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D’UNIVERSITÉ VALAHIA TARGOVISTE
SECTION d’Archéologie et d’Histoire TOME XV
Numéro 1 2013
Valahia University Press
Annales d’Université Valahia Targoviste Section d’Archéologie et d’Histoire publie des mémoires originaux, des nouvelles et des comptes-rendus dans le domaine de l’archéologie préhistorique, de l’histoire du moyen âge, de l’environnement de l’homme fossile, de l’archéologie interdisciplinaire et de patrimoine culturel. Rédacteur en chef: Prof. dr. Marin Cârciumaru Secrétaire général de rédaction: Conf. dr. Corneliu Beldiman Secrétariat de rédaction: Prof. dr. Ioan Opriş, dr. Denis Căprăroiu, dr. Radu Cârciumaru, dr. Monica Mărgărit, dr. Marian Cosac, dr. Roxana Dobrescu, dr. Ovidiu Cîrstina, dr. Elena-Cristina Niţu, dr. Daniela Iamandi, dr. Adina Elena Boroneanţ. Comité de rédaction: Prof. dr. Eric Boëda, prof. Marcel Otte, prof. dr. Răzvan Theodorescu, prof. dr. Alexandru Vulpe, prof. dr. Victor Spinei, prof. dr. Sabin Adrian Luca, prof. dr. Gheorghe Lazarovici, dr Marylène PatouMathis, dr Marie-Hélène Moncel, dr. Alexandru Suceveanu, dr. Cristian Schuster, dr. Dragomir Nicolae Popovici, dr. Adrian Bălăşescu, dr. Radu Ştefănescu Correspondants: Prof. Jacques Jaubert, prof. Jean-Philippe Rigaud, prof. Árpád Ringer, prof. Alain Tuffreau, dr. Aline Averbouh, dr. Alain Turq, prof. Ivor Iancovič, prof. Ivor Karavanič, prof. dr. Ştefan Trâmbaciu, dr. Eugen Nicolae, dr. Emilian Alexandrescu, dr. Sergiu Iosipescu Technorédacteurs: Dr. Elena-Cristina Niţu, Marius Alexandru Florică
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p. ***Centrul de Studii Daco-Romanistice Lucus. was composed of elite soldiers. to the extent that it can be done. That is the case of the curved weapons with the blade on the concave side. but especially GetoDacians. In our view. done through the more or less peaceful integration of preexistent sociopolitical entities. throws an important light on the importance of this border point. more or less under the influence of the said kingdom. Consolidating their power through trade. Alexandru Berzovan**.. as a weapons type and characteristics were associated with the warriors that owned them. an important fort. berzovanalexandru@gmail.D. 55-75 ISSN: 1584-1855. No. with both the Dacian kingdom. Located at the meeting point of two distinct worlds. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Caius Săcărin*. Section d’Archeologie et d’Histoire. separated only by the great European river. a special interest zone for understanding said phenomena is the Danube Gorge. The construction of the Dacian kingdom in the centuries Ist B. The usage of modern methods of investigation. weapons were regarded as having real identity markers. ISSN (online): 2285–3669 A fort at the edge of the Empire. Numéro 1. where. on both sides of the great river. these warriors found themselves at the forefront of the advance of Roman armies towards the Danube. invariably associated by ancient artists and authors with the warrior populations of the northern Balkans. generated a series of skirmishes in the region. The arrival of Roman power on the lower Danube during Ist century A. but also through plunder. dada@enciclopedia-dacica. can provide new insights into the analysis of issues such as the spatial distribution of sites in an area and thus. In this picture. Tome XV. **Alexandru Ioan Cuza University. weapons occupy a leading role.com. as they are the most obvious physical representations. Bd. Timișoara. combining them with field research and excavations in well-defined micro zones. Carriers of social and ideological messages. the Dacian warriors on the Danube Gorge built solid fortifications. as they are the most obvious physical representations.D. could not have been achieved without a solid political-military infrastructure. Danube Gorge. as well as with various tribal factions. It is likely that the garrison stationed here. Carol I. Cătălin Borangic*** *Muzeul Banatului Montan. Thracians. Romania. Iași. Divici Fortification Introduction Among the specific embodiments of the military phenomena. Key words: Dacian curved weapons. Ancient Dacian Warriors. obviously related to the power center from the Șureanu Mountains. Reșița. 2013. which aimed at controlling access to key crossing points across the river. managing to resist until the era of the large Dacian-Roman confrontations. curved weapons discovered in the ruins of the Dacian fortress Divici. as the weapons. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici. Abstract: A fort at the edge of the Empire.Annales d’Université Valahia Targoviste. – Ist A.C. weapons occupy a leading role. the issue of relations between these archaeological sites.ro. Romania. the armies of Rome and those of the Dacian kings were in direct and permanent contact. GIS. 11. integrated into a coherent system. for over a century. the type of fortification and the geographical position converge together towards this hypothesis. This infrastructure was 55 . Among the specific embodiments of the military phenomena.
We have also consulted ortophotograms. available online on the site of the ANCPI. securing and projecting the power and authority of the Dacian kings of Sarmizegetusa throughout the territories.C. by the existence of numerous core groups of professional warriors with a well-defined identity. the large degree of relief fragmentation and the considerable terrain Tome XV.D. is often questionable. These clashes along a Danubian frontier that spanned more than 1000 km. thus their inclusion in our timeframe of interest. The arrival of Roman power on the lower Danube at the end of the Ist century B. 1 funerary find.. 1). Means and methods Our discussions focus on the Danube Gorge. the area defined conventionally as being between the modern localities of Baziaș (town of Socol. at the same time attempting a journey into the world of the Dacian warriors at the boundaries of the Roman Empire. To better understand the functionality of defensive ensembles and their spacial relationship with neighboring settlements. more or less under the influence of the said kingdom. with the exception of fortifications. unpublished. Măruia. as well as the creation of a veritable defensive systems meant to protect the. for over a century. and to the north the waters of the Nera river (fig. Therefore we will present two curved weapons. Pupeză. we believe we must first start with a good awareness of the local terrain. 2.C. are in our opinion. 1). even today. discovered in one of the keeps located inside the powerful Dacian fortress of Divici – „Grad” (town of Pojejena. the processing of results being done with the Global Mapper 13. we have selected 46 distinct archeological discoveries (fig. the case of monetary circulation in pre-roman Dacia. The same uncertainty regarding dating is also found in the case of hoards and numismatic discoveries. generated a series of violent clashes and skirmishes in the region. random discoveries are usually very generously dated.Caius Săcărin. In the present study. 1). In our view. indispensable. have been well documented by contemporary sources. we have set out to discuss the issues of the defensive system of the area. The need for an efficient response to the new military and political challenges brought on by the situation on the Danube. To the south. the period of use and preservation of certain coins. and Ieşelnița (town. as they were the builders and masters of impressive fortifications. where. tab.00 program. all these are issues that lack sufficient clarification. Alexandru Berzovan. 2013) can discuss at length the archaeological theory of view shed in relation to Dacian forts without providing in their papers any sort of GIS analysis. 2013 56 differences make this area. with both the Dacian kingdom. 8 open settlements 6 cave dwellings. – Ist century A.Severin County). . Mehedinți county) to the east. To calculate visibility ranges. the armies of Rome and those of the Dacian kings were in direct and permanent contact. among other things. Caraș-Severin county) to the west. as well as with the various tribal factions. on a scale of 1:5000. Caution must be used when using the results of analyzing discoveries mentioned in the relevant bibliography for the purpose of obtaining an image concerning the intensity of habitation. Our analysis includes almost the whole of the Almăjului Mountains – even though their peaks rarely go over 1000 meters.. It is not in the purpose of this paper to criticize some approaches in contemporary Romanian archaeology of the Late Iron Age– but we find indeed curious how certain authors (for example. one of the least populated and remote areas of Romania (L. Using a single reference point to calculate visibility and control ranges of fortifications situated in rough terrain can usually cause errors.. consisting of 5 fortifications. Caraș. 10 coin hoards and 15 isolated coin finds (tab. had determined the consolidation of existing fortifications. a special interest zone for understanding said phenomena is the Danube Gorge. while modern analysis methods (GIS software).. we have used a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) with a 30 m resolution. not to mention any sort of maps at all. 2004-2005). up until then fluctuating borders of the Dacian kingdom. Therefore. P. Ist century B. Information regarding the precise locations (in GPS and in Stereo70 format coordinates) of a majority of analyzed points was gracefully provided by Liviu Măruia and Alina Gheorghe. battles taking place on both sides of the river. separated only by the great European river. For the purpose of this article.. Cătălin Borangic characterized. the limit is the waters of the Danube. Numéro 1.
Fig.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Numéro 1. 57 Tome XV.Map of analyzed area and archeological discoveries in question.Map of ancient Dacia and surroundings areas with the location of the area in question. 2. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Fig. 1. 2013 .
. Luca. Luca. A. A. A. S.. 2004. Medeleț. 2004. Luca. 2006-2007. F. 1994. I. F. V.al. Luca. Rogozea. A. A. 1987. Rustoiu. A.2004. Dragomir. F. 1971. Luca. Medeleț. A. A. F. S. 2004. 2004. Petrescu. S. I. Medeleț. A. S. 2004. Luca. 1994. A. S. Medeleț. A. O. 2004. 1994. Luca. Luca. 2006-2007. M. 2004. A. Dragomir.. S. 1994. 2004 Tab. 1981. 2004. I. A. 1994. 2004.. 2004. A. Luca. 1994. S. 2004. S. 1994. Gumă. F. Rustoiu. A. 1994. S. 1994. S. Medeleț. 2004. S. Medeleț. 1994. Luca. Medeleț. S. Medeleț. A. S. 1987.al. Luca. 2. F. 1994. Spânu. S. Medeleț. S. Gumă et.al. Luca. Luca. Luca. A. Medeleț. Luca. A. 2000. Medeleț. S. S. 1994. Petrescu. F. A. Boroneanț. Cătălin Borangic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Place Baziaș Baziaș Bănia Camenița Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Coronini Cozla Dalboșeț Divici Placename La Culă Gaura Chindiei I Gaura Chindiei II Gaura cu Muscă Grădiște Grad Type Isolated find Coin hoard Isolated find Settlement Coin hoard Coin hoard Coin hoard Isolated find Isolated find Isolated find Fortress Cave Cave Cave Coin hoard Fortress Fortress 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Drencova Eftimie Murgu Gornea Gornea Liborajdea Liubcova Liubcova Debarcader Padina cu spini Ogașul Ierii Locul lui Bănilă Țiglărie Stenca Liubcovei Coin hoard Isolated find Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Fortress 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Liubcova Liubcova Moldova Nouă Moldova Veche Moldova Veche Moldova Veche Moldova Veche Pojejena Potoc Potoc Potoc Potoc Sasca Montană Sichevița Sichevița Slatina Nera Socol Socol Dubova Dubova Dubova Dubova Peștera de sub Stenca Liubcovei Observator Ostrovul Mare Jose Via Bogdanovici Valea Șușara La Biserică La Dispensar Palanački Breg Cuina Turcului Peștera Ponicova - Cave Isolated find Isolated find Coin hoard Coin hoard Isolated find Isolated find Isolated find Coin hoard Coin hoard Coin hoard Isolated find Settlement (?) Settlement Settlement Isolated find Isolated find Fortress Cave Cave Isolated find Grave Bibliography I. 2013 58 . Luca . S. F. Medeleț et. S. 1994.Archeological finds in the area in question and their number of order on Fig. 2004. F. 2004. S. S. 2004. A. Rustoiu. Luca. Petrescu. Medeleț. 2004. F. Bozu et. Luca. A. F.al. Luca. 1971. A.Caius Săcărin. F. F. 2004. S. S. Glodariu. S. A. Medeleț. 1. S. P. A. 2000. S. F. 1994. 2004 M. 1994. 1999. Luca. A. 2004. Tome XV. Glodariu. S. Luca. A. Gumă et. M. 1994. A. 1997. Petrescu. F. F. Luca. S. 2004. A. 2004. Gumă et. 1987. Luca. S. 2004. 2004. F. 2004. Luca. Luca. 2004. S. Luca. A. Medeleț. 1977. F. Medeleț. I. F. A. Alexandru Berzovan. A. Luca. Medeleț. 2004. Luca. I. 1981. Gumă. S. A. Medeleț. 2000. 2000. 2004. A.al. Medeleț. F. M. 1994. Glodariu. A. Numéro 1. Luca. Luca. 2004. Luca. A. 2004. 1994. Glodariu. A. A. 1971. A. 2004. 2006 D. S. S.. 2004. Luca. Medeleț. Luca. 1997. S. S. Medeleț. Luca. Luca. 1981. A. S. Medeleț. 2004. S. 1994.1993. Luca. S. 1994. 1994. P. Medeleț. Luca. 2000. 1974. 1994. 2004. S. Dragomir. S. F. 2006. 2006. Medeleț. S. 2004. F. 2004. I. A. F. Rogozea. F. 1994.
A series of fortification works. vertical panels supported on a structure of transverse beams or boards.al. Gumă et. the plateau was defended by a simple earth wall with palisade. Archeological digs at „Grad” location during 1985-1998. 1995. This phase corresponds. the stone wall above is restored. which.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Gumă et. Gumă et. During this period.al. considering its position. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici It is well known that perspectives can differ from one side to another on a mountain.. 1987. the strengthening of the structure was also made on the outside by a series of beams.al. 2006-2007). Liviu Măruia pointed out the existence of major linear fortifications meant to bar access to the west of the Almăjului Mountains. Gumă et. 2004. M. is dated in general during the Ist BC to early Ist century AD. A. consisting of three successive earth walls. built using the same opus incertum technique. 1995). it is possible that there may have been the location of the fort gateway. Given that surveillance in forts was certainly done from towers or specially built observatories. A.60 m thick stone wall runs from the north-eastern side of T1. were observed on the peak north-west of the site (M. to the T2 keep. The artifacts and their context of discovery The Divici . 2013 .al... that dominates with around 100 m the river’s flow (fig. on a series of anthropic terraces located on the eastern slopes of the promontory. 1995). 1995. numerous signs of habitation have been observed – at the base. which seem to be linked to three phases of habitation. Rustoiu. 1997. Glodariu. the wall filling being made of crushed stone and clay.. Gumă et. A. acted as a curtain wall tower (Fig.”Grad” fort is situated on the Danube Gorge.the first half of the Ist century BC).al.. E. M. according to the authors of the excavation (M. This stone wall presents partly shaped facings made of stone bound with clay. Surrounded on three sides by steep slopes. Between the restored wall and the edge of the keep is a gap of a few meters . separated by what seems to have been an earth wall. occupying a triangular plateau. apparently also having. 1997). The second phase. Therefore. however our intention was to offer a global perspective of the existing visibility range. I. The last phase lasts throughout the Ist century AD and marks the peak of the fortification’s development (M. on the last peaks of the Almăjului Mountains. M. for each site we have used multiple reference points. 2005.. it is only accessible from a narrow path on the northern side.al. which in ancient times was barred by two defense ditches. we believe that 59 future systematic field researches should be started throughout the whole region.judging by the published excavation plans. between kilometers 1065 and 1066 of the river. Gumă et al. we have taken into consideration a height of 10 m above ground (still. S.al. M. In the immediate vicinity of the fort. It seems hard to explain why this wooden structure was built on the outside wall. 2006-2007). 3). 1997. less known (dated between the late IInd century BC . Glodariu. much better substantiated by findings. 2004. thus achieving a terracing that had a stone wall built on top. 4). As with the Phase II wall. Following significant damage sustained at the end of Phase II. Teodor et. A.al. 2005. when the fort suffers significant damage. During the first of these phases. with perhaps a supporting role. Our description will focus particularly on the military aspects of the discussed site. Rustoiu. Numéro 1. Gumă et. which are believed to be from the Dacian period due to similarities existing to those found in the Șureanului Mountains (D...al. Rustoiu.. Tome XV. have identified three separate phases of said fortifications. that has a stone base and a story probably made of brick (M. 1995. 2013) – therefore. on the banks of the Danube a contemporary civilian settlement existed. the slopes of the early earth wall were removed by the addition of large amounts of compacted clay.. currently submerged due to the building of the Iron Gates dam (M. at which time the T1 keep was built in the northwest plateau. on the outside. that form a polygonal mesh overlapped with what we have termed (mostly in a conventional sense) the „limits” of said location. with an area of 7000 square meters. the plans we provided showing the cumulative results for analysis done for each of the mentioned reference points. Rustoiu. with an opening of 6 and 10 m respectively. Gumă et. A 3. identical results were achieved with the analysis for this area where we calculated visibility ranges from ground level for each). Gumă et. apparently. 2012. I. Oltean. a series of support beams stuck down.
The foundation was made out of large pieces of local rough stones. is very important for the fact that it brings into question.] (Statius. discovered in debris. Beyond the obvious set of spiritual and cultural values with which Dacians have penetrated the consciousness of antiquity. M. the filling was made out of small pieces of stone bound in clay. Curved blade weapons had a long evolution in the Thracian and then Dacian environments. A rich archaeological material. size 30x40 cm or 22x13 cm. Gumă et. In this same area. daggers and curved swords used during . Verus in in his war against the Parthians. among which a jeweler's anvil demands notice. Inside the tower. but their forms as well.20 m. located approx. with a summarily shaped external side. Its solid walls.60 m from ground level. and square shaped. 1 m away from each other. important rhetor and Roman lawyer. Between the facings. Alexandru Berzovan. saggitarum ictus post ingentia Dacorum falcibus inlata volnera despicatui habentibus (Fronto. in the middle is a round earthen hearth. scythes. consisting of numerous pottery fragments. verses 131-134 of the II part). 1995).. Cătălin Borangic as it was constantly exposed to danger of fire during an eventual siege . being made with the same "opus incertum" technique. Note that some of the rectangular pieces present traces of plaster. II. could be seen mostly on the side of SW. M. Latin poet and protégée of Emperor Domitian (therefore we assume that he knew the Dacians well) remarks the sinister fame of their weapons. in an effort to mask his former student’s poor performance in said conflict. Three distinct types could be distinguished: rectangle shaped. Principia Historiae).al. thickness of all types ranging from 7 to 8 cm. which the Dacians used to oppose Roman expansion: [. dug into the well compacted clay layer of a previous terracing. the author shows that he speaks of curved weapons. The ancient written sources. The T1 keep has a rectangular shape. Gumă et. the term Dacorum falcibus including said sickles. Gumă et. approx. quoted extensively in the literature. better preserved (M.D. This fragment. were kept in elevation over 1. archaeological findings and artistic representations show this long process (A. 1995. 1997). but in a slightly different manner from that of settlement walls. spades. captured in Section I (fig. Gumă et. quo turbine contum Sauromates falcemque Getes arcumque Gelonus tenderet et flexae Balearicus actor habenae [.. made of large blocks of various shaped rocks. more than half a century after DacianRoman wars. 4).50 to 1. Thus. 2007). not only generalized use of the Dacian curved swords. Numéro 1.al. some of them badly burned.. Numerous traces of charred wood. 4). The building was erected on a foundation 0. and nails. resulted from the destruction by fire of the wood infrastructure and superstructure of the keep (M. Cornelius Fronto.but it is likely that engineering reasons (risk of the wall slipping toward the outside) might have prevailed over military considerations. Achilleis. The Dacian-Roman wars of 101-102 and 105-106 A. with dimensions of 19x18 cm. the whole building being enhanced by several rows of wooden cross-beams with "dovetail" shaped heads (see fig. These rows of spacing’s. made both by hand and wheel. also speaks of this terrible sword. The upper floor of the keep was made of brick.15 to 2. some of them painted. where found around it and in its chamber. Naming sickles in general.Caius Săcărin. 2013 60 pieces.. the binder used being clay. but also a local adaptation of a species of curved sword known in antiquity as the falx. 9. with a thickness of 2.. 1995). judging by the presence of whole and fragmented bricks. quo Macetae sua gaessa citent. with which they are associated: Quo Paeones arma rotatu.. P. revealed not only martial qualities unveiled by written sources. Rustoiu. NW and NE of the tower. The walls of the tower have a complex structure.. 1 cm thick. Papinius Statius. each of its sides measuring approx. 4) that left spacing’s in the wall. We should also note the presence of fragments from large storage vessels.al. were also found the two curved arms that are the object of our study. both the interior and exterior wall facings were solid. Gumă et alii 1987. Also found were metal Tome XV. history was more easily impressed by the warrior ethos and military virtues which they exercised during their tumultuous existence.80 m deep.al. stuck together with clay (M. 50 m on the outside (fig. found in the debris... This is how he starts to describe the valiant efforts of the emperor L.] in bellum profectus est cum cognitis militibus hostem Parthum contemnentibus. knives. whose archaeological remains are slowly revealed.
61 Tome XV. 2006-2007). 4 . Ortophotogram.Reenactment of technique used in the construction of T1 keep’s walls and the general plan of the excavations in the area of the T1 keep (A.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Rustoiu. Numéro 1. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Fig.Divici – Grad Fort. Fig. 3 . 2013 .
type III. creating gaps and those with short swords. almost invariably the authors seem content to convey the idea of falx and rarely the objective picture of it. Changes where brought to the dominant model of curved sword "Sarmisegetusa". where the curved swords is comparable in size with gladius next to it. usually have a two-handed grip. it was possible that they appear in the future. forme the bulk of the warriors that engaged in melee. 2006) in Dacian environments. Borangic. 1926) and in two poems of Ovid’s Metamorphfoses (part I. Daremberg. Cătălin Borangic the Dacian kingdom`s period. for it has circulated in antiquity. We encounter it. qua collo est confine caput [. the fight scenes depict Comati warriors wielding invariably short curved sword and shield (fig. monetary issues or votive pieces. even in a limited number (C. The other types were assumed to be possible because even though artistic illustrations were not accompanied by specific findings. verse 80). C. was for a long time the only model without any doubt regarding its authenticity. Borangic. lacking until now. Note that Sarmisegetusa type curved swords. The bravery and skill of the Dacian military art was not exploited in arenas just for the fun of the plebe when the warriors were taken as gladiators after the end of the Daco-Roman wars. obtained by associating two Latin terms. 2006). whose morphology would permit its use in a disciplined way. part IV. The term falx dacica. falcato nutantem Tome XV. considering those which we are confident are authentic and have kept almost the entirety of their characteristics. Bobu-Florescu. so far a relatively small number of such curved swords have been found. Although present on architectural monuments. bent only at the tip and was probably a single handed weapon. 1960). 2006). at least as poetic license. subsumed. named „curved gladius”.. Saglio. 6/1). this one has a straight blade to near the top. falx dacica findings are rare in relation to their fame at the time. artistic ambiguities do not always show the actual characteristics of these swords (C. Thus. verses 717-718: Nec mora. on Trajan's Column. M.. This type of sword. registered as A2B3 – sword with medium sized blade. Alexandru Berzovan. in fact a later. is separated from the blade by a guard sleeve visible only on the underside of the blade (F. Previous inferences were then supported only by illustration of such weapons in Roman art. Numéro 1. Despite the reputation. as digs done in the Divici fort have archeologically confirmed the existence of this other type of curved sword. Borangic. whose pragmatism was practically a state policy. and on the other hand. in a single type of sword called "Sarmisegetusa" (C. 2013 62 vulnerat ense. for manual techniques that were used in their production leave room for their existence at the time. A more explicit rendering can be found in the Adamclisi triumph monument’s weapon frieze.]. in various historical and archaeological contexts (Cf. because. as we have temporarily admitted. under the term falcatus ensis – ensis being a synonym for gladius (C. because of their relative standardization. “Sarmisegetuza”. a monument with a visible message of imperial propaganda. the archaeological proofs confirming the existence of such a type of curved sword. skillfully used these qualities of the new subjects .. Completely different from other weapons represented on the monument.(C. Borangic. including the curved gladius type. slightly oversized. exemplifying with artifacts suffers a number of shortcomings. allows accurate identification of the weapon. Borangic. 5).] and part V. The assumption proved itself correct. because of the new tactical considerations needed when facing the Roman legions and their absence in previous chronological horizons. which eliminates the possibility of using it simultaneously with a shield. verse 727: Desinit inpiscem falcato vulnerat ense [. which is short and with a sharp bend and handle. This curved sword has a short blade. 2006). 2006). and their consistent presence in Roman art seemed more than a simple artistic canon.. due in part to the rarity of these objects in archaeological contexts. hybridized version of the feared curved sword. As we said. (fig. The combination of terms is only apparently contradictory. This allows the assumption that those wielding the Sarmisegetusa type sword opened the battle. with only a bent . with few exceptions. for the Roman imperial administration. allowing the assumption that this type of weapon was a strange symbiosis between falx dacica and gladius.Caius Săcărin. in compact groups fighting after the Roman model. for example. which seems to have been the favorite weapon of a distinct category of Dacian warriors.
5 . 6 . Tome XV. Numéro 1. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Fig. Photos of copies of scenes located at MNIR.A fort at the edge of the Empire.Dacian curved weapons sculpted on roman monuments.Capillati warriors pictured on Trajan's Column. wielding short curved swords. Fig. 2013 63 .
It is a short curved sword. and to the left by a curved sword whose blade is straight right up near the top (Fig. found at Amastris (nowadays Amasra. The handle does not show signs of visible rivets. 1980. It is important to notice that on the monument are two such weapons. Technical execution: hot tapping. today Birdoswald (Great Britain). Thick= 0. but nevertheless. very likely. Type of piece: falx dacica. whose inscription (Fig. C.but it is certain that the ethnicity of the Tome XV. obtained by hot forging.. dated around 219 AD. at least that of the first contingent of soldiers and even if. I. Russu. = 3. Storage site: Mountain Banat Museum. Alexandru Berzovan. A similar association one can found on a honorific altar (Fig.excepting the case that he entered in his service as a Dacian prisoner . Turkey). = 47 cm. I.5 cm. placename: Divici – „Grad”. most likely. the dating of this monument was related to the invasion of Roman Dacia by barbarian populations during the Marcomannic Wars. Petolescu. Size: L = 39 cm. dating from between 198209 A. 6/2) is flanked on the left by a sword with a bent tip and to the right by a palm branch. Repository inventory: no. = 42 cm.2 . deployed far from their native lands. Cătălin Borangic and incorporated a large number of soldiers coming from Dacia into the Roman auxiliary units (C. = 8. 2002). On the monument relief.D. Interior L. the inscription’s text is flanked to the right by a palm branch. mentioned in a series of epigraphic sources (C.. Sextus Vibius Gallus. throws from his hands a long curved sword. the relatively average length being an impediment to a rider. Reșița. having totally different dimensions.D. Petolescu. 1971). in Britannia. 8664. in the years 166-169 A. to an infantryman. B. One of them. embedded in the wall of another granary. C. Both carved arms certify the origin of the units stationed here. had it not been for the recent discovery of an intact. is also the Cohors I Aelia Dacorum.5 . C. prafectus castrorum legiones XIII Geminae. Russu. but of smaller size. Description: good conservation status. therefore it was used in close combat – the pronounced curvature and tip . The handle would have been solid enough to ensure a proper balance for the weapon and increased mobility during combat. First in chronological order.Caius Săcărin. Among these units. 2013 64 officer`s enemies is put in connection with the curved sword. 1980). stationed at (C) Amblogana. Initially. 7). a symbol of victory (I.offering maybe a clue in regard to the battle where Sextus Gallus might have fought? The short sword can be connected with other such representations from the Roman art. the commander of Cohorsi I Thracum civium Romanorum. showing the titular of the monument on horseback. Maxfield. 6/3).D. Russu. is a rock" uncovered" when soldiers of said Dacian cohort and those of Cohors I Thracum civium Romanorum were building a horeum. If large swords appear only on the Adamclisi monument . 1978).2. Falx dacica Place of discovery. Numéro 1. handle L. like a spout and edge on the concave side (fig. made on a block of stone found in 1852. The historical record of this type of curved sword would have remained in the field of assumptions. fighting against two barbarians. they remain as true symbols associated with Dacian ethnos. Another statement. 1980). Archeological context: interior of T1 keep. strongly curved at the tip. Exterior L. References: novel The weapon belonged. where a bend ends with a sharp tip (I. against whom the Legio XIII Geminae located at Apulum fought a series of battles (I. Type of research: systematic research. while the other has in its turn a curved sword. Petolescu. C. More recent scholarship (V. date the military career of the officer during the reigns of emperors Domitian and Trajan. w. well preserved specimen in an undeniable archeological context. it does not reflect the use of curved arms by the unit.0. by soldiers under the leadership of tribune Marcus Claudius Menander. preserved at the Carlisle Museum. 6 cm. 2002). It is improbable that the freedman commanding and paying for the monument could have actually known the curved swords of the Dacians that he would have wanted to eternalize them in the memory of his patron`s bravery . probably injured. 6/4) erected in honour of a Roman officer. its fastening was probably ensured by fixing the end spine in a timber tail. Dobson. I. 1981.2 cm Dating: Ist century A.
The historical landscape of the Dacian kingdom’s last period of existence revealed the existence of a professional corps (Z. the experience of the weapon wielder. clients. of incidence as well as the portion of the body affected. in fact warriors of the king. splits) depended largely on striking power. cuts. chain mail armor and helmets. less noble strata of society. bows. This Tome XV. in turn with a hierarchy and curved swords were typically used only by a distinct category of warriors. For long considered as actually the mass of common people. the maximum effectiveness achieved just in the case by slashing and shearing. 7 . coming from the lower. sica type curved daggers. able to penetrate light armor. the angle of incidence as well as the portion of the body affected. 2007-2008). shields. aggravated by the action of tearing. In the case high amplitude hits. Gyömber). these nobles were the core of the GetoDacian military organization that provides both military commanders. the experience of the weapon wielder. the whole force of penetration is concentrated in the tip. as well as special units composed of their relatives. In the case high amplitude hits. Petre. The upper echelon of this hierarchy was composed of so-called tarabostes. shield and helmet. Potential injuries (penetrating blows. she was in general use in Decebal’s army. also involved was the inertia force conferred by the weight of the weapon and arm (C. but we would fall into obvious historiographical clichés. and binder core of a compact and disciplined royal army. 2004). even if the enemy was protected by armor. possessing exceptional mental state. very likely. 2013 . long-haired warriors. Celtic type swords.Falx dacica from Divici (drawing made by I. Well-armed. the angle Fig. We would be tempted to say that beyond the remarkable features of this type of sword. riding selected and trained horses. thus not suitable to stabbing.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Iova and M. This makes it especially dangerous. Due to the specific shape. Numéro 1. 65 equipped with an efficient and heterogeneous arsenal which included spears. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici shape giving it the advantage of high penetration power. with probable addition of mercenaries. personal guards. another group of soldiers were the kometaii. Borangic.
and on coins Dacia as well . 1991). combined with the exceptional features of the weapon. Ursulescu. seems to be due not only to the qualities of the falx type swords. 2003). Archaeological context: interior of T1 keep. Borangic. 9/1). all certified archaeological contexts. like a beak. In a society where the tradition of death on the battlefield. from an element of social distinction and superiority into a stigma of inferiority. is demonstrated also by the absence of curved sword from funerary contexts. Repository inventory: no. particularly Roman legionaries. Sword effectiveness in facing opponents with defensive equipment. but also with change and rebirth. The effectiveness of these fighters was the result of combining two cleverly associated elements. That this was not an aristocratic elite but very likely only a specialized class of warriors. capillati mentioned by ancient sources. with no cases of found grave inventory with falx dacica in its composition. In contrast to the pilophorii. The attachment of these warriors for such a weapon must be linked to the Geto-Dacian lack of thanatophobia and. as this social category has hitherto been interpreted.along with the existence of parade panoply and of lavish grave inventories a complex imagine of the warrior function would be inconceivable that the original symbolic meaning of these capillati tresses has been overturned. later becoming an attribute of Death (C. who were called to periodically join the warrior aristocracy (see also N. transforming the hair. judging by sleeve size. 2009.with terrible Dacian falx. not the largest. Resita. limited to a few specimens. falx dacica appears to be a weapon hidden to avoid it’s confiscation or. Bogdan Dobre. can justify the almost exclusive association of Dacians . requiring weapons professionals specially trained to fight using this kind of weapon. of an army.Caius Săcărin. kometaii appear to have originally represented the noble warrior caste. Another curved weapon must be seen in the same register and. the contrary. and a third possibility would be the low social status of these warriors. which was capable of causing serious injury. Storage site: Mountain Banat Museum. whose main occupation was war. 8666. Type of research: systematic research. Endemic conflicts led to their permanent presence in the local military phenomenon. Presents gloving tube and rivet hole. . One of them lies in the special shape of the sword. found in a similar context with the sword (Fig. The existence of these elites is supported by the combative qualities of this type of sword that could not be handled by anyone. was in the primordial myths associated with time. but the human element in this equation as well. show . whose funeral rites are not yet known. with the edge on the inside. more likely. the primary source of inspiration for curved arms. The only falx dacica sword Tome XV. Using this type of sword requires. The second element that led to the successful man-weapon combo was the special mental training of the falx handler. with bibliography). placename: Divici "Grad". Given the specific shape it can be assumed that those who wielded them acted as support troops in other units. in addition to rigorous training. Type of piece: pruning knife. a highly specialized military elite. very likely with the magic and religious meanings that these curved weapons had in all cultures. while archaeological finds are extremely rare. even if the opponent was protected by armor. their presence in most artistic ensembles is a clear message and the fact that these elite units are only a part. Cătălin Borangic hypothesis implies the existence of free land owners. Pruning knife Place of discovery. The explanation stems from the fact that these swords were coveted trophies. M. Borangic. Vasilescu. not give away ownership status (C. a solid pruning knife. as the initiatory rite of immortality. Written sources mention the great psychological impact of Dacian curved arms. The sickle. the association between them and death being a cultural constant seen to this today (C. but it is a rather problematic find. the artistic and numismatic confirm their widespread use. 2009). 2013 66 discovered in a funerary context is the one from Viscri (Brașov County). Description: good conservation status. Alexandru Berzovan. hot forged. aristocracy tie to function sacred sovereignty. It was mounted on quite massive a wooden tail. The piece is made of iron. Numéro 1. free born men with military obligations and are in a relationship of subordination to pilleati. representatives of the two Indo-European features. a degree of heroism which. strongly curved at the tip.
more than that. judging from the specific pileus. It has no direct line of sight with Divici . whose optimal length is between 1 and 1. even occasionally. across the entire area Dacian influence and their use.D. = 5. – Ist century A. Borangic."Grad" has the most extensive visibility range of all analyzed fortifications. The spread and frequent findings of pruning knifes. The area where it was located is an area of expansion of the canyon (fig. = 32 cm. Attached to a tail that is double.. dated especially in the 67 Ist century B.5 m. but it is very possible that they were part of a complex defensive system located in the area of the Almăjului Mountains (see discusions above). Divici .3). 25 km. Acting as a reenactor. Relatively inexpensive. where the Danube waters could be crossed in relative safety .8 cm. Măruia). 2010). simulating battles with groups of Roman legionaries (fig. extremely efficient weapon. Its closeness to the Banat Plain. 5 cm = 43 cm exterior L. allowing it to control the approach into the Danube Gorge (fig. while appearing in ancient representations (fig."Grad". The fact that such a weapon was wielded by a tarabostes may suggest its effectiveness. The position of these parts among tools or weapons was an often discussed and disputed topic in the literature (C. 2013 . To the east. Situated on the last western peaks of the Almăjului Mountains.2 to 0. 2010). the fortification of Socol "Palanački Breg" had a very good viewshed to the west and south. gloving tube w. Numéro 1. as well as the lower course of the Nera provides abundant farmlands – the lack of major excavations do not allow us to say to what extent the point was ascribed to trade routes of the time .but the presence of stone architecture (M. = 2. pruning knifes must have been highly prized and their number high enough for them to become visible in Roman art and now in archaeological finds. they were treated peripherally by archaeologists. wide valleys offered sufficient farm land. from where they could easily reach one of the most important trade and military routes of its time – the Morava Valley. allows the inclusion of this category of artifacts among those Dacorum falcibus mentioned by Cornelius Fronto (C. these pruning knifes were a tactical solution resorted to by both professional warriors. once on the south bank. blade w. controlling access to the Danube for a distance of approx. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Size: L = 29. 10). Ist century A. 9/2. during winter there is a tendency for ice bridges to appear in this area (information provided by L. The long tail allowed a fight at a safe distance from the short swords of legionnaires and applying two-handed strikes with the sickle. the pruning knife is short and very curved. Merchant caravans and roaming bands of warriors. which have actually been used to build the fortification in its second and third phase of existence. the blade length.. Not unimportant is the presence of such weapons on Trajan's Column.6 cm. 3 hours of work. the process lacking a functional analysis.D. uses it against the Romans (fig. 9/3). and especially ordinary fighters.al. Discussions Analyses of visibility ranges for fortifications in the area have provided some very interesting results. Dating:. similar to some pieces from archaeological contexts. serious head injuries. within thematic associations. by direct hits or fatal cuts to the legs or neck area. 11/A).C. 8/1). Borangic. Which is why. Gumă et. Technical execution: hot forging. No less effective were shorter tailed war hooks handled in tandem with a shield (fig. References: novel. belonging to one of the categories was often determined in general. It has a good view of plains that climb the slopes of the Almăjului Mountains. 2) constitute evidence of the strength and prosperity of the inhabitants of this fortification during the Dacian Kingdoms period. could head to the wide valley of the river Pek. Attached to a tail made of strong wood.A fort at the edge of the Empire. these weapons could produce disarmament. the cost of performing such a war hook estimated at approx. No less effective than actual swords.4 cm. enough to make him prefer it to other weapons that his rank and status would have allowed.8/1-2). where a character of noble rank. the proximity of the mountains also offered plentiful wood and stone. as weapons. interior L. turned this ordinary tool in a terrible. and fishing or hunting could become at Tome XV. 1997) and monetary findings inside it’s control zone as well as the surrounding areas (see fig. gloving tube L. Ø rivet hole: 0. but also of the right bank of the river. = 7 cm. I participated by means of experimental archeology in the making of such weapons and have tested their effectiveness in specific situations.
Numéro 1. – Pruning knife tested during reenactment Tome XV. 2013 68 . Fig. Iova and M. 9 – 1. who kindly provided us with information and pictures about the reconstitution and combat use of pruning knifes.Caius Săcărin. Pruning knife discovered at Divici (drawing by I. 2-3. Gyömber). reenactor and archaeologist. We thank our colleague Marius Barbu. Alexandru Berzovan.Pruning knife appear in Roman art and craft reconstruction of such weapons. 8 . Cătălin Borangic Fig.
some true luxury items (M. Gumă et. is evidence of an ideology of design and expression of power that is found in the same shapes in the area of Dacian fortresses in Transylvania (see also . pattern for cast rings etc. 10 . 2013 .. Besides the warrior nobles. 69 jeweler chisel and anvil. Other findings. 2006-2007. keeps with stories made of plastered brick. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici any time additional sources of food (G. the fortification of Coronini/Pescari .. (M.C. 2). the ability to change the natural environment by massive terracing. certainly housed skilled craftsmen. Numéro 1.Moldova Noua . the daughters or the mothers of the settlements residents. The analogies do not stop there: the presence of painted pottery. the hierarchy of habitat in a "fortified acropolis" and a number of adjacent civilian settlements and not least. 1995. Fig. A. 2001. 1995. judging by specific items discovered: cast pewter spoon. 2012 a) and last but not least. is further evidence of the prosperity of the area (fig. al. the fortress... being located right at the Tome XV. The myriad of hoards and stray finds from the area Divici .al. 1996). Gumă et. such as clay spindlewhorls. 1997.al. Gumă et.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Rustoiu.al.Viewshed analysis of the Dacian fortifications from the Danube Gorge Drăgan A. the presence of curved weapons attest undoubtedly a level and a way of living comparable to that of the area of the capital of Dacian kingdom. with their related bands. Less known. Gumă et. bronze mirrors and various household objects reveal an interesting fresco on the lives of those who were the wives.. El Susi. Monumental stone architecture. stirred up by building a medieval stone fortress.. A. M.D. 1997).„La Culă” has a special strategic position. file. Rustoiu. corresponding to Ist century B. imported parts (acquired by robbery or trade). permanently inhabited.Coronini. M. present in two overlapping chronological phases of fortification. – Ist century A.
Caius Săcărin. 2006-2007). Located in an area of widening (fig. 2005. Lack of line of site between fortifications cannot be considered as evidence for the lack of a system. No doubt part of a single system. to this historical event. 2). the Roman historian Aenneus L. as is well known. A. Rustoiu. Cătălin Borangic beginning of one of the narrow areas of the Danube Gorge (fig. but the analysis of geomorphological features can provide other explanations: here.C. Măruia). It provides excellent visibility to the north-east.D. driving out the Dacians and placing several Roman garrisons on the southern bank of the river. 2006-2007).. A.it is likely that this lack indicates merely a stage of research. termed "Limes dacicus" by A. 2005. which is fully confirmed by archaeological findings showing a restoration of fortifications in the area (tab. in the light of new discoveries: thus. 1965). the fortifications around the Gorge know relatively similar chronological phases. which is reduced to only the areas immediately adjacent. but does not have a good angle of view to the east. Săcărin. Gumă. The issue of Dacian habitation of the Nera Valley also requires in depth research in the future. Enthusiastic following this successful military action. suggesting the existence of Tome XV. as well as the roads crossing from the Almăjului Mountains to the Danube Gorge. . elements of stone architecture (A. is characterized by a series of violent confrontations between Dacians and Romans throughout the Danube region. As stated in the introductory part of the study. defended. Gumă. 2006-2007. Rustoiu. which are archaeologically barely visible. C. Very likely. We tie the destruction that happened at the beginning of the Ist century A. M. which brought peace to the region. despite monetary discoveries and signs of cave dwelling. but repulsed and scattered" (H. Florus says that the Dacians "have not been defeated. having no other fortified point in its line of sight. was highly problematic. Săcărin.before the construction of the dam. Any new research in the area could provide information and clarification in this regard. Augustus responds promptly. 10). Măruia have led to the rescue of pottery fragments dating from I B. crossing the river with large armies being out of the question. 2013 70 Dacian level that overlaps the prehistoric habitation previously reported here (O. Although not located on the Danube Gorge. 1977. 11/E) . a number of well-documented historical events. The very rugged topography. Rustoiu. in our opinion. Downstream along the Danube Ieșelnița (eastern boundary of the area to analyzed by us). it is likely to have played a secondary role to the much more powerful fortress of Divici. linked to. to all fortifications on the Gorge. 2005). clearly favoring defenders. by a wall with a stone and earth filling. as far as we know. the turn of the Ist century B. Lacking. Bozu. Numéro 1. after some field research conducted at Borlovenii Old . with very large height differences (fig."Grad" in its line of sight. 1979). Its role seems to have been similar to that of Divici – one of the fords used for crossing the Danube was located in this area during Middle Ages.D. the fort of Dalboşeţ . A."Grădişte". S.I A. and Ist A.D. the fortification of the Stenca Liubcova has an area of restricted visibility (fig. C. Caras-Severin county) by L. Faced with these challenges. probably used and known in Antiquity as well (A. the poet Horace speaks of the destruction of Cotiso’s army . Historical sources of the period mention the armies of the Dacian king Cotiso that come down from the mountains.more realistic.the only area where the mountain borders on the great river is the one we are talking about. Rustoiu. the valley narrows very much. in an area predisposed to the formation of ice bridges (information provided by L. Bozu. 11/D)."Leul" (Prigor town. and the closeness to the powerful Transylvanian nucleus of the Dacian kingdom – it is less than a three day trip on the mountain trail roads that start at the mouths of the Cerna river across the Țarcu-Godeanu massifwould have caused serious logistical and military problems for the Romans if they had wanted to start pacification and resettlement operations like those conducted against the tribal factions of the . sending Lentulus in the area. Ștefan. with the fortification of Divici . Dacian fortifications are missing . controls access to Nera valley. 1983) revealed a fairly prosperous center. C).C. Rustoiu (A. discovered during some field research (O. the main role of this fortification was to control access from the south bank of the river. the problem can be solved by observation towers. during the second Dacian Phase. crossing the frozen Danube raiding south of the river . Rustoiu. The findings of the fortification (M. 1979). navigation in this area. becoming more pronounced. Alexandru Berzovan.11/B. Daicoviciu.
E. C.Altimetric profiles across the Danube Gorge: A. Coronini/Pescari – „La Culă” – Radosevac (E-V). Divici –„Grad” – Topolovnik (N-S). Coronini/Pescari – „La Culă” – Jerinin Grad (NS). Profile across Danube at Dubova (E-V). Numéro 1. 2013 . 11 . D. 71 Tome XV.A fort at the edge of the Empire. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Fig. Stenca Liubcovei – Dobra (N-S). B.
curved weapons discovered in 72 . Gumă et. Rustoiu launches an interesting hypothesis.al. Thus we think that this might explain why this area has fared distinctly from other areas along the Danube. however. 2. fully illustrating the dramatic confrontations. trying. 1997. If they Tome XV. dated between AD 112-117. the decisive confrontation between the Dacians and Romans in the sector being postponed until the time of the great wars during the reigns of emperors Domitian and Trajan. northwest side of the fortification wall was destroyed. we express serious reservations about it for several reasons: the difference in height of 15-20 meters between the path and plateau would put attackers who would like to occupy advanced positions in an obvious disadvantage. they would have been exposed.. The Fortress phase Second half of IInd century B. so experienced in siege operations. Whether these fortifications were neutralized during the wars in the time of Domitian or during the first Dacian war. and arrowheads and roman catapult projectiles were discovered in the debris and burned layer behind the defense. Ștefan. could find more feasible solutions. 20062007). A. is no longer bound to the existence of the fort . it seems natural to believe that they were lost by defenders who took refuge in the tower.. during a time when the kingdom and the old centers of authority were still alive in the consciousness of the locals. during rampart construction operations. 1999. 2013 wanted to isolate the city and its defenders before the final assault. to projectiles launched by the defenders. a discreet surveillance of this point by the Romans. In our case. In this picture. moreover.al. the issue of relations between these archaeological sites. Conclusions Use of modern methods of investigation. A.C First half of Ist century B. being stormed by the Roman legions. S. The coin from Trajan’s time."Grad" are quite eloquent.D Coronini/Pescari–„La Culă” I Coronini/Pescari–„La Culă” II Dalboșeț –„Grădiște” Divici-„Grad” I Divici-„Grad” II Divici-„Grad” III Socol–„Palanački Breg” Stenca Liubcovei I Stenca Liubcovei II X ? X ? X X X X X X X ? ? X ? X X X ? X Tab. A. the Roman army. discovered in the topsoil during archaeological excavations (M. to the extent that it can be done. Regarding the arms we presented. Regarding the final moments of the fortification of Divici. 2005.D Second half of Ist century A. naming the Romans as the builders of the two grooves that cut the access path to the plateau of the city.C X Second half of Ist century B. they seem to have ended in a violent way. Alexandru Berzovan.Fortifications and datings (M. A.C X First half of Ist century A.Caius Săcărin. combining them with field research and excavations in microzones well defined. however. perhaps. Gumă et. Numéro 1. being constructed during the siege so as to cut off the defenders. may provide new insights into the analysis of issues such as the spatial distribution of sites in an area and thus.its presence may indicate. a last resistance.al. being in the immediate vicinity of the fort. Fragments of lorica squamata were discovered in the same place (M. Rustoiu 2006-2007). Archaeological evidence for the fortification of Divici . Gumă et. Cătălin Borangic Wallachian Plain. 1997). Rustoiu.
Consolidating its power through trade. în NEMVS. în Banatica.. Borangic C. in Terra Sebus. p. PhD.. 1974. p. 78-79. Late Iron Age Burials in the Iron Gates. integrated into a coherent system. on their way to Transylvania. I. Translation of this article was made by our good friend. 2009.. raise many questions. the geographical position converge towards this hypothesis. Ch. Tome XV. 2012 b. It is likely that the garrison stationed here. I. type of fortification tower itself. Târgu Mureș.. 9-10. Bucureşti. Acta Musei Napocensis. Glodariu I. El Susi G. 2007-2008. Falx dacica. Köln-Bonn. Numéro 1. managing to successfully resist until the era of the large Dacian-Roman confrontation. p. Dobson B. în NEMVS. Incursiune în arsenalul armelor curbe tracice. Proceedings of the International Colloquium from Târgu Mureș.A fort at the edge of the Empire. pescari şi crescători de animale în Banatul mileniilor VI î. Bucureşti. they found themselves at the forefront of the advance of Roman armies towards the Danube. Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines. 1996.. II. I. V. Located at the meeting point of two worlds. O expediţie arheologică în Valea Almăjului.. September 20-23rd 2012.Ch. Falx dacica. II-III. 1965. 2006. Suggestion for Dacian Curved Types of Weapons). II. Relaţii comerciale ale Daciei cu lumea elenistică şi romană. 1978. 2012 b). Săcărin C. Entwicklung und Bedeutung. throws a bright light on the importance of this border point. p.. 2010. Noi descoperiri arheologice în hotarul localităţii Gornea şi Sicheviţa. 36. Laufbahnen und Persönlichkeiten eines römischen Offizierranges (Beihefte der Bonner Jahrbücher 37).. I. Romania. p. II... we wonder if the warriors of the Gorge. The existence of influences amid political. –I d. indisputably involved in the broader phenomenon Padea Panaghiurskij Kolonij (Drăgan A. Dragomir I. Falx dacica (A Foray into the Thracian Curved Weaponry. Cluj-Napoca. 1974. This study is dedicated in the memory of Liviu Măruia. p.. Coson sau Cotiso ?. Editura Dacia. A functional Approach to Funerary Expression in the Late La Tene. but also through plunder. 73 Borangic C. 2000. and also a very close friend. which aimed at controlling access to key crossing points across the Danube. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bobu-Florescu F.. Drăgan A. The case of the Late Iron Age Settlement from Divici Grad. the model layout of these settlements.. Câteva observaţii privind cosoarele în lumea dacică (A few notes regarding the Dacian pruning knife). 1978. Problems of chronology. Petnica Science Center. Paris. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici the ruins of the Dacian fortress Divici. but even so.. was composed of elite soldiers. VI. Monumentul de la Adamklissi. university lecturer at the West University of Timișoara. Banatica. Bozu O. 10-21. Eds. vol. no. 2012 a. p. 1981. especially in the nucleus around Sarmizegetusa Regia. Daremberg C. 1979. 553-558. but their meaning is hard to pin down precisely. obviously related to the power center from Șureanu Mountains. NEMVS. Living on the margin. will have brought. 463-466. 107-110. Arheologia peşterilor şi minelor din România. in Iron Age Rites and Rituals in the Carpathian Basin. The similarities to the situations encountered in the Transylvanian area. Berecki S. but also those related to the current state of research requires extreme caution. an important border fort. 44-62.Tropaeum Traiani. Timişoara.. Daicoviciu C. Borangic C. Tentativă de reconstituire (Falx dacica. 425-453. as weapons. Editura Mega.. An Attempt of Reconstitution). Vânători . Acknowledgements We thank the collective of the Mountain Banat Museum of Reșița for all the support and good will they helped us with in the making of this study. 1996. 1-2. Dan Vlase (Timișoara). II (F-G). Die Primipilares... Saglio M. Boroneanţ V. in Imperialism and Identities at the Edges of the Roman World. p. 47-105. military and economic interdependence is indisputable. 1960. researcher of the Dacians in Banat.. Borangic C. Realităţi şi perspective. 2013 . 43-61. Drăgan A.. Dacian warriors on the Danube Gorge built solid fortifications. Propunere pentru o tipologie a armelor curbe dacice (Falx dacica. Falx Dacica). 1926. and expert archaeologist.. p.
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A fort at the edge of the Empire. 2013 . 1991. ThracoDacica.. Observations enabled by the discovery of two curved weapons at the Dacian fortress of Divici Ursulescu N. Considerații privind semnificația cuvântului cometai. p. 133-135.. 1-2. XII. Numéro 1. 75 Tome XV. Vasilescu M.
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