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November | December 2013 Natural additives for fish - do we have to reinvent the wheel or is there a shortcut?

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

FEATURE

Natural additives for fish - do we have to reinvent the wheel or is there a shortcut?
by Susanne Kirwan, Malte Lohölter and Andreas Lewke, Dr Eckel, Germany he global importance of aquaculture, in particular finfish, is growing and correspondingly, the demand for high-quality feeds and additives is increasing year by year (Aquafeed Directory Issue 2013/14).

Current research is understandably focused on the basic feed components such as cereals, marine ingredients, soya, animal byproducts, oils and fats and their suitability for different aquatic species. Knowledge about optimal levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements This rapid growth induces diverse challenges for different species is steadily increasing. for feed formulation, husbandry, reproduction Other additives have received less attenor processing that required innovative solutions. tion from academic research but exhibit a New species are introduced into aquaculture vast potential in improving resource and feed regularly (i.e. bluefin tuna) and new technologies efficiency. in feed production are also adopted. There is a Technical additives, preservatives, acidiconstant supply of new raw materials to substifiers, probiotics, prebiotics, immunomodulatute ingredients which are less and less available. tors, AGPs, phytogenics, mycotoxin binders However, new challenges are not only are interesting and increasingly used but the intrinsic to the system but the general increase suitability and uses for them in aquacultures of aquaculture is also associated with new are not as firmly established as for the bulk disease challenges and new demands from components. Particularly phytogenics as an customers (i.e. freedom from AGPs, welfare). innovative addition to the group of feed All of these topics have arisen with the additives are of increasing interest in aquaculadvent of modern aquaculture. Part of solving ture as they offer entirely the challenges posed is trynew applications (i.e antiing to develop feeds and Figure 1: Residues (top) of solid acids experimentally dissolved in water inflammatory functions). additives to address them. Areas of interest for However, finding new feed aquaculture feeds where components and addiadditives are without tives is a time and labour doubt beneficial is feed intensive process and the presentation and hygiene. pressure to produce higher However there is a small quantities and better qualamount of knowledge to ity aquaculture produce is draw from land-based already on, not in ten or systems already (i.e. high twenty years down the protein poultry and pet line. So is there a potential Ca-Acetate Ca-formate Sorbic Acid Fumaric Acid Acidifier Acids-on support feeds). shortcut to addressing all Improving health and these new challenges particularly with regard to additives? Finally, there are those factors of unique reproduction through feed is certainly of importance to aquaculture feeds such as interest. However, due to the pronounced very specific demands for the feeds behav- physiological differences between mammals, Part of the answer is iour in water such as mechanical stability, birds and aquaculture species additives used livestock on land Livestock feed production in land-based specific density, sinking behaviour or nutri- for this purpose in land-based systems have to be more thoroughly re-evaluated for use in systems has a wealth of history, with the ent leakage (i.e. Aas, et al. 2011).
38 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | November-December 2013

T

first documented silage-making occurring in 1200 BC. The first commercial diets for army horses and poultry were produced around 1800. In comparison, the first modern fish feeds were manufactured for trout in the 1950s. Independent of whether a feed is produced for land-based livestock or for aquaculture, many of the components are similar. Both land and aquaculture systems use grains, legumes and animal byproducts. Therefore, many of the risks of contamination of raw materials, the challenges of producing and even the microorganisms causing spoilage are exactly the same. There may be areas where factors important for land-based livestock are similar to aquaculture's, such as palatability, feed intake and nutrient efficiency with regard to environmental pollution, which are crucial for efficient and sustainable systems anywhere.

Growing academic interest in additives

FEATURE These experiments were to providing optimum temperature? If so, does on (for example) fish sure. Theyinformation are effective independent of temfeeds and hence food. conducted OP is commonly unavailable byof traditional The annual production olive oil means, is esti- tional Table 1: Survival rate (%) of white shrimp after 60 days Table 1: Chemical composition of olive pomace (OP) and natural agricultural spread or aquatic diffusion feeding thatthe temperature fit the behaviour the local pellet density. perature, usually and technically inert and well is now used in several such as to subsea mated be atcameras. least 2.9 million tonnes with determine fish oil (FO) diet (% wet weight) (Nasopoulou et al., 2013a) Latibon ME (Acidifier) to the pellets, further experi- accepted environment it is and to be used in? However, camera can only capture limby a most livestock. The only a quesand aquacultural applications with some 15 million tonnes of Plus OMW being pro- inherent Ingredient OP diet FO diet * ments to quantify the speed and variations 3. Is the substance in structure or ited volume of the cage at a time, and displays tion remaining is how fast they dissolve in a promising results. The novelty of duced annually. In Mediterranean countries, The model Time (d) Control 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.2% in the vertical motion of pellets in the water with density unlikely to negatively an unfiltered image with an array of concurrent watery medium, as an acidifier which dissolves our approach though is that we theThe production of olives has been a major part model d has been under development 60 85.8 88.5c 91.5ab 93.8b 94.5a are interested planned. The final behaviour results influence the technical information. This challenge, if instantaneously ismay not available a to be active are not only in producof the agricultural produce of been these expanded countries column since 2004, and since then has Crudeof protein 44.95 ± represent 1.3 46 ± 4.3 (p<0.05) these experiments will bewater incorporated into of the in or during for instance the operator wishes to observe within the animal but is lost to the surrounding (novel) fish feed but also we are for many decades (ifmerged not centuries). For every from 2D to 3D, and with a fish behavFat 19.4 ± 1.7 21 ± 2.1 model, and preliminary results processing? densityIfof feedacidifiers in an area. Presence fish ing water. some are retained of more assessing the nutritional value of suggest the 100 kg of foraging olives, 35 kg of OP areet produced; it the iour and model (Føre al., 2009). Moisture 8.6 ± 0.6 9.1 ± 1.3 that the physical properties of pellets have a 4. Are all active comand debris in the image may then obstruct the reliably within the feed, this (novel) fish in terms of cardiocould, thus, be suggested that the production The initial distribution of pellets across the aquaculture systems to evaluate whether 1.8 ± 0.3† Dietary fibre 5.2 ± 0.3† on their hydrodynamic ponentsinfluence stable ultimately, through view, assessment of feed dencan subsequently protection, aiming, in of OMW and OP are and cage surface using commercial spreadsystems they target are ofsustainable equalrotary interest in the substantial Table 2: Feed trial diet making a visual they Ash 6.0 ± 0.9 8.3 ± 1.4 the and production process sity difficult. Consequently, the operator must be active beyond simple creating patenting novel funcavailability ofspecies. OP forexperimental use in any type of from feed properties. ers is based upon data aquaculture composition 21.8 ± 2.1 23 ± 2.6 To validate the fish model, full-scale Energy experi-(MJ/Kg) (pelleting/extrusion/ make decisions based on limited information feed preservation in the fish feeds, anda health production and thus aquaculture should be tional Oehme et al. (2012). Diet ment is planned at a farming site, where feed expansion)? from a subsection of the cage. intestine of the animals supplements. straightforward. OP is not expensive ( € 0.1The model discretizes the cage into cubes, From the land into the water: Protein digestibility 89 ± 4.4 90 ± 6.2 Control (%) Additive will be measured at points 5.In Does land-based livestock The pellet distribution be fed. † model could † detail, two diets have been inside the 0.2/kg), it is thusofafeed price-competitive raw density and the transport between the cubes taking land-based feed 20 000 ± 410 Vitamin A (IU/Kg) 7 000 ± 210 cage with the entire array of environmental accept the component used as a tool to illustrate the parts of the The solubility of indicompared: one being the commercial ingredient compared to other vegetable oils. is calculated based on the transport equation additives into aquafeeds Vitamin D (IU/Kg) 3 150 ± 110 3 000 ± 120 and fish acting upon the feed. does it positively cage to acids the operator at vidual and their one well, for gilthead sea bream (Sparus This cost to the fact that 4 to percent (Alver et linked al. 2004). Feed is removed from forces To illustrate the basic concept of 8 the idenFishmeal 8.0 that are 8.0of interest † † 258 ± 19 Vitamin E (mg/Kg) 180 ±17 affect particular points in time. A 3D view similar blends have been char) calledvoluntary fish oil diet feed (FO diet) of OP is of needed to additives be included in the fish aurata the model when fish consume feed, or feed tification suitable in land-based Isolated soy † presented, † Vitamin K3 to (mg/Kg) 10 ± 0.7 33 7.3 intake? Figure 2 can then be showing acterised in ±literature the novel one where OP (8 perfeed formulation make OP as for a promising lipid and escapes outside the defined cage volume. systems that have potential aquaculture, Aid for the operator protein 32.0 32.0 If w/w all at those have been an overview of the cage containing fish and are easily confirmthefeeding final pellet) has been source for aquaculture. Figure shows the from the model cent a short1 checklist can output be a fast and common Today, the regime is for the most Vitamin C (mg/Kg) 168 ± 14 and Wheat 14.4 14.4 200 ± 20 answered to the affirmative, feed, in addition to a range of environmental able with basic lab tech(OP diet). In by our first part the operator, Finally, the problem transferring across three depths andbeginning a of cross section of OP the used sense approach before a controlled part controlled the fish of farm 7.0 ± 1.1 Peas Cu (mg/Kg) 12.0 12.0 7.5 ± 1.1 the component has parameters important for feeding. niques. For the following the total lipids ofpotential sea bream fedknowledge from Mediterranean countries to northern cage three differentworks points equally in time. trial. at This approach well for work, which commonly possesses expert *Data of FO diet from previous study Maize 14.0 14.0 to the be a diet useful additive in in A model with a suitable interface will have illustration (Figure 1) OP contained Europe or additives, to is other places of the world with The model currently enhanced established or the being latest developof location. This oftenstatistically results a well-run †Statistically significant according to Wilcox on test aquafeed is worth considan advantage over exclusive camera-based acidifier samples were levels offood fatty acids, while could be by extracting polar by incorporating results from pellet diffusion ments in rationalised phytogenic additives. In the order to decreased site with and a high utilisation (low FCR), Corn starch 8.0 8.0 ering minimal for an in-vivo theOP entire cage can be viewed experiments, the diet and FO diet (i.e. dissolved for five minthe mosttrial. potent biological activity control lipids of OP that they are the active feed experiments, where aa range of culture different pel- exhibited answer the questions species, condiand feed loss. There are Fat however 6.0 in that 6.0 within a single image and that the operator pellets) have been analysed for a number utes at a concentration platelet aggregation induced by platelet components andof therefore reducing the against let and type densities (produced at Nofima tionsizes and the feed presentation should substantial variations in performance between Minerals/ remove fish or of feed from the view as of nutritional parameters and the results are (0.5 percent) in water. factor words, the can volume of in material that needs to be trans- activating Feed Technology Centre, Bergen, Norway) be known advance. locations. Example 1: (PAF). In other Vitamins/ Choline 4.5 4.5 desired. given in Table 1 (Nasopoulou et al. , 2013a). The liquid phase was sea bream had stronger cardioprotective ported (Nasopoulou and Zabetakis, 2013). were in a large tank to observe their OP-fed 1. Is released the substance/blend stable in the The feeding system commonly presents Advanced acidifier Furthermore, the of model allows the view Values are means three individual measthen strained out and the when compared to the of FO-fed one. natural diffusion and sinking properties. Pellets properties aquatic environment? Will it leach immetheAcidifiers operator with a range numerical are very well Chrome oxide 0.6 0.6 to be zoomed and rotated to observe better urements; results are expressed as mean ± residue dried to calculate These data have suggested that OP could with a diameter of 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm with diately from the pellet of is stable for displays representing various environmental established additives on OP-enriched fish feeds and fish Methionine 0.2 0.2 an area of interest. The model is meant to be SD (95% confidence limits); data of FO diet the unsolved fraction be used as a partial substitute of fish oil in fish low, medium and high density were tested to the time until consumed by the target parameters, as well as live video from one or land for feed preservation, The research focus in our group has Cellulose 0.4 - previous in conjunction with cage cameras, and are from our work and (pictures in theare topgiven row improving itsconversion cardio protective propercover the range the of feed most frequently used feed species? more subsea cameras located inside the cage. used improving feed been towards commercial exploitation - aid in 0.4 automatic camera placement at here to enable easy of comparison; † indicates Figure 1). Already the ties (Nasopoulou et al. , to 2011). In further in commercial salmon 2. Does substance have a window of The camera adds insight the Additive process by can and reducing pathogen presof OP inthe order to farming. produce novel func-

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The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
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The studies were research centre’s also conducted in the aquaculture which allowed facilities, the a large scale. farming to be done on This zootechnical demonstration, the final results will be known of which sometime in 2011, was carried out in collaboration with Nathalie Le François, a researcher at the Biodôme de Montréal and associate professor at the Université du Québec à Rimouski. The first wolffish, hatched at the of fall 2008 in end the Centre aquacole de Grande-Rivière, marin were delivered Maurice-Lamontagne to the Institute in 2009. Since May Figure 2: Spotted their arrival Photo: Arianne Wolffish in in the these roughly Savoie, Fisheries farming tank 400 fish have tank, and Oceans handled very Canada Saltwater mariculture-aquacul been carefully. researchers measure Every month, the Quebec may ture in Université du soon welcome their growth rate, conditions Québec arrival: the a in à Rimouski and kept as close the Quebec Spotted Wolffish,new as possible to those found in ministry of threatened and agriculture, commercial fish fisheries and little-known species a food. operations. farming tastes delicious. that These measurements First of all, the compared with In Quebec, are data gathered fish that adapts Spotted Wolffish is a commercial in Norway and Iceland, fish farms well to the conditions currently limit where Spotted is kept in and themselves to it have been raised Wolffish is easy freshwater fish, farming develops quickly to domesticate. It for experimental while the mariculture commercial industry has and at very aquaculture focused until temperatures low for about 10 years now. and is not very very recently on molluscs. Preliminary sensitive to In other parts changes in results from the salinity Mont-Joli show of the saltwater fish of the water. Spotted Wolffish a growth rate farms are located world, slightly less that is the ocean. Doing can right in than that observed densities, something be farmed in high so significantly Norway, a farming costs reduces in that is crucial country the profitability and for that has had makes them considerable profitable. of an aquaculture experience in operation (see In Quebec, farming the species; thus, Figure installing aquaculture equipment rearing though the Spotted 2). As well, even in the ocean Maurice-Lamontagne conditions at the dicey prospect Wolffish does is a reproduce spontaneously because of ice Institute still not some room for winter. Previously, cover in have in captivity, improvement. new generations experiments Feeding poses can farming saltwater with year using captive be produced every one of the fish in tanks challenges for the need for obtaining optimal biggest technical expertiserevealed not forget another broodstock. And let’s in farmed as the high important quality as well Spotted Wolffish.growth cost fish possesses: this commercial feed it tastes great. however, research of production. Today, The used until now Aside from these advances are intended for salmonids the potential showing was obvious advantages, of the Spotted it is important and has not modified. The Wolffish. to find out This new mariculture feed has too much been species grows how this candidate was wolffish that are in fat and first noticed fed this type of in the early 2000s. potential benefit captivity so that its to food tend to Quebec’s aquaculture time, teams develop At the industry can liver from the abnormalities. Researchers be properly Lamontagne Mauricealso question assessed. For that reason, Denis Institute in whether it offers enough Mont-Joli, Quebec, collected Chabot, a researcher protein for the the Maurice-Lamontagne their first Spotted at needs of the particular Wolffish as part Institute, species. Another approached of the research the feed does problem: by the Société was they were projects not float and développement conducting de sinks to the bottom of the with the de tank, which is (SODIM) to carry l’industrie maricole problematic when it comes tests using water to feeding fish tanks. raised in high INTERNATIONAL densities. Ideally, species AQUAFEED the feed DIRECTORY
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FEATURE visual assessment shows that the traditional acidifier calcium formate is extremely soluble and therefore not suitable for use in aquafeed in its pure form. The following trial used an acidifier which is established both in some landbased systems and aquaculture production. age of the investigated product (Table 1). Vibrio counts (Graph 1) and total bacteria counts (not shown) also showed significant improvements. This trial showed the efficacy of a specifically selected acidifier in a pelleted aquaculture feed, even a species without acid digestion.

Acidifier: shrimp trial

This trial investigated the effects of a specially formulated acidifier on shrimp survival and vibrio spp. counts (a key pathogen for the species) in white shrimp (Chalour, 2012). Example 2: White shrimp (L. vannamei) were reared from Second generation postlarvae 12 (P12) stage for 60 days. The phytogenic product pelleted feed contained an ascending quantity While acidifiers are wellof the investigated acidifier from 0 (control), established tools in diet formuFigure 2: Vibrio count per ml shrimp hemolymph 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 to 1.2 percent. lation, the same approach to The acidifier in the pelleted feed had a identify suitable additives for aquafeeds can generation phytogenic substances, unlike their linear positive effect on shrimp survival lead- also be taken for phytogenic products. The predecessors, have been selected for maxiing to a 10 percent improvement of mortality first phytogenics employed one plant or plant mum synergy between several components rate in the group treated with the highest dos- component targeting a single function. Second focussing on substance classes like flavonoids. FIAAPisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:26 Page 1 An example of these new functions are the anti-inflammatory effects as exhibited by flavonoids, which are currently a topic of great interest in Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed production land-based livestock nutrition. systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they With the trend to make fish can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A farming more sustainable by using service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating fewer potentially anti-inflammacosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com tory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish oil, alternative additives have to be found which can provide the anti-inflammato8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand ry effects required to ensure a healthy and functional intestinal mucosa and gut epithelium. Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 Recent trials have focused on fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com land-based livestock (Gessner et al. 2011) but NF-KB, the master regulator of inflammation, is preserved with similar functions across all vertebrate species and has been shown to be a key element in inflammation mediation in pylogenetically distant fish species (Zang et al. , 2012). A positive effect as the downregulating of the NF-KB response in mammals might therefore have a similar beneficial effect in fish. The main aim of the tested phytogenic additive based on flavonoids is intestinal health, palatability of feed, enhancing digestion and FIAAP Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for feed ingredients, additives and formulation within the dynamic and growing region of South and South East Asia. adsorption of nutrients through improved antioxidant status and New for 2014 Supported by antimicrobial effects. Now including the first The Thailand Convention ASEAN Feed Summit and Exhibition Bureau The product chosen as an Specialist conferences Co-located with example for this group was from The exhibition will be supported VICTAM Asia 2014 the Anta®Phyt range, which does by its own specialist conferences. www.victam.com already have a product for aquatic They will include: Contact details The FIAAP Conference 2014 species and therefore has all the For visitor, exhibition stand Petfood Forum Asia 2014 space and conference required specifics such as stability Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2014 information please visit: Innovations for a better world. in water, suitability for all water The Thai Feed Conference 2014 www.fiaap.com temperatures, favourable technical

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40 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | November-December 2013
Aqua_Feed-July_2011.indd 1 28.07.2011 12:23:44

FEATURE ise for aquacultures and could be exploited further. ture. The present article selected two products from two additive groups (acidifier and phytogenic product) that have shown their potential in aquacultures. This highlights the validity of this approach rather than to start to entire selection of potential additives for scratch to search the existing (acidifiers) or upcoming (phytogenic) additives in land-based farming systems for potential candidates for aquacultures, having the potential to make the development process both faster and more efficient. This of course does not stop the need to search for specific additives to address challenges to aquacultures such as attractants or sea lice control through feed, but the two approaches can rather inform each other rather than compete. MORE INFORMATION:
Website: www.dr-eckel.de

Conclusions
There is good body of research into livestock feeds on land; there is no need to reinvent the wheel when looking for suitable and economically beneficial additives for aquaculture. After removing those addiGraph 1: Effect of phytogenic additive on growth of tives unsuitable for the common carp aquatic environment (i.e. those not stable in water or unsuitable to the production characteristics and stability to all feed processprocess) there are many potential candidates ing systems. As it is a new concept on land there remaining that have promise for aquaculis only a limited body of experience, however, the results suggest very positive effects on production characteristics on poultry and pigs in particular (Holl, 2013). To evaluate whether the concept, which won the 2012 innovation award at Victam in Bangkok, could live up to expectations, a carp trial with the blends was undertaken in southern Germany.

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Carp trial (Blässe et al. 2013)
A feeding trial was conducted with carp having an initial body weight of 90 g for ten weeks (until 200 g). Carp (C. carpio) were randomly allocated into eight tanks. The diet was based on typically southern German regional diets comprised of fishmeal, soy protein, wheat, corn and peas (Table 2). Average daily gain (ADG) was monitored for carp fed a diet with the phytogenic additive (dosage 0.4 percent; four tanks) and negative controls with carp fed the diet without any additive (four tanks). Carp fed the diet with the additive showed higher body weight from week 2 to 10, increasing final weight by 5 percent compared to the control. Additionally, average daily gains were increased by 11 percent during the 10-week period for the carp the additive. So the new group of phytogenic additives also hold prom-

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Animal co-product hydrolysates:
– a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds

Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients: Pellet distribution modelling:
– a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages

New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease

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