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MODULE 1

Transmission System

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


PDH: a technology in telecom networks to transport large quantities of data over Fiber optics and Microwave systems. Plesiochronous: derived from Greek plesio - meaning near, and chronos - time, and refers to networks run in a state almost, but not quite perfectly, synchronized.

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

PDH Network
1st 1 2Mb 30 chls 30 x4 8 Mb 120 chls x4 34 Mb 480 chls x4 139 Mb 1920 chls 2nd 3rd 4th

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

PDH Signals
E1 Signal 32 Time Slots (DS0) Multiplexed to One E-1 64 Kbps * 32 = 2048 Kbps or 2.048 Mbps Commonly called a E1 Line (or C12 Container) E3 Signal 16 E-1 Multiplexed to One E-3 2.048 Mbps x 16 + 1.60 (overhead) = 34.368 Mbps Commonly called a E3 Line (or C3 Container) E4 Signal 4 E-3 Multiplexed to One E-4 34.363 Mbps x 4 +1.812 (overhead) = 139.264 Mbps Commonly called a E4 Line (or C4 Container)
BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Limitations
Inability to identify individual channels in a higher order stream. Insufficient capacity for network management. Most PDH network management is proprietary. No definition of bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s There are different hierarchies in use around the world.

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


As per ITU-T, SDH is: A hierarchical set of digital transport structures, standardized for the transport of suitably adapted payloads over physical transmission networks .

Hierarchy levels defined STM-1 : 155.52 Mbps STM-4 : 622.08 Mbps STM-16 : 2488.32 Mbps STM-64 : 9953.28 Mbps

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

SDH Benefits
First world standard in digital format. First optical Interfaces. Multi-vendor environment drives price down Flexible synchronous multiplexing structure. Easy traffic Add-Drop and cross connect capability. Reduced number of interfaces improves network reliability. Powerful management capability. Highly flexible and survivable self healing rings available. Backward compatibility to existing PDH
BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

STM frame structure


Basic STM frame: Matrix of 9 Rows and 270 Columns Each column is one byte Transmission is row by row, starting with the byte in upper left corner and ending with the byte in the lower right corner. Frame repetition rate is 125 micro sec, meaning that a byte in the payload represents a 64 Kbps channel. STM-1 is capable of transporting any PDH signal ( 140 Mbps). Frame comprises of Section overhead (SOH), Pointer and Payload.

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

SDH Frame Structure


1 1 3 4 9 10 270

RSOH Pointer MSOH P O H Payload Container

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Layout of SDH Equipment layer

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Network Element in SDH

Regenerator Terminal Multiplexer Add- Drop Multiplexer Digital Cross Connect

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Regenerator

STM-N REGENERATOR

STM-N

It regenerate the clock and amplitude of incoming distorted and attenuated signal. It derive the clock signal from the incoming data stream

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Terminal Multiplexer(TM)

PDH SDH

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER

STM-N

It combines the Plesionchronous and Synchronous input signals into higher bit rate STM-N Signal.

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

ADD- DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

STM-N

ADD- DROP MULTIPLEXER


PDH SDH

STM-N

Extraction from & insertion into high speed SDH bit streams of Plesiochronous and lower bit rate Synchronous signal. Ring structure of network which provides the advantage of automatic back-up path switching in the event of fault.

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Digital Cross Connect(DXC)

DXC is a synchronous network involves setting up semipermanent interconnections between different channels enabling routing to be performed down to a VC level. Does the mapping of PDH tributary signals into VCs and switching of various containers up to and including VC4.
BY:- GAURAV KUMAR

Presented By:- Gaurav Kumar

BY:- GAURAV KUMAR