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Subject: Biology

Index for Plant Physics/Niklas
Prepared for UCP/editor M. Kopelow
Style: Chicago Manual, run-in
A
ABA. See abscisic acid
Abies alba, 319
abscisic acid (ABA), 78, 377
abstraction, defined, 345
Acer, 93, 319
Acetabularia, 259
acoustic microscope, 340
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 76, 259, 291
aerenchyma, 23, 95; bulk moduli, 124–125; cell geometry and, 308; defined, 377; mechanical properties of, 308–
310; Poisson's ratio for, 124
air: boundary layers and, 35; flow, direction of, 37f; physical environment of, 34–38; physical properties of, 28t;
water and, 208; See also specific topics
airfoil, 216–217, 216f
alamethicin, 56, 377
Alaria marginata, 233
algae: allometry and, 29–30, 362. See also allometry; anion channels, 258–259; bilins and, 379; body plans, 19;
boundary layers and, 35, 208; brown, 5, 8, 9, 21; cell walls. See cell walls; charophycean, 7, 8, 14, 259; cilia and,
35; CO2 and, 35; complexity and, 22; defined, 377–378; dinoflagellates, 9; drag forces on, 232; elastic moduli,
144–145, 271t; embryophytes and, 8, 13, 71; euglenoids, 8, 386; eukaryotes and, 7; flagella and, 35; green, 7, 8,
21, 22, 59, 60f, 264, 265, 289, 294; H-d life cycle and, 13;Laplace’s law and, 294; leaves and, 9; life cycles, 13;
lineages, 7, 8; microfibrils. See microfibrils; multicellularity, 9, 19, 240; phloem and, 21; phylogenies of, 10;
production from, 6; red, 8, 232, 379; settling and, 241–241; size of, 294; statoliths in, 60; TCs of, 288–289; See
also species
allometry, xi, 378; defined, 361; geometry and. See geometries; shape; log transform in, 363; relations, 369; scaling
rules and.
See scaling rules; trees and, 369; uses of, 361; V/A ratio and, 30
allowable stress. See working stress
anelastic behavior, strains and, 140
angiosperms, 7, 378, 392; environment and, 73; leaf mass, 365–366, 365f; phloem and, 21, 97–101, 394; reaction
wood, 61, 316–317, 383; snow and, 366; stomata and, 78–79; strength in, 273, 304; transpiration in, 95; wood of,
304
anisotropy, 75, 117f; cellulose and, 285; defined, 378; end-wall effects, 386; geometry. See geometries; shape;
growth and, 290. See also growth; nanoindentation and, 338; plant materials and, 116, 124–126, 270, 307, 315;
Poisson's ratios and, 119; shell theory and, 285; wood and, 311, 315
antenna complex, 50
Apium graveolens, 282
apple, 123, 297
approximation methods. See specific methods
Arabidopsis, 56, 257, 290
Aristolochia, 348, 349
Arundo donax, 193, 320, 348

ash, 296
aspect ratio, 329–330
atmospheres, bars and, 71
atomic force microscopy, 327
ATP. See adenosine triphosphate
Aulacoseira subarctica, 240, 240f
autogyroscopic motion, xii, 14, 217, 241, 244, 378
Avena, 53
Avogadro number, 81

B
bacteria, 8–9, 48–51, 210, 294, 396
balsa, 123, 311
bamboo, 193
banana, 130, 184
Barba-Kick law, xi
bark, inner. See phloem
bark, outer, 11f, 117f, 118, 270f; cellular solids and, 306; cork cambium and, 12, 306, 394; defined, 372; lenticels in,
12; loading and, 307
barley, 58
barreling, 109, 115
bars, atomospheric units and, 71
beaches, fluid flow and, 235
beams, 159; bending, 167–168. See also bending; cantilevers and, 166–167; circular symmetry and, 180; column.
See columns; cylindrical, 180; dynamic loads and, 160; eigenfrequency and, 194; energy and, 160; geometries and,
181f; neutral plane, 164f; shear stress and, 170; solid mechanics and, 160; static loads and, 160, 181–185; stiffness,
164; strain formula, 162
beans, 261
Beer's law, 39, 41
bending, xi, 88, 170f, 272t–273t; aspect ratio and, 330; beams and, 167–168. See also beams; cantilevers and, 166–
167, 171; compressive, 162f; cracking and. See cracking; curvature and, 163; eigen-frequencies and, 194; formula
for, 16; four-point, 331, 331f; fractometer method, 331–332; fracture and, 176–178; free bending, 194; moment,
16, 62, 231, 379; neutral plane, 162f; oscillation bending, 194; pure bending, 161–163, 168; reaction wood and,
317; self-loading and, 182–184; shearing and, 168, 169–176; simple bending, 166, 169; slenderness and, 168;
stems and, 307; tensile, 162f; three-point, 167–168; torsion and, 168. See also torsion; trees and, 182–184; windinduced, 231
benthic plants, 68, 231
Bernoulli equation, 214, 217, 229
Bessel functions, 190
Betula pubscens, 93
biaxial tests, 329–330, 334f
bilins, 379
biologists, engineers and, 357
biomimetics, 345–349, 379
birch, 93, 123
blackwood, 319
bladderwort, 54
bluff bodies, 219, 229–231
Boergesenia forbesii, 289
bones, structure of, 348
bordered pits, 73–74, 93f, 380, 390
boundary conditions, 106, 185, 366, 380
boundary layers: algae and, 35, 208; bluff body and, 230; carbon dioxide and, 35; defined, 31, 380; diffusion and,
30, 35; drag forces and, 228; Fick’s law and, 30; fluid flow and, 31; friction velocity and, 226; heterogeneity and,
209; inviscid flow and, 223; laminar flow and, 33, 218; leading edge and, 217; mass transport and, 33; oscillating

flow and, 234; phase-shift and, 234; Prandtl and, 217; Reynolds numbers and, 209, 217; shear and, 217; thermal
transport and, 217; thickness, 31, 32t, 217, 226; turbulence and, 33, 223, 230; viscosity and, 217; water and, 35
Brazier buckling, 189f, 191–193, 333, 333f, 380
breaking strength, 332
Brinell test, 335
brittleness, 151
Brownian motion, cellular, 340
Bryonia dioica, 56
bryophytes, 380
buckling, 188–191
bulk moduli, 90, 125, 205, 380, 383

C
calcium, 57, 255, 257, 264, 268, 380, 394
calmodulin, 56, 66, 68, 380
cambium, 10, 11f, 12; cork. See phellogen; defined, 381; growth and, 388; procambium, 12, 383; vascular. See
wood
canopy, 44–47, 235, 236
cantilever structures, 166–167, 171
capacitance, electrical, 247–248
capillary effects, 86
carbohydrates, 6, 15, 89, 99, 100f, 101, 119, 354
carbon dioxide: boundary layer and, 35; carbon production and, 5, 6; diffusion of, 34–35; leaf and, 356; PAR and, 6;
photosynthesis and, 395; transpiration and, 72
Carex acutiformis, 184
carotenoids, 49, 50
Cauchy strain, 108, 109f, 110, 112, 381
cavitation, 73, 74, 88, 96, 343, 381
Cecropia, 193
celery, 282
cell walls, xii, xiii, 92; anisotropy in, 285; apoplastic transport, 99, 100, 292, 378; basic properties, 282–286; cell
division, 19–20; cellular solids and, 308; cellulose and, 283, 285, 289, 381; chemical potential and, 84; complexity
in, 354; compliance and, 141; compression and, 297–299, 300; creep and, 142; cyanobacteria and, 294; deposition
and, 286–290; division and, 19–20; eubacteria and, 289; expansion of, 286; extensin and, 89; growth and, 19–20,
90, 283; hydrostatic tissues, 292, 300; lignin and, 304; loosening, 283, 284; magnification of, 354;
microcompression and, 339; microfibrils and, 78, 154, 174–176, 271, 283, 290; microscopy and, 325;
multicellularity and, 21; nanoindentation and, 338–339; optical tweezers and, 339–340; osmotic gradients, 283;
plasmalemma, 286–290, 288f; polymers and, 174, 279, 282–285. See also polymers; primary, 282–286, 396;
residual strain and, 142; secondary, 302–304, 302f, 398, 399; shear and, 226, 230, 293; stiffening, 89, 283; stress
and, 284, 286; structure of, 299, 354; TCs and, 289, 290; turgor pressure, 286, 292, 293; wall law, 224; water
content, 299, 300; yield point of, 142
cellular solids: active transport and, 259; buckling and, 309; defined, 83, 306, 381; free energy and, 82–83; guard
cells and, 76; ion pump and, 390; plant tissue and, 313, 347; Poisson's ratios and, 124; properties of, 307–308;
rectifying channels, 257; of water, 83, 85, 381
cellulose, 5, 174, 271; cell walls and, 153, 283, 285, 381; cellulases and, 284; composition of, 381; elastic modulus,
138; enzymes and, 284; hemicelluloses, 388; MFA for, 302; microfibrils. See microfibrils; Poisson's ratio, 119,
121; polymers in, 174; properties of, 271, 282–284; scattering and, 40; synthases, 288–290; tension and, 105
Ceramium, 289
cereals, 193
Chara, 258, 264, 265, 294, 340
Chargaff , E., 25
Charpy device, 336f
Charpy method, 337, 366f
chemical potential, 82–85, 381; active transport and, 259; defined, 83, 381; free energy and, 82–83; guard cells and,
26; ion pump and, 390; rectifying channels, 257; of water, 83, 85, 381

chemoautotrophs, 5, 8, 378
cherry, 330
chloramphenicole, 9
chlorenchyma, 347, 382
chloride, 235, 258, 259
chlorophyll, 50, 80; absorption spectrum, 49; antenna complexes and, 51; carotenoids and, 49; chloroplasts, 8, 9, 40,
49, 77; efficiency of, 52; evolution and, 52; extinction coefficient, 39, 42; guard cells and, 77; photoautotrophs and,
49; photons and, 49-50; reaction centers and, 50; ring structure of, 48; sieve effect and, 41; sucrose and, 77;
suspensions in, 40–41; Z scheme and, 50; See also photosynthesis; specific topics
Chondracanthus exasperatus, 232
cilia, algae and, 35
coco-de-mer, 241
cohesion-tension theory, 94–97, 382
coiling response, 56
coleoptiles, 53, 59, 69, 382
collenchyma, 89, 272t, 280, 281, 282, 292, 299, 313, 382
columns, buckling and, 189–190, 189f
communication, in plants, 265
companion cells, 21, 98–101, 382
compliance, 139, 141, 328, 382
composite materials: Cook-Gordon mechanism and, 155–156; cracks in, 156f; defined, 382; elastic modulus, 154;
fibers and, 154; periodic, 153; Reuss model and, 153; Voigt model and, 153
compressibility. See bulk modulus
compression tests, 144, 328, 329f, 330f
compression wood, 61, 316, 317, 383, 401
compressive stress, 111–112, 383
concentration gradient, 26, 28
concept map, 359f
conifers: bordered pits in, 73; defined, 383; growth in, 304; Hagen-Poiseuille equation and, 93; as linear systems,
197; mechanical properties, 273, 274t; reaction wood and, 316; stems of, 365f; wood, density of, 304, 305t
constant field equation. See Goldman equation
constant stress hypothesis, 185–188
constraint, design and, 104
contact coiling, 56
continuity equation, 27
continuum hypothesis, 205
conventional strains. See Cauchy strains
convergent evolution, 4, 7, 10, 19, 21, 383
Cook-Gordon mechanism, 155–156, 177
Cooksonia, 359
coordinate systems, 133f. See also geometries
cork cambium. See phellogen
cortex, 12, 59, 193, 292, 383
cracking: crack length, 149–150; fracture mechanics and, 147–151; propagation of, 155; shapes of, 155; stopping,
156f; wood and, 177
creep, 281, 383; cell walls and, 142; experiments, 136, 137f; stress relaxation and, 139
crimping, 189f
crystalline structure, 89, 204, 271, 384
cuticle, 273–282, 279f, 280f, 383; breaking in, 281t; design compromise, 15; evolution of, 15; gases and, 75;
photosynthesis and, 15; stomata and, 74, 75; structure of, 278; waxes, 278
cutin, 278–279, 383
cyanobacteria, 275t, 395, 396; atmosphere and, 51; bilins and, 379; cell walls and, 294; DNA of, 9; photosynthesis
and, 8
cylinders: compression tests and, 330f; geometry of, 121–122; stems as, 31; stresses in, 294–295
cytoplasm: action potential and, 264–265; bead rheometry, 340; bridges, 19, 20f; cell walls and, 78, 82, 84; defined,
383; DNA and, 9; guard cells, 76, 77f; plasmalemma and, 286, 288f; plasmodesmata and, 21, 98; Raoult's law and,

82; threads, 21; turgor pressure, 292; UV receptors and, 54; viscosity of, 340

D
da Vinci, L., xii
Dalbergia, 319, 320
d’Alembert’s paradox, 228
damping, 199, 333–334, 384
dandelion, 155
Darwin, C., 54
Dawsonia superba, 74
de Bary, H., 23
deflection, symbol for, xix
design, biological, 15–17
dicotyledons: conifers and, 304; defined, 384; leaves of, 39, 131, 355; stem tissues, 11, 11f, 12; sunlight and, 39;
wood, properties of, 275t, 304, 305t
dielectric constant, 384
differential equations, 160, 366

diffusion, 27; boundary layers and. See boundary layers; carbon dioxide and, 34;
concentration gradient and, 26, 28; Fick's law. See Fick's law; Goldman equation
and, 256; molecular, 27; potential, 252; stomatal pores and, 34; thermal, 29;
viscosity and, 28; wood and, 34; See also specific topics