# 10

Ethene and propene are hydrocarbon compounds from the same homologous series. Which statement is true for both ethene and propene? Etena dan propena adalah sebatian hidrokarbon dari siri homolog yang sama. Pernyataan yang manakah benar bagi kedua-dua etena dan propena? A Soluble in water Larut dalam air B Undergo substitution reaction Menjalani tindak balas penukargantian C Able to conduct electricity Boleh mengkonduksi elektrik D Have the same general formula Mempunyai formula am yang sama

48

The thermochemical ionic equation below represents the reaction between magnesium powder and iron(II) sulphate solution. Persamaan ion termokimia berikut mewakili tindak balas antara serbuk magnesium dan larutan ferum(II) sulfat. Mg(s) + Fe 2+(aq) Mg 2+(aq) + Fe(s) H = -189 kJ mol -1

Calculate the increase in temperature when excess magnesium powder is added into 80 cm3 of 0.4 mol dm-3 iron(II) sulphate solution. Hitungkan kenaikan suhu campuran apabila serbuk magnesium yang berlebihan ditambah kepada 80 cm3 0.4 mol dm-3 larutan ferum(II) sulfat. [Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.0 Jg-1 oC-1, density of solution = 1 g cm-3] [Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.0 Jg-1 oC-1 , ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3 ] A B C D 6.5 oC 13.5 oC 18.9 oC 37.8 oC

49 Diagram 15 shows the energy level diagram of the following chemical reaction. Rajah 15 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas kimia berikut. X+Y R + S

Energy Tenaga 200 kJ

70kJ R+S

P+Q

DIAGRAM 15 RAJAH 15 Which of the following statements is true? Antara pernyataan-pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar? A B The heat of reaction is 70 kJ Haba tindak balas bagi tindak balas ialah 70 kJ. Heat is released when P reacts with Q to produce R and S. Haba terbebas apabila P bertindak balas dengan Q untuk menghasilkan R dan S. The activation energy is 200 kJ. Tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas adalah 200 kJ. R and S are more stabil than P and Q. R dan S adalah lebih stabil daripada P dan Q.

C D

1

Which of the following is the general formula of an alkane? Manakah formula am bagi alkana? A B CnH2n CnH2n+1 C D CnH2n+2 CnH2n+1OH

Diagram shows the structural formula of an organic compound. Rajah menunjukkan formula struktur satu sebatian organik. CH3 H3C – CH – CH = CH2 What is the IUPAC name for the compound? Apakah nama IUPAC bagi sebatian tersebut? A B C D Pent-1-ene 2-methylbut-1-ene 2-methylbut-3-ene 3-methylbut-1-ene

2

The following equation shows the combustion reaction of methane, CH4 in excess oxygen. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan tindak balas pembakaran metana dalam oksigen berlebihan. CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l) Based on the equation above, calculate the mass of methane needed if 480 cm3 of carbon dioxide is released at room conditions. [Relative atomic mass : H = 1 ; C = 12 ; 1 mol of gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure] Berdasarkan persamaan di atas, hitungkan jisim metana yang diperlukan jika 480 cm3 karbon dioksida dibebaskan pada keadaan bilik.

[Jisim atom relatif : H = 1 ; C = 12 ; 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik] A B 3 0.32 g 3.2 g C D 32 g 320 g

Which of the following is the chemical equation for the complete combustion of propanol? Manakah berikut adalah persamaan tindak balas kimia bagi pembakaran lengkap propanol? A B C D C3H7OH + 5O2 2C3H7OH + 9O2 C3H7OH + 3O2 2C3H7OH + 7O2     6CO2 + 6H2 6CO2 + 8H2O C + 2CO2 + 3H2O 2CO + 4CO2 + 6H2O

4

The chemical formula of butanol is C4H9OH. Calculate the percentage composition by mass of carbon in butanol. [Relative atomic mass : C=12 ; H=1 ; O=16] Formula kimia bagi butanol ialah C4H9OH. Hitungkan peratus karbon mengikut jisim dalam butanol. [Jisim atom relatif : C=12 ; H=1 ; O=16] A B 21.62 % 26.66 % C D 35.14 % 64.86 %

5

1Diagram 5 shows the energy level diagram for the heat change of precipitation of calcium carbonate Rajah 5 menunjukkan rajah aras tenaga bagi perubahan haba pemendakan kalsium karbonat.

Which of the following statements is true? Manakah antara pernyataan berikut adalah benar? A Heat is released in the reaction

B C D

Haba dibebaskan dalam tindak balas ini. The temperature of the mixture increases. Suhu campuran meningkat The reactants have less energy than the products Kandungan tenaga bahan tindak balas lebih rendah daripada hasil tindak balas. The energy absorbed for bond breaking is less than the energy released from bond formation Tenaga yang diserap untuk memutuskan ikatan adalah lebih rendah daripada tenaga yang dibebaskan untuk membentuk ikatan.

6

1The thermochemical equation below shows a neutralisation reaction Persamaan termokimia di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas peneutralan. KOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq)  KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) What is the heat change if 2.7 g of water is produced? Apakah perubahan haba sekiranya 2.7 g air dihasilkan? [Relative atomic mass : H = 1 ; O = 16] A B C D -5.70 kJ mol-1 -8.55 kJ mol-1 -57.0 kJ mol-1 -153.9 kJ mol-1 H = - 57 kJ mol-1

24.

Diagram 8 shows the energy profile diagram for the following reaction: Rajah 8 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas berikut: K+L→M+N Energy Tenaga

K+L 75 kJ M+N

120 kJ

Diagram 8 Rajah 8 What is the value of the activation energy? Apakah nilai tenaga pengaktifan? A B C D 25 kJ 45 kJ 75 kJ 120 kJ

26.

Diagram 9 shows the energy level diagram for the reaction between silver ions and chloride ions. Rajah 9 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas antara ion argentum dengan ion klorida. Energy Tenaga Ag+(aq) + Cl- (aq)

H = - 65.5 kJmol-1 AgCl(s)

Diagram 9 Rajah 9 Which of the following statements is true about this reaction? Yang manakah antara pernyataan berikut adalah benar mengenai tindak balas ini? A B Endothermic reaction occurs Tidak balas endotermik berlaku The energy content of the product is higher than the reactants Kandungan tenaga hasil tindak balas adalah lebih tinggi daripada bahan tindak balas 65 kJ of heat is absorbed when 1 mol of silver chloride is formed 65 kJ tenaga diserap apabila 1 mol argentum klorida terbentuk The final temperature at the end of the reaction is higher than the initial temperature Suhu akhir tindak balas adalah lebih tinggi daripada suhu awal tindak balas

C D

41.

Diagram 14 shows the energy level diagram of the displacement reaction between magnesium and iron(II) chloride solution. Rajah 14 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas penyesaran antara magnesium dan larutan ferum(II) sulfat. Energy Tenaga Mg(s) + FeCl2(aq)

H = - 201.6 kJmol-1 Fe(s) + MgCl2(aq)

Diagram 14 Rajah 14 What is the increase in temperature if 50 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 iron(II) chloride solution is reacted with excess magnesium,? Berapakah kenaikan suhu, jika 50 cm3 0.25 mol dm-3 larutan ferum(III) klorida ditindak balaskan dengan berlebihan magnesium ?

[Specific heat capacity of the solution = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1] [Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1] A B C 12 oC 16 oC 22 oC

45.

The following equation shows the complete combustion of propene gas. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan pembakaran gas propene

C3H6(g) + 9/2 O2(g)

3CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)

Which of the following statements are true when 1 mol of propene gas is burnt completely? [Relative molecular mass : C3H6 =42, O2=32, CO2 =44, H2O= 18, Molar volume of gas is 22.4 dm3 mol –1 at S.T.P.] Yang manakah antara pernyataan berikut adalah benar apabila 1 mol gas propene terbakar secara lengkap? [Jisim molekul relatif : C3H8 =44, O2=32, CO2 =44, H2O= 18, Isi padu molar gas 22.4 dm3 mol –1 pada S.T.P.] I II III IV Complete combustion of 0.1 mol of propene produces 5.4 g of water Pembakaran lengkap 0.1 mol gas propena menghasilkan 5.4 g air Complete combustion of 1 mol of propene gas produces 2 mol of water Pembakaran lengkap 1 mol gas propene menghasilkan 2 mol air Complete combustion of 4.2 g of propene requires 14.4 g of oxygen. Pembakaran lengkap 4.2 g gas propena memerlukan 14.4 g gas oksigen Complete combustion of 0.1 mol of propene produces 6.72 dm3 carbon dioxide gas at s.t.p. Pembakaran lengkap 0.1 mol propena akan menghasilkan 6.72 dm3 gas karbon dioksida pada s.t.p I and II only I and IV only II and IV only I, III and IV

A B C D

49

Diagram 17 shows the process to produce compound J. Rajah 17 menunjukkan proses menghasilkan sebatian J.

Propanol Propanol C3H7OH

+

Ethanoic acid Asid etanoik CH3COOH

Compound J Sebatian J

Diagram 17 Rajah 17 Which of the following structural formulas is of compound J? Antara formula struktur yang manakah bagi sebatian J? O || CH3—C—O—CH2—CH3 O || CH3—C—O—CH2—CH2—CH3 O || CH3—CH2—C—O—CH2—CH3 O || CH3—CH2—C—O—CH2—CH2—CH3

A

B

C

D

1. What are the molecular formula and the empirical formula of ethanoic acid ? [Apakah formula molekul dan formula empirik bagi asid etanoik ? ] Molecular formula Empirical formula [formula molekul] [formula empirik] A C2H4O C2H4O B C C2H4O2 C2H4O2 CH2O C2H4O2 C2H6O

D C2H6O

2. Diagram 4 shows structural formula for a carbon compound. [Rajah 4 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi suatu sebatian karbon.]

Diagram 4 [Rajah 4]

Which of the following is the IUPAC name for the compound? [Antara berikut yang manakah nama IUPAC untuk sebatian itu?] A B C D 3-methylbut-1-ene [3-metilbut-1-ena] 3-methylbut-2-ene [3-metillbut-2-ena] 2-methylbut-3-ene [2-metillbut-3-ena] 3-methylpent-2-ene [3-metilpent-2-ena]

3. Diagram 11 shows the energy profile diagram for a reaction. [Rajah 11 menunjukkan gambarajah aras tenaga bagi suatu tindakbalas]

Diagram 11 [Rajah 11]

How much is the heat of reaction and the activation energy for the reaction? [Berapakah haba tindak balas dan tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas ini?] Heat of reaction /kJ [Haba tindak balas / kJ] A B C D − 40 −60 40 60 Activation Energy /kJ [Tenaga Pengaktifan /kJ] 60 40 100 100

4. Diagram 13 are the structural formulae which represent organic compounds P and Q. [Rajah 13 menunjukkan formula struktur yang mewakili sebatian organik P dan Q.] H H | | H – C – C – OH | | H H P Diagram 13 [Rajah 13] H H | | HO – C – C – C – H || | | O H H Q

What is the name of the compound formed when P reacts with Q using concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst? [Apakah nama sebatian yang terhasil apabila P bertindak balas dengan Q dengan menggunakan acid sulphuric acid sebagai mangkin ]? A B C D Buthyl ethanoate [Butil etanoat] Ethyl butanoate [Etil butanoat] Propyl ethanoate [Propil etanoat] Ethyl propanoate [Etil propanoat]

25

The following shows a thermochemical equation. Berikut adalah suatu persamaan termokimia. N2(g) + 2O2(g)  2NO2(g) ∆H = +180.6 kJ

Based on the equation above, it can be concluded that Berdasarkan persamaan di atas, boleh disimpulkan bahawa A Energy content of nitrogen and oxygen is higher than energy content of nitrogen dioxide. Kandungan tenaga nitrogen dan oksigen adalah lebih tinggi daripada kandungan tenaga nitrogen dioksida. B Heat is released to overcome the bonding of nitrogen and oxygen. Tenaga dibebaskan untuk mengatasi ikatan nitrogen dan oksigen. C 180.6 kJ energy is absorbed during the formation of nitrogen dioxide. 180.6 kJ tenaga diserap semasa pembentukan nitrogen dioksida. D Temperature of the surroundings increases during the reaction. Suhu persekitaran bertambah semasa tindak balas berlaku.

36

H
H H H C H C H C C H H C H

H

What is the name for the structural formula shown above? Apakah nama untuk formula struktur yang ditunjukkan di atas ?

A

Pent-2-ene Pent-2-ena

B

3-methylbut-2-ene 3-metilbut-2-ena

C

2-methylbut-2-ene 2-metilbut-2-ene

D

2-methylpent-2-ene 2-metilpent-2-ena

47

Diagram 13 is a flow chart showing the conversion of alkene to carboxylic acid and alkane. Rajah 13 menunjukkan carta alir perubahan alkena kepada asid karboksilik dan alkana.

1
Alkane Alkana Alkene Alkena

2
Alcohol Alkohol

3
Carboxylic acid Asid Karboksilik Diagram 13 Rajah 13 What are reactions 1, 2 and 3? Apakah tindak balas 1, 2 dan 3?

1 A Hydrogenation Penghidrogenan

2 Hydration Penghidratan

3 Oxidation Pengoksidaan

B

Hydrogenation Penghidrogenan

Oxidation Pengoksidaan Hydration Penghidratan Hydrogenation Penghidrogenan

Dehydration Pendehidratan Dehydration Pendehidratan Oxidation Pengoksidaan

C

Oxidation Pengoksidaan

D

Hydration Penghidratan

32

Figure 9 shows an ester produced when an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid. Gambarajah 9 menunjukkan sejenis ester yang terhasil apabila sejenis alkohol bertindak balas dengan sejenis asid karboksilik. O II CH3  CH2  C  O  CH2  CH2  CH3 Figure 9 Which of the substances are used in the reaction? Manakah antara sebatian berikut digunakan dalam tindak balas tersebut? Carboxylic acid Alcohol

A

CH3CH2OH

B

CH3CH2CH2OH

C

CH3CH2CH2CHOH

D

CH3CH2CH2OH

35

Figure 11 shows the energy level diagram that represents the reaction between A and B. Rajah 11 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga mewakili tindak balas antara A dan B.

Figure 11 What is the heat of the reaction between A and B? Apakah haba tindak balas antara A dan B? A B C D T2 T2 – T1 T3 - T1 T3 – T2

48

Figure 14 shows the energy level diagram for a reaction between zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution. Rajah 14 menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas antara zink dan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.

Figure 14 Calculate the temperature change when excess zinc is added to 100 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution . Kira perubahan suhu apabila zink berlebihan ditambah kepada 100 cm3 larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0.1mol dm –3. [Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1] A B C D 2oC 4oC 6oC 8oC

44

The following is the energy level diagram of a reaction. Berikut adalah gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi satu tindak balas.

HNO3 + NaOH Energy Tenaga ΔH = -57kJ mol-1 NaNO3 + H20

Which of the following acids is suitable to replace nitric acid, HNO3 to obtain the same ΔH value? Antara asid yang berikut yang manakah sesuai bagi mengantikan asid nitrik, HNO3 bagi memperoleh nilai ΔH yang sama? A Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH Asid etanoik, CH3COOH Carbonic acid, H2CO3 Asid karbonik, H2CO3 Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 Asid sulfurik, H2SO4 Hydrocloric acid, HCl Asid hidroklorik, HCl

B

C

D

39

The thermochemical equation represents the precipitation of lead(II) sulphate : Persamaan termokimia mewakili tindak balas bagi pemendakan plumbum(II) sulfat: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)  PbSO4(s) ΔH = – 42 kJ mol-1

Which energy level diagram is correct ? Gambar rajah aras tenaga manakah yang betul ? A PbSO4(s) Energy Tenaga Pb (aq) + SO4 (aq)
2+ 2-

ΔH = – 42 kJ mol-1

B
PbSO4(s) Energy Tenaga Pb (aq) + SO4 (aq)
2+ 2-

ΔH = + 42 kJ mol-1

C Energy Tenaga

Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ΔH = – 42 kJ mol-1 PbSO4(s)

D Energy Tenaga

Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ΔH = + 42 kJ mol-1 PbSO4(s)

34. Two thermochemistry reactions for neutralization reaction are shown below. Dua tindakbalas termokimia untuk tindakbalas peneutralan adalah seperti di bawah. NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O NaOH + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O ∆H = -57 kJ mol-1 ∆H = -55 kJ mol-1

The value for the heat of neutralization of these two reactions are different because Nilai haba peneutralan untuk dua tindakbalas ini berbeza kerana A B C D Ethanoic acid less soluble in water than hydrochloric acid Asid etanoik kurang larut di dalam air daripada acid hidroklorik Sodium ethanoate salt produced absorbed heat from the reaction Garam natrium etanoat yang terhasil menyerap haba daripada tindak balas Ethanoic acid produces less few hydrogen ions than hydrochloric acid Asid etanoik menghasilkan kurang ion hidrogen daripada acid hidroklorik Heat is absorbed to ionize ethanoic acid in the reaction Tenaga haba diserap untuk mengionkan asid etanoik dalam tindak balas

25

Which of the following is true of an exothermic reaction? Antara yang berikut, yang manakah benar tentang tindak balas eksotermik?

A

The container becomes hotter. Bekas itu menjadi panas. The temperature of the mixture decreases. Suhu campuran tindak balas menurun. Heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings. Tenaga haba diserap dari persekitaran. The heat energy is converted to kinetic energy. Tenaga haba ditukar kepada tenaga kinetik.

B

C

D

Energy Tenaga

23

The heat of combustion of methanol is 715 kJ mol-1. What is the heat released when 25.6 g of methanol is burned? [Relative molecular mass of methanol = 32] Haba pembakaran bagi metanol ialah 715 kJ mol-1. Berapakah haba yang dibebaskan apabila 25.6 g metanol dibakar? [Jisim molekul relatif bagi metanol = 32]

A B C D

572 kJ 894 kJ 18304 kJ 22880 kJ