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Smoke Detector Using 8051 Microcontroller
In any modern structure or building of the world, safety has the highest priority and therefore fire detection system is one of the basic components of the structure. Timely information of fire not only helps save lives but also makes it easier to put out fire.
Our objective is to design a Fire Alarm System that would full fill the following objectives: Indicate the room in which fire erupted. Sound the alarm if fire occurs. False Alarm occurrence should be kept minimum. The system should be flexible enough to be easily modified in case if new rooms are added to the building. The system should also provide the flexibility to adjust the temperature and smoke sensitivity levels as per the operating environment.
This paper proposes the design and construction of fire alarm system which is controlled by 89S52 microcontroller. LCD is used to indicate situations of the system composed of 2 modes of working state, regular working mode and fire mode. Graphic output states are displayed on LCD by using software „Keil uVision2‟, interfacing with microcontroller. Input signal coming from the normally opened warning devices such as heat detector and smoke detector is sent into a detectable instrument to separate the mode of working state. After that, output signal
The output pin is connected 20 . Pin a is connected to Vcc pin b is connected with ground while the output is from pin c . C and D. b and c.is dispatched to 89S52 microcontroller for analysis. LM 35 has three pins a. Heat Detection Circuit This is the first module of our project in which we have used LM 35 sensor and a comparator. So at 50 degree centigrade it will give 0.49 volts on the negative input of comparator so that when the output of sensor will give 0. This microcontroller can transfer data and display the situation of detector in 4 zones.As soon as the smoke vanishes its output again comes to zero .TGS-308 has four pins Pin A. a high signal will be passed on to the microcontroller through comparator. In case of fire mode. So when the temperature of external environment will be 50 degree centigrade. the environment of the zones is exposed on LCD.As per our requirement we need to send a high signal to the microcontroller when the temperature is 50 degree centigrade As the output of sensor gives 10mv change with a change of 1 degree centigrade in temperature. 11.On the contrary when there is a smoke the sensor will give a output voltage according to the intensity of smoke .3.The output of this sensor is going to a comparator .so to meet our requirement we have set 0.The internal circuitry of TGS-308 contains a heater . Requirements This system consists of following modules. the heater will ionize the smoke particles and they will act as a charge carriers so a voltage will be built at output . pin D is connected with ground and pin C is the output pin.5 volts as output has a linear relationship with temperature . B.5 volts the comparator will pass high signal to microcontroller. Smoke Detection Circuit The second module of our project is to detect smoke from the environment which is inevitable outcome of fire. The sensor output is almost zero when there is no smoke in environment . Thus. out of these A and B are connected to Vcc.as the smoke particles will pass through . So to full fill this requirement we have used smoke sensor TGS 308 and a comparator. the data will be sent to LCD and to Buzzer simultaneously.
turning it ON.e. Software Design Conditions In case if both the bits of a particular room are high (i.pin no 40 is connected to Vcc while pin no 20 with ground.4. Simultaneously the LCD displays the room number of the room where fire has erupted.so as the smoke will produce. As the smoke intensity increase and the sensor output will reach 3. In case if one of the bits of a particular room is set (i. 11. Microcontroller Programming and Interfacing We have used 89S52 microcontroller. Two pins are connected with Vcc one with ground and one with the potentiometer to set the resolution of LCD. one is connected with the supply and the other one with the microcontroller pin no 2. and 2. there will be voltage at output of sensor. Three control pins of LCD are also connected to microcontroller pin no 2.They are used for enabling LCD. performing read or write operations and to select command or data register Buzzer It has two pins. 21 . LCD Interfacing The LCD we used was having 16 pins out of which 8 pins are directly going to microcontroller pin number 1 to 8. either the smoke sensor or his operating above normal conditions). 2.6.7 . the program takes this situation as ambiguous and displays “NORMAL” on the LCD. As this sensor is quite sensitive to smoke so we have kept 3 volts as a standard at comparator input so that it should detect real fire and do not activate on fake signals just like if someone is smoking.4. the smoke and heat levels are above normal conditions).5.1 volts the comparator will pass a high signal to microcontroller. It has 40 pins . When microcontroller will provide low signal.e.with the positive input of comparator while at its negative input there is constant 3 volts . the program sets the pin connected to the buzzer. the circuit will be completed and the buzzer will start alarming.
If both the bits are at low logic levels (i.7 P2.e.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.6 P2. the program simply displays “NORMAL” on the LCD and the buzzer also remains OFF.#'F' 22 .5 LCD ORG EQU 000H P1 CALL INIT_LCD again: CALL GET_SENSOR_DATA MOV CALL A. Code: LCD_RS LCD_RW LCD_EN BIT BIT BIT P2.#81H WR_LCD_COMMAND CALL DELAY JNC HERE MOV CALL MOV A. The LCD is initialized only once and only the top line of the LCD is being used for display purpose. both the heat and smoke sensors are operating under normal conditions). The programming approach to display output on the LCD includes character by character transfer of the entire string with an appropriate delay.
#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'R' WR_LCD_CHR A.CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL WR_LCD_CHR A.#'E' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'R' WR_LCD_CHR A.#31H WR_LCD_CHR 23 .4 MOV CALL JMP AGAIN A.#'M' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'#' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'A' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'I' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'L' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR CLR P2.#'A' WR_LCD_CHR A.
#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'L' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'A' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'R' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'N' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#'M' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL MOV CALL A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR A.#' ' WR_LCD_CHR 24 .#'O' WR_LCD_CHR A.HERE: MOV CALL A.
2 line 5x7 CALL WR_LCD_COMMAND MOV A.#38H . Position # 3 WR_LCD_COMMAND WR_LCD_COMMAND: CALL DELAY MOV LCD.clear LCD CALL WR_LCD_COMMAND MOV A.#0CH . #81H . Curser at LINE # 1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN CLR LCD_EN RET WR_LCD_CHR: 25 .shift cursor right CALL WR_LCD_COMMAND DISP: MOV CALL RET A.SETB P2.#06H .#01H .LCD on cursor on CALL WR_LCD_COMMAND MOV A.4 JMP AGAIN INIT_LCD: MOV A.
2 RET END 26 . #0ffh r5. $ .CALL DELAY MOV LCD. P2.0 ANL C.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: mov djnz RET r5. delay loop instead of checking bit-7 GET_SENSOR_DATA: MOV C. P2.
is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. such as a personal computer (PC). and largely complex systems like hybrid vehicles. The key characteristic. Physically. By contrast. CONCLUSION An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system. however. Complexity varies from low. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.12. It is the heart of the embedded system. often with real-time computing constraints. A processor is an important unit in the embedded system hardware. Some embedded systems are mass-produced. Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers. benefiting from economies of scale. design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. with a single microcontroller chip. a general-purpose computer. is being dedicated to handle a particular task. peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. factory controllers. to large stationary installations like traffic lights. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks. or digital signal processors (DSP). It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. and avionics. 27 . to very high with multiple units. embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players. MRI.
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