6 WATER PROBLEM BETWEEN STATES 1 sharing of water between states in the country is based upon a) amount generated by the villages of the state which depend upon water b) on the basis of poor people status in the states that are being shared with water c) water shared based upon acres of land being shared by villages in their respective states Model 7 if the inflation rate is more than 9% and above in the country what is the solution a) check out if any occasion is being celebrated in the country it is so to distribute money to stakeholders

b) if it is during financial year and the people are in inflation it is bonanza for the company c) bonanza means right time to distribute money to stakeholders creating goodwill about company in crisis situation of country d) this bonanza has to be distributed by those companies which have achieved a minimum growth rate to stabilize itself on the onslaught of inflation and then by distributing profits later on to stakeholders during inflation time by maintaining goodwill for the company towards stakeholders e) 4c can also be applied to this model if complementors are also being suffered because of inflation example of complementor to all companies is petrol, oil, diesel, organised retail stores, f) in finance convertable bonds into shares play a major role in inflation by helping companies generate revenue for themselves in times of inflation and give a small percentage to shareholders on the spot without waiting for few months. Model 8 food scarcity in India under 4c concept with the help of complementors 1) check out the states where food scarcity is their 2) then states where food scarcity is not their issue long term convert able bonds to shares to farmers by complementary companies for a duration of 5 years, why 5 years because suppose they encounter losses that can be compensated with bonds interest 3) where food scarcity is their complementary companies must issue free short term bonds to farmers on the spot payment of cash to encounter losses which indirectly effect complementary companies 4) these complementary companies who have issued free short term bonds in association with life insurance would be paid back to companies by making farmers associate with life insurance + general insurance 5) that means complementary companies with life insurance+ general insurance under their belt would promote bonds to the farmers under losses. 6) so complementary companies must tie up with insurance sector

who are these complementary companies 1) life insurance 2) fertilizer companies 3) banks 4) aggro based industries 5) seed companies complementors for respective companies complementor : it is defined as two or more companies coming together with the idea of adding value addition to each other without each other support the companies cannot survive a complementor for a company need not be from the same industry, it can be from other industries also example : petroleum , paper industries are common to all industries IT industry and BPO complementor is human capital human capital is complementor to all industries it is so because IT company generates revenue for itself through projects, but these projects stay with the company for 5 to 10 years contract , after which contract expires and again fresh contract is signed. this signed contract cannot be done again with the same company hence companies cannot be complementors hence these project are done by team leaders in IT and their respective team members, hence it team leader fails in the project done by his team members and himself revenue is at loss to the company and hence human capital is the hallmark of complementors without team leader help company cannot generate revenue and without company IT team leader cannot earn salary, retrenchment problem is the highlight of IT and BPO depending upon human capital. now question arises except the team leaders are others also complementors to industries or not . this can be proved with the help of intellectual capitalism of individuals suppose a team leader has 4 to 5 members, out of them 1 is highly intellectual than team leader he can be an asset to the company and also to other industries if he comes under knowledge regarding other fields speciailly strategy wing of companies.

example of hr terminology is body shopping which takes place within an industry and also outside industry but rarely under 4c, knowledge capitalism can be shared between companies within an industry or outside industry under strategy wing, without body shopping by allowing respective knowledge based personality to work simulataneously under different companies within industry sharing of knowledge between companies jagadish terminology is commandoes if we take into consideration in BPO sector complementors by themselves are voice trainers it is so because without voice trainers employers cannot decide which are beneficail employees or not to their companies.hence voice trainers train their employees and generate revenue for the company but it has to be taken into notice that their are voice trainers outside the jurisdiction of BPO companies which can be recruited under 4c concept Auto industry complementor is mechanics distributors (saboo motors) insurance (complementor to all industries) companies handling spare parts petroleum industry paper industry (complementor to all industries) mechanics are useful as a complementor to a company because most of the decisions customers or consumers take is in discussion with motor mechanics . these mechanics as they work with company products know the loopholes of the company products and consumers believe in them example : castrol oil ad distributors like saboo motors handle cars etc manufactured by companies. these distributors know the track record of consumers who handle the purchases. with the help of distributors auto industry can manufacture those products which are fast saleable to consumers who purchase these auto industry insurance as per motor act is mandatory hence insurance by default is a complementor to auto industry

companies handling spare parts are also complementary because if spare parts are not available companies either have to manufacture by themselves or have to depend on other companies who manufacture their spare part related to cars, scooters, motorcycles petroleum industry is by default complementary to anything without which as of now auto industry doesn't run paper industry is complementor to all industries because without paper industry circulation of information to customers cannot be highlighted Media and Entertainment complementor is cable network companies for newspapers , magazines and internet (market space) it is contracts contracts are complementary for any company now to do analysis why cable network companies and not others what does media look at gossips, that is where revenue generation is done because TRP comes into play the more the TRP the better the revenue, the more the revenue more companies invest but TRP cannot be complementor because TRP changes with each change in news, hence time slots also change and complementor if it is company at that point of time would leave because of poor TRP rating hence TRP is discarded complementor is defined as something where both the companies are at same level field without getting into losses when matched evenly, another thing if time slots are checked up instead of TRP for a company in mass media is TV radio then information at that point of time is changing, news change hence loss to the company if complementor company invest at that point of time company would leave because of bad information, hence time slots also cannot be decided as complementor because revenue at that time slot has to change with each change in information complementor is said as someone where through his existence revenue has to increase and not decrease so if companies are considered as complementors they also change with change in time slot information or TRP change loss to the media company hence companies also cannot be termed as complementors for the media

hence if complementor is said to be main company cable operators like C channel, Maa channel etc they become complementary because if they exist and promote channel companies, revenue is generated and TRP is increased which benefits both cable operators to promote channels and channel companies like CNBC etc can get huge TRPs. so channel companies should promote their companies by partnership with cable operator companies to generate revenue for themselves. hence these main cable operator companies become the automatic choice for mass media in TV as complementors. what about market space (internet) operated by mass media channels as CNBC and etc in this respect the complementor for market space is contracts with companies newspapers companies complementors are company advertising agencies and again they are based on contract hence contract is complementary to newspapers , magazines because without which no company comes into play , how long should these contracts be their between two companies, i havent said that companies which are into ads in newspapers are complementors it is the contract signed by companies between the two or more is a complementor to prove that contract is the complementor it can be proved by saying that contracts exist to generate revenue and if contracts expire the revenue is lost between two or more companies and not with coming or going of companies for ad space in market space or newspapers or magazines. Real Estate complementor is websites of real estate companies websites is complementor to all industries if we take real estates real estates purchase land either from government or from farmers but this purchase of land is restricted to overall growth annually is 2% maximum as stated in free lunch textbook of economics so farmers government cannot be complementors to the real estate because they generate revenue marginally what is the actual real money generated by real estate it is construction activity which 98% money generation converting of single storeyed to double , trible storeys

hence if this promotional activity is done through websites which are made exclusively by the real estates business can easily be generated but this generation of revenue can happen through word of mouth where websites like sulekha etc can be promoted websites are the craze of 21st century, hence if websites are created, knowledge about real estates increases and also through word of mouth of real estate websites hence without websites company real estate revenue cannot be generated and without customers knowing how many real estates are their in india they cannot purchase hence website promotion if it is done revenue can be generated by real estates. Model 1 For those companies whose employees have been removed because of mismanagement by board members 1) Check out the employees who have life insurance under their belt 2) check out the number of years the employees have to pay instalments for life insurance 3) those instalments which are at the fag end of their instalments payments should be given annuities style of payment of smaller denominations to get insurance or pension under life insurance 4)Employees who have just started payment of life insurance would be clubbed together with other employees under same bracket would be checked with medical insurance payment or not. 5) if there is no medical insurance bracket in life insurance these employees would be given medical insurance through accidental case by converting the amount of life insurance of their money into accidental benefit through optional plan for themselves and for family members by pooling up their money under a fund created by employees themselves monitored by the government 6) those employees who have medical insurance under life insurance would be converted to mutual funds . these mutual funds would be paid for life insurance sum that means we are asking mutual funds money to be paid as installments towards life insurance by respective employees of the company which means group life insurance of smaller denominations under mutual funds This needs to be fine tuned by respective companies

model 2 : for those companies which have lost brand value in the public 1) check out the purpose behind the fall in the brand value in public 2) check out the liquidity of cash available to compensate for future contingency 3) check out the employees who do not create value addition to the company and remove them through voluntary retirement plan 4) those who create value addition to the company to be made brand ambassadors of the company by being paid cash through seminars conducted by the company to address stakeholders through government help 5) once seminars are conducted through the brand ambassadors check out the opinion of the public in the leading newspapers internet for response through survey sending it to stakeholders and public at large 6) if the problem that is being addressed still persists even after the above means seal off the company and pay the employees through retirement plans designed by government if situation arises to close off the company discuss with the government and close the issue Model 3 : Constituency development in countries ministers selected by themselves voluntary basis step 1 : geographical area of constituency to be surveyed step 2 : allocation of funds based upon the work to be covered up within 6 months step 3 : report of 6 months step 4 : bonus salary to be given based upon certain percentage of completion of the area selected by the minister within time frame of 6 months step 5 : extra money to be given for remaining portion of 6 months and new assignment taken up for the next 6 months assignment step 6 : At the end of term of ministership huge bonus for making his constituency a well known constituency chapter 18

Managing mass communications advertising sales promotions events and public relations Q) what are the guidelines for effective brand building events and experiences ? Ans) guidelines for effective brand building events and experiences are brand building events and experiences can be defined as promotional activities done to make the brand a success in the minds of consumers else customers some of the best ways to do it a) demographic and geographic locations of consumers where brand is not selling b) survey on consumer spending where brand is not selling c) core competency of the area where branding is weak, to find out products that sell in that location d) age group of the locality where brand is weak e) media selection by the respective consumers where brand is weak Q) how can companies exploit the potential of public relations and publicity ? Ans) companies can exploit the potential of public relations and publicity through a) check out the mass media which is prevalent in the geographic location selected by company b) check out the age group of the consumers who are using mass media c) check out through kiosk how effective the consumers are in knowledge about products and also on other brand awareness of products that company represents d) select the distribution channel which is convenient for the company to deliver e) if successful product distribution towards consumers then can later be done through company outlets chapter 19 Managing personal communications direct marketing and personal selling

Q) How can companies use integrated direct marketing for competitive advantage ? Ans) integrated direct marketing is defined as direct marketing association of multiple benefits packed together to solve company problems competitive advantage can be defined as any benefit enjoyed by the company either through cost advantage, focus or differentiation between company products or branding how to use integrated direct marketing for competitive advantage by companies it is by a) checking out the marketing channels which can be used by the company b) checking out whether direct marketing can be added up to these channels selected by company c) checking out the marketing strategy adopted by the company through secondary data d) checking out the products used by the company while selecting the secondary data e) checking out whether the direct marketing benefits were used by the company or not f) benefits can be like after sale service, pamphlet distribution, customer database collection etc g) checking out whether those benefits can be reused for present brands or not h) checking out the complementors who would be benefited because of this direct marketing tactics used by the company and tie up with them for future sales and benefits to be enjoyed by the companies that are being associated with each other i) once you know complementors try to see, what other benefits that a complementor can bring to the company that it feels associated with j) lastly by checking out the demographic, geographic boundaries used by the companies to promote to customers for their respective products

Q) how can companies do effective e-marketing ? Ans) companies can do effective e marketing through different ways such as a) job portal survey

b) cross usage of e marketing space in the Internet c) additional packages and updations sent to end user account through net Q) what decisions do companies face in designing a sales force ? Ans) the decisions needed by companies to face while designing a sales force is through a) geographic boundaries does the company products have sold and are to be sold to end user b) average rent paid by the end user while stationing at respective localities c) selecting the job localities in respective states and their employee salary packages where they work d) age group of focus group, opinion leaders which are to be targeted by the sales force Q) how do companies manage a sales force efficiently ? Ans) companies can manage a sales force efficiently by following certain rules and regulations a) keeping the sales force age to certain minimum based on the target customer they cater to b) creating a close nit teams catering to particular localities by respective teams on consistent basis without changing their respective localities so that team gets used to catering to those localities assigned to them permanently c) creating a team report by respective teams to their localities every day or week depending upon the end consumer else retailers requirement Q) how can salespeople improve selling, negotiating and relationship marketing skills ? Ans) salespeople in a company can improve selling, negotiating and relationship building skills through by a) attending management seminars b) in house laboratory c) strategy team and training and development wing to be given good management books/journals and to apply them to the companies requirements Chapter 20 Introducing new market offerings

Q) what challenges does a company face in developing new products ? Ans) challenges that a company faces in developing new products are a) cost factor -- too costly to sell to end user b) not able to associate the product with existing complementor product c) goodwill of company image is at stake to make product compete with other competitors on all fronts like quality, service, distribution etc d) choosing of marketing channel (service, distribution, communication) is at stake if product fails which might affect the existing brand communication channel of existing products of the company Q) what organizational structures are used to manage new product development ? Ans) the type of organizational structures that are used to management new product development are horizontal structures because easy monitoring by CEO to check whether product is beneficial to the customers or not complementor structure to check out whether the product is beneficial to complementors or not complementor structure can be defined as number of complementors which can create value addition to the company or industry to which it might relate to (product wise)

Q) what are the main stages in developing new products ? Ans) The main stages in developing new products are a) marketing research b) good segmentation , targeting and positioning of product to be launched c) checking out the changes that have happened in consumer behavior over the period of say 6 months with the help of focus group, opinion leaders d) finding out whether product would be accepted based upon line extension or not Q) what is the best way to set up the new product development process ?

Ans) new product development process can be defined as process that takes place in development of products launched which is beneficial to the end user or not which can be both B2B, B2C the best way to set up the new product development process are a) focus group , opinion leaders information including through Internet b) complementor information gathering as to what developments have happened to them c) checking out the developments happening in the retail sector d) employee ERP information as to what changes would employees like to make in their company products and if success pay them stocks from the company

Q) what factors affect the rate of diffusion and consumer adoption of newly launched products ? Ans) the rate of diffusion can be defined as the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another (word web) the factors that affect the rate of diffusion of newly launched products are a) environment changes of developments taking place in society b) inflation, deflation, stagflation taking place in society c) concentration of population index ( youngster, aged etc ) in a country d) employment generation through companies (strategy wing thought process) the factors that affect the consumer adoption of newly launched products are consumer adoption can be defined as products that are easily acceptable by consumers which are newly launched into the society a) demographic (age, sex ) b) psychographic (attitude) c) house rent d) employment of youth into what type of companies e) concentration of middle class in particular localities chapter 21 Tapping into global markets

Q) To what extent must the company adopt the products and marketing program to each foreign country? Ans) the company must adopt the products and marketing program to each foreign country by a) multi linguistic languages in respective countries b) age group of the maximum consumers prevalent in respective countries c) mass media used by respective countries d) resemblance of culture present in foreign country as is prevalent in motherland Q) how should the company manage and organize the international activities ? Ans) the company should manage and organize the international activities through different ways such as a) glocalization b) setting up toll free numbers in international countries c) monthly booklets to be published to employees and stakeholders about companies situated in foreign and local countries chapter 22 managing a holistic marketing organization Q) what are important trends in marketing practices ? Ans) the important trends in marketing practices are a) spiritual marketing concept b) trust between companies c) coming up of complementors d) organised retail sectors coming into operation acrosss nations e) setting up of manufacturing units in towns specially in developing nations Q) what are the keys to effective internal marketing ? Ans) internal marketing can be defined as operations done by companies through internal management by brand managers the keys to effective internal marketing are

a) setting up ERP for internal records b) setting up advertising budget with and without mass media support c) getting help through focus group, opinion leaders d) promotional campaign through market space (internet) e) finding out complementors in the market and promote them through combos

Q) how can companies be responsible social marketers ? Ans) companies can be responsible social marketers by following certain rules a) by serving ecological balance products to end user which would benefit them goodwill in the long run b) by promoting trust between companies and help each other to develop their respective industries in the eyes of stakeholders c) by promoting good products of any company which is useful to end user Q) how can a company improve its marketing implementation skills ? Ans) company can improve its marketing implementation skills through a) opinion leaders help b)employee stock option plan c) employee customer stock option plan d) complementor sharing of information e) doing research and development with both complementor and competitor industry wise Q) what tools are available to help companies monitor and improve their marketing activities ? Ans) the tools that are available to help companies monitor and improve their marketing activities are a) ERP (enterprise resource planning) b) CSOP (customer stock option plan) c) ESOP (employee stock option plan)

d) MARKET SPACE (internet) e) mobile commerce

marketing memos philip kotler analysed by jagadish
Q) how can company spot and chose the right market segments ? Ans) the company can chose the right market segments based upon a) vision and mission of the company b) product pricing of the company c) population index of the country Q)how can we differentiate one offering to another offering ? Ans) we can differentiate one offering to another offering by going with a) product, place , price, promotion offering b) marketing channels differentiation of products to be sold by companies c) geographic, demographic, psychographic differentiation between products Q) how should we respond to customers who buy on price ? Ans) when customers buy products based on price , it should be responded through a) combos to be sold by respective companies b) CSOP (customer stock option plan) c) market space differentiation between company websites Q) how can company compete against lower cost, lower price competitors ? Ans) a company can compete against lower cost or lower price competitors by a) setting up kiosk cum company outlets b) focus, differentiation between competitors by attacking both strengths and weaknesses c) going with complementors promoting each other product under 4c combos d) producing a new product against existing lower price product till competitors product gets eliminated out from the market

Q) how far can we go in customizing our offering for each customer ? Ans) customizing offering for each customer should not be done because a) huge database can be generated only group wise b) each customer has different pay scale which cannot be judged by company c) family to family choices are different on the other hand offerings to customers should be done through a) focus group, opinion leaders b) geographical wise , c) demographic wise d) retail store wise Q) how can companies grow its business ? Ans) companies can grow business through different ways, it is through a) mergers, acquisitions b) franchises c) setting up company outlets d) setting up company websites e) creating quality company brand f) good relationship with supply chain management g) stakeholders being satisfied through ERP sales report Q) how can company build stronger brands ? Ans) the company can build stronger brands by studying a) history of brand report over the period of 6 months b) by studying the mode of marketing channels c) by studying the effects of 4c concept and its implications on brand image d) by making a comparative analysis by industry segment wise through common ERP ground Q) how can company reduce the cost of customer acquisition ? Ans) customer acquisition : it is defined as acquiring product, services from a company how to reduce the cost of this customer acquisition a) company outlets in towns (how many towns , cities are their in a country)

b) video conferencing with stakeholders c) google chat with key partners d) ERP in retail organised sector industry wise Q) how can we keep our customers loyal for longer ? Ans) customers can be kept loyal by companies through a) customer stock option plan b) industry site visits c) free gifts,combos, bonazas on occassions d) cost leadership , focus, differentiation (innovations) e) psychographic segmentation (attitudes known through focus groups) how to check out focus groups focus groups are defined as groups that have similar taste buds these focus groups can be known through census (house rent determines salary earned) how would they give opinion data through ERP from organised retail stores--debit card purchases over a period of one month one month is the normal overall expenditure of a family Q) how can we tell which customers are more important ? Ans) we can tell which customers are more important by a) checking out the repeat purchasers through ERP in organised retail store b) checking out who are the customers who go for repeated CSOP (customer stock option plan) c) customers in B2B who insist on quality and service rather than quantity sales d) customers who purchase under combos Q) how can company measure the payback from advertising, sales promotion, and public relations ? Ans) the company can measure payback from advertising, sales promotion and public relations this means these are communication channels now how to measure communication channels

it is like measuring goodwill of the company 2) goodwill calculation goodwill percentage = total cash increase or decrease in comparison to previous quarterly in previous year ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------by share price increase or decrease compared to previous quarterly in previous year to be checked again through discussion now how to calculate it individually cash increase or decrease individually 1) cash increase decrease in advertising 2) cash increase decrease in sales promotion 3) cash increase decrease in public relations individual amounts to be checked out not sure later on analysis Q) how can company improve sales force productivity ? Ans) companies can improve sales force productivitiy through ways like a) ERP (Enterprise Resource planning) b) management books (new/old tips from different companies information) c) in house training (situation based analysis) Q) how can we establish multiple channels and yet manage channel conflict ? Ans) channel conflict is defined as conflict arising between departments in a company how to manage channel conflict they are a) set up a advisory board to monitor daily routine of inter departmental problems b) set up a drop box problems and checked out as per importance monitored by board of directors c) problems of inter departmental to be solved through intenet ERP within 24 hours otherwise problem is passed out to higher authority if not solved within the time frame

Q) how can we get the other company departments to be more customer oriented ? Ans) one can get other company departments to be more customer oriented by following These steps should be seen taken by other departments step 1 what are the steps taken by marketing department to be customer focus step 2 which are the rules followed by marketing department step 3 what are the limitations of marketing department where other departments can become an asset to marketing department of the company step 4 prepare a daily report of the marketing wing and contribution of the specific department in connnection to marketing wing step 5 hand it over the report to marketing department at the end of the day for scrutiny and make them aware of the help they other than marketing department is giving to them. this would make the company departments come closer together