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# GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL, KINETIC ENERGY, CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY A meteorite of mass m= 2 10^4 kg is approaching head-on a planet of mass M= 1 10^29

kg and radius R= 2 10^4 km. Assume that the meteorite is initially at a very large distance from the planet where it has a speed v0= 6 10^2 km/s. Take G= 6.67 10^11. Determine the speed of the meteorite v (in m/s) just before it hits the surface of the planet. (The planet has no atmosphere, so we can neglect all friction before impact) v=

CYLINDER ON TURNTABLE

Suppose the metal cylinder shown above has a mass of m=0.10 kg and that the coefficient of static friction between the surface and the cylinder is =0.12. If the cylinder is x=0.20 m from the center of the turntable, what is the maximum speed vmax that the cylinder can move along its circular path without slipping off the turntable? Choose the range that includes your answer. 0.0<vmax0.5 m/s. 0.5<vmax1.0 m/s. 1.0<vmax1.5 m/s. 1.5<vmax2.0 m/s. 2.0<vmax2.5 m/s.

WOMAN IN ELEVATOR A woman weighs Fg= 550 N when standing on a stationary scale. Now, the woman is riding an elevator from the 1st floor to the 10th floor. As the elevator approaches the 10th floor, it decreases its upward speed from 8 m/s to 1 m/s in a time interval of 2 s. What is the average force exerted by the elevator floor on this woman during this 2 s interval? Use g=10 m/s2. 536.25 N 178.75 N 268.12 N 357.50 N 715.00 N

TWO SKATERS Two skaters of mass m1=50 kg and m2=70 kg are standing motionless on a horizontal ice surface. They are initially a distance L= 7.0 meters apart. They hold a massless rope between them. After pulling the rope, the skater of mass m1 has moved a distance l= 1.0 meters away from his initial position. We can completely neglect friction in this problem. What is the distance L between the two skaters when the skater of mass m1 has moved a distance l? (in meters) L=

## SLIDING DOWN A DOME

A small object of mass m= 60 kg slides down a spherical dome of radius R=12 m without any friction. It starts off at the top (polar angle =0) at zero speed. Use g=10 m/s2. (See figure) (a) What is the magnitude of the force (in Newtons) exerted by the dome on the mass when it is at the top, at=0? N(=0)= (b) What is the magnitude of the force (in Newton) exerted by the dome on the mass when it is at =30? N(=30)= (c) At what angle 0 does the sliding mass take off from the dome? answer in degrees (0090; ) 0=

PENDULUM WITH CUT STRING A small ball of mass m=0.60 kg hangs from a massless string of length l= 0.8 m. The ball travels in a vertical circle and its speed at the bottom is v0= 5.0 m/s (see figure). Neglect all friction and air drag, and use g=10 m/s2 for the gravitational acceleration. The ball is so small that we can approximate it as a point.

(a) Find the speed of the ball (in m/s) when the string is at = 70. v(= 70)= (b) What is the tension in the string (in Newton) when it is at = 70? T(= 70)= (c) The string of the pendulum is cut when it is at = 70. First, we want to neglect all air drag during the trajectory of the ball. What is the maximal height h (in meters) the ball reaches above its point of release? What time tup (in s) does it take the ball to reach the highest point from the instant the string is cut? What time tdn (in s) does it take the ball to go from the highest point back to the altitude it was released from the string? h(= 70)= tup(= 70)= tdn(= 70)=

(d) Next, we want to take air drag into account for point (c). Let h~ be the maximal height of the ball above the point it was released, t~up is the time to get there, and t~dn is the time to get back to the altitude it was released (with air drag). Which of the following is true? (neglect the effect of air drag before the string is cut) (d1): h~ is always greater than h. h~ is always smaller than h. h~ is the same as h. We need to know if the ball is in the pressure dominated regime or in the viscous regime to tell whether h~>h, h~<h, or h~=h. (d2): t~up>t~dn and t~dn<tdn. t~up<t~dn and t~up<tup. t~up=t~dn and t~up<tup. t~up>t~dn and t~up>tup. The answer depends on whether the initial speed is larger or smaller that the terminal speed.

## EMERGENCY LANDING OF A PLANE

An airliner makes an emergency landing with its nose wheel locked in a position perpendicular to its normal rolling position. The forces acting to stop the airliner arise from friction due to the wheels and from the breaking effort of the engines in reverse thrust mode. The force of the engine on the plane is constant, Fengine=F0. The sum of the horizontal forces on the airliner (in its forward direction) can be written as F(t)=F0+(t/ts1)F1 from touchdown at time t=0 to the final stop at time ts= 26 s (0tts). The mass of the plane is M=80 tonnes (one tonne is 1000 kg). We have F0= 278 kN and F1= 44 kN. Neglect all air drag and friction forces, except the one stated in the problem. (a) Find the speed v0 of the plane at touchdown (in m/s). v0= (b) What is the horizontal acceleration of the plane at the time ts? What is the acceleration at the time of touchdown? (absolute values; in m/s2) |a(ts)|= |a(0)|=

(c) What distance s does the plane go between touchdown and its final stop at time ts? (in meters) s= (d) What work do the engines in reverse thrust mode do during the emergency landing? (magnitude in Joules; the force due to engines is (F0)) W= (e) How much heat energy is absorbed by the wheels during the emergency landing? (magnitude in Joules; the force due to wheels is (F(t)+F0)) Eheat=

MASS PUSHED BY A SPRING A block of mass m=2 kg on a horizontal surface is connected to a spring connected to a wall (see figure). The spring has a spring constant k= 14 N/m. The static friction coefficient between the block and the surface is s= 0.5 , and the kinetic friction coefficient is k= 0.2 . Use g=10 m/s2 for the gravitational acceleration.

(a) The spring is initially uncompressed and the block is at position x=0. What is the minimum distance x1 we have to compress the spring for the block to start moving when released? (in meters) x1= (b) Find the distance |x2x1| between the point of release x1 found in (a), and the point x2 where the block will come to a stop again. (in meters) |x2x1|= (c) What time t12 does it take the block to come to a rest after the release? (i.e., the time of travel between points x1 and x2; in seconds) t12= (d) What will happen after the block has come to a rest at point x2? The block will move back towards x1, and it will oscillate with constant frequency and exponentially decreasing amplitude. The block will move back towards x1, and it will oscillate while decreasing both frequency and amplitude. The block will start moving back towards x1, and it will come to a final halt before reaching it. The block will stay at its resting position x2. The answer depends on whether x2>0 or x2<0

DOUBLE-WELL POTENTIAL An object of mass m=80 kg moves in one dimension subject to the potential energy U(x)=4(x2a2)2+b2x2.(1) Here we use = 7 kg/(m2s2), a= 8 m, and b= 398 kg/s2. (a) How many equilibrium points (stable and unstable ones) does this potential have? n= 0. meters) x0= (c) Do a Taylor expansion of the force F(x) for x close to the equilibrium point, xx0, that is F(x)=F0k(xx0)+ What are the values for F0 (in Newton) and k (in kg/s2)? hint: For help on using Taylor series to express the potential energy function near a stable minimum, we encourage you to look at the following page in the section on small oscillations:here F0= k= (d) What is the period T of small oscillations (in seconds) of this mass around the equilibrium point x0? (Note that the parameter k found in the previous question acts like a spring constant that wants to pull small deviations back to the equilibrium point) T= 1. 2. 3. 4. (b) Find a stable equilibrium point x0 such that x0 is positive. (in