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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084,

Volume- 1, Issue- 3




Electrical Dept.,VJTI, Mumbai, India, 3Petrochemical Industry Expert, Mumbai, India Email:,,

Abstract For the continuous evaluation of the performance of the power system, power flow solutions are essential for exhibiting suitable control actions in case of requirement. This case study presents analysis of the electrical power system of continuous process plant having its own captive generation along with the provision of the Grid connectivity. The different power system elements are modeled as per the manufacturers data sheet. To evaluate the steady state performance, power flow simulations and analysis of the complex power system for various invasive operating conditions are carried out. Keywords Power flow analysis, active and reactive power flow, tie line flow, voltage variations



Large industrial process plants like oil and gas, fertilizers and petro-chemical etc. needs electrical as well as steam energy. These plants demand high reliability as well as economic costs for power and steam generation. In many areas where reliable power is costly or difficult to access, these industries have developed their own captive power plants to meet their needs. This increases the complexity of industrial power systems due to distributed generation and grid interconnection. The power system deployed must be capable of meeting the load requirement under defined contingencies. To monitor, to maintain stability under various operating conditions and to manage these complex industrial power systems, different additional sophisticated simulation softwares are used. To facilitate the supply of reliable power, operation team needs to create different scenarios for power flow, short circuit and stability studies in advance to check the constrains in the system, if any. Proactive actions can be taken based on these simulation study results to minimize disruption to process plant operations. A continual and comprehensive analysis of a power system is required to evaluate current status of the system and to evaluate the optional plans for system expansion. IEEE 399-1997 [1] contains a good discussion of the power system data required and the techniques most commonly used in computer-aided analysis in order to perform specific power system studies. Modeling of different power system components along with the control aspects in details are presented in [2]. Power flow analysis provides an efficient way to know electrical performance and power flows of the system operating under steady state. This study provides the real and reactive power losses of the system and voltages at different nodes of the system. A properly developed load flow model of the system provides the basic network information and the initial steady-state condition for other important studies. The network model formation, load

flow problem, and different methods of power flow are described in [3]. The type and calculations for power flow depends on the accuracy, on-line or offline studies and also the cases to be evaluated [4]. High speed, low storage, and reliability for illconditioned problems are the characteristics requirements of a superior power flow method. For regular power flow studies Newton-Raphson (NR) method is versatile, reliable and accurate so commonly used. NR method based power flow simulations are performed for different operation schemes of a big Industrial petrochemical complex [5] and finally best operation configuration of the system is indicated. The power system model of an industrial complex is presented here uses NR method based power flow analysis simulation using ETAP software version 7.5.2. The acceptable voltage limits are as per the standard IS-12360-2006. The power flow simulations are carried out for identifying best operating conditions provided under the guidelines of process requirements. Then analysis is done based on various aspects. II. NETWORK DETAILS

The continuous process industrial complex has two Islands, Island-I and Island-II. Both of these Islands have their own power generation to cater the loads. Figure 1 shows the Electrical Network of Continuous Process Plant. Island-I has Installed generation capacity of 450 MW and Peak Load of 350 MW. The generation and peak load for Island-II is 750 MW and 340 MW respectively. A. Island-I This Island has installed generation capacity of Six Steam Turbine generators (STG) 31.16 MW, nine Gas Turbine generators (GTG) 32 MW at 11 kV and on line generation of about 325 MW. This power is step up to 33 kV through 53 MVA, 11kV / 33 kV Main Step Up transformers (MSU). The distribution of power is at 33 kV via five 33 kV switchboards

Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study) 52

International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084,

Volume- 1, Issue- 3

where the lumped loads are connected. Five grid transformers 33 kV/ 132 kV are used for connection of power to 132 kV Bus.

Transformer sizes, their ratings, tap ratios, voltages, impedances, connections and grounding methods. Protective devices and their ratings. Sizes and types of overhead lines and underground cables. Future planned additions / provisions. Grid interconnection provision.

B. Assumptions & Operating conditions for Power Flow study Following are the assumptions and network operating conditions for the simulation and analysis carried out. Load flow calculations are based on Newton Raphson method. The acceptable voltage limits are as per the standard IS- 12360-2006. For Island-I, both STGs and GTGs are in constant power mode with MW generation of each STG and GTG is clamped at 16 MW and 25 MW respectively. In Island-II, both STGs are in constant power mode and all GTGs are operating in Swing mode. All transformers are assumed to be at nominal tap position. According to design criteria, under normal operating condition Bus couplers at 33kV voltage level are considered as always ON. To know the voltages and short circuit levels below 33kV, a typical tree branch is considered where voltage levels of 6.6kV and 415V are included. The lumped loads at 33 kV level are modeled as consisting of 70% of motor load and 30% constant impedance load at power factor of 0.85 lag. The lumped loads at 415 kV are modelled as load consisting of 80% motor load and 20% constant impedance load at power factor of 0.85 lag. C. Voltage tolerences Table I lists the voltage tolerances as per IS 123602006. IV. POWER FLOW ANALYSIS

Fig.1: Electrical Network of Continuous Process Plant

B. Island-II The Captive Power Plant (CPP) of Island-II consists of six 125 MW GTGs, and two 25 MW STGs and on line generation of about 710 MW. The Switchyard arrangement for 220 kV is double bus bar system with breaker and a half configuration. Each GTG is connected via 14.5/220 kV, 161 MVA step-up transformer to the double bus, 220 kV Outdoor Switchyard. The 220 kV outdoor switchyard is connected via eight 220/34.5 kV, 174 MVA Service Transformers (ST) to 33 kV GIS Switchboards located in two Main Receiving Substations (MRS) MRS-1 and MRS-2. Each MRS contains two 33 kV GIS Switchboards. The 33 kV Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) Switchboards feed the Industrial Load as well as CPP auxiliaries. Each MRS has two switchboards where the lump loads are connected. All ST are located near MRS and connected to switchyard via 220 kV cables. MSU transformers are located near GTG and connected to 220 kV switchyard via short length of overhead bus. Island-I and Island-II are interconnected via two Interconnecting transformers (ICT) 132 kV/220 kV, 107 MVA located at Island-II. III. DETAILS OF CASE STUDY

A. Methodology Electrical system network data is modeled in the software for system analysis. Important inputs to an effective system study are: Identification of all loads specifically split of motive and non-motive loads. Power sources, including voltage and short circuit levels and their operational constrains. Generators, including MVA, voltage, impedances and grounding methods.

Power flow analysis is one of the most common computational procedures used in power system analysis. Power flow calculation presents state of the system for a given load and generation. These studies help to analyze the steady state performance of the power system under various operating conditions. They are used to determine the circuit loading, voltages at the various buses, reactive power flow,

Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study) 53

International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084,

Volume- 1, Issue- 3

system losses, and branch losses. The studies also helps to identify critical conditions such as over voltages, under voltages, operation near rated value etc. and desired transformer tap settings. Power flow studies and analysis of the continuous process plant with CPP was performed to ensure the security of the power system with respect to available generation capacity and voltage profiles at various buses for various operating conditions.



The industrial load is a balanced three phase load. So, balanced three phase power flow calculations are carried out. Automatic tap changer settings and reactive power limits are also taken into consideration. Loading of STG is based low pressure steam requirement in the different process plants. There are hardly any variations in low pressure steam requirements. So, all STGs of both the Islands run in constant power mode. The motivation behind this study was to identifying best operating conditions provided under the guidelines of plant/process requirements. This case study is performed to find the tie line power flow and variation of voltage magnitudes at different voltage levels for said conditions. Power flow analysis is performed for three different operating configurations as per Table II. Case 1 is the base case of the three cases studied. Here GTG from each Island along with one STG of Island-I are inoperative. Case 2 deals with the contingency when one GTG of Island-II is out while the operating configuration of Island-I is same as in first case. Case 3 is differs from base case when all STGs of Island-I are in operation whereas one STG and one GTG from Island-II is out of service. Table III gives the summery of three power flow cases studied.




Following are the observations and findings of the power flow simulations Throughout the simulations the load requirement of the Continuous Process Plant is kept constant. So, the MW generation remains around 629 MW. Marginal increase in Reactive power requirement with reduction in the number of generating units. STGs generation in both Islands is clamped as per low pressure steam requirements. All GTGs in Island-II are shares load equally. System wise voltages variation at 220 kV, 132 kV and 33kV are seen in the range of 0.63% to 2.23 %, 132 kV is -0.42 % to 1.8% and -0.5% to 1.81% respectively. The voltage variation at 11kV, 6.6kV and 415V are in the range of -0.5% to -0.7%, 0.1% to -1.1% and -1% to -3.1% respectively. Average MW losses are observed nearly around 0.40% MW generated MW.

Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study) 54

International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN: 2320-2084,

Volume- 1, Issue- 3

Maximum Mvar losses are observed in the range of 21% to 23 % of generated Mvar. Power factor at 220 kV is about 0.85 lag as the reactive power requirement for power and the service transformers is included in the modeled network. Tie line power flow is from Island-II to Island-I in both cases Reactive power requirement is high due to high values of service transformer % impedances 24 %.

Based on above work techno economic feasibility for adding static VAR compensators in the system for reducing distribution losses and improving quality of supply could be checked.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express my gratitude to V.G. Shanbhag, for his support and guidance during completion of this work. I also wish to express my special thanks to Pradeep Teotia and others for their continuous support throughout the work. I take this opportunity to express deep sense of gratitude to all who has supported me directly or indirectly for this work. REFERENCES
[1] IEEE 399-1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Analysis, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1998. [2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2008. [3] D P Kothari and I J Nagrath., Modern Power System Analysis, Third Edition, Chapter No.6, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2010 [4] Stott, B., Review of load-flow calculation methods, Proceedings of the IEEE, 62, 1974. [5] Serrican A., Ozdemir A., Ihan s., Load flow analyzes of power system of PETKM Petrochemical Aliaga complex, EUROCON 2009, IEEE, Conference Publications, May 2009 , Page(s): 470 474

CONCLUSION The power system network for continuous process industrial complex was modeled and the simulations were carried out for various generation configurations while maintaining the loading conditions same. The conclusions of power flow simulations are given as follows: No over voltages or under voltages were observed in the network. Being strong and compact redial distribution network, the voltage control is managed by controlling generator excitation voltages and OLTC of the Service and interconnecting transformers. Tie line power flow is from Island-II to Island-I in all the cases as per the plant operating philosophy.

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