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Two Major Components of Ecosystem 1.

Abiotic Consists of nonliving chemical and physical components such as water, air, nutrients in the soil or water and solar energy. Physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms in land (terrestrial) ecosystems and aquatic life zones Terrestrial Ecosystem #. $unlight %. Temperature '. Precipitation concentrations). ). &ind +. !atitude (distance from equator) various ,. ltitude dissolved (distance a-ove sea level) .. /ire frequency 0. $oil quatic !ife "one #. !ight penetration %. &ater current '. (issolved nutrient (especially * and P) ). $uspended solids +. $alinity(the amounts of inorganic minerals or salts in a given volume of water)

%. Biotic 1ade up of -iological components consisting of living and dead plants, animals and microorganisms The Major Biological Components of Ecosystem a. Producers Autotrophs! self"feeders!
(2self3feeding2, from the 4ree5 (e)autos 2self2 and trophe 2nourishing 2) or 2producer2,

o 1a5e their own food from compounds that are o-tained from their environment. o re the source of all food in an ecosystem o 6n land most producers are green plants. o In freshwater and marine ecosystems, algae and plants are the major producers near shorelines

o In open water, the dominant producers are phytoplankton (most of them microscopic) that float or drift in the water. o 1ost producers capture sunlight to ma5e car-ohydrates (such as glucose) -y photosynthesis o few producers, mostly specialized -acteria, can convert simple compounds from their environment into more comple7 nutrient compounds without sunlight a process called chemosynthesis -. Consumers #eterotrophs! (8other feeders9)
($ree% heteros : another and trophe : nutrition

o 4et their energy and nutrients -y feeding on other organisms or their remains. a. Primary consumers herbi&ores! : are those that eat producers (plants) as a source of food. b. 'econdary consumers or carni&ores : eat other animals c. (mni&ores : have mi7ed diet that include -oth plants and animals d. )ecomposer : 1ostly certain types of -acteria and fungi are specialized consumers that recycle organic matter in ecosystems :They do this -y -rea5ing down (-iodegrading) dead organic material to get nutrients and releasing the resulting simpler inorganic compounds into the soil and water, where they can -e ta5en up as nutrients -y producers )etritus Consisting of parts of dead organisms and cast3off fragments and wastes of living organisms.

;<*($ 6/ 6=4 *<$1 <*TE= CT<6*$ #. Predation : situation in w>c an organism of one species (the predator) captures and feeds on parts or all of an organism of another species (the prey) %. Competition : a 5ind of interaction in w>c two organisms strive to o-tain the same limited resource and in the process -oth organisms are harmed to some e7tent. a. *ntraspecific competition + competition w>c is -etween mem-ers of the same species -. *nterspecific competition + competition among organisms of different species ,. 'ymbiotic relationships a. 'ymbiosis + is a close, long lasting, physical relationship -etween two different species of organisms. + the two organisms are usually in physical contact and at least one of the organisms derives some sort of -enefit from this contact -. Parasitism ? is a relationship in w>c one organism, 5nown as the parasite, lives in or on another organism, 5nown as the host, from w>c it derives nourishment. 1), Ectoparasite ? those that live on the surface of their host -!. Endoparasite ? those that live inside the -odies of their hosts c. Commensalism + relationship in w>c one organism -enefits while the other is not affected. E7 =emora fish attached to shar5

d. Mutualism + sym-iotic relationships that are actually -eneficial to -oth species of organisms involved Module AB*(T*C C(MP(.E.T' (/ T#E E.0*1(.ME.T -iotic components The physical @ chemical factors that influence the various meta-olic @ physiological processes of the organisms as well as regulate their functions The maAor a-iotic factors are climatic, edaphic @ topographic factors These factors are classified as resources and conditions . =esources ? are those factors that can -e consumed or directly utilized -y organisms li5e nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium . B. Environmental conditions re factors that are not directly utilized -y the organisms -ut affect the growth and survival of the organisms. Cowever, these factors can also -e changed or affected -y the organisms such as temperature or salinity #. Climatic /actors Climate ? is the result of interplay of the seasonal factors li5e temperature, humidity, precipitation and light conditions in a particular area it places the greatest constraint on the organisms and it influences the weather condition in a local area. ? a regionDs general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a long period is the long term average pattern of weather it determines the availa-ility of heat and water, influences the amount of solar radiation that can -e captured -y the plants

2eather + is a temporary condition of the atmospheres, a com-ination of temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine wind direction and speed, cloudiness and other atmospheric conditions at specific time and place Climate and weather are directly affected -y energy and physical process in the environment is also influenced -y the activities of living organisms. a. 'olar radiations <s the amount of light intercepted -y the earth that causes thermal patterns. Energy that travels through space in the form of waves of particles. The solar radiation travels through the space as waves descri-e as wavelength, The amount of solar radiation varies over the earth surface depending on the latitude and altitude The higher the latitude the lesser solar radiation is intercepted -ecause the radiations are spread over larger area. This e7plains why temperature is higher in tropic than at the poles. The seasonality of solar radiation, temperature and day length also increases with latitude. The rtic and ntartic region have varied daylengths from continuous daytime during summer solstice. The equatorial region receives the most radiation and equal occurrence of day and night. The pattern controls the mean annual temperature around the glo-e The rotation of the earth and its movements around the sun generates the wind and ocean currents. These movements influence the distri-ution of rainfall. -. Temperature

<s the degree of heat that is natural to the -ody of living things. <t has pervasive influence on life on earth -y affecting the rates of photosynthesis and stored energy in plants <t also influences the amount of moisture and the need for it -y the organisms -ecause it ta5es part in the chemical reactions in all living organisms. Eariation in the environmental temperature affects the distri-ution and a-undance of organisms. Temperature varies depending on the latitude, altitude, season, and continents, microclimatic variation and depth variation. ir temperature decreases with altitude, the higher the altitude the lower the temperature, decreasing -y F.,GC every #FF meters. <t then influences the growth of plantsH the higher the altitude the greater is the pressure thus plants -ecome stunted. Temperature also affects the function of plants and cold3 -looded animals -y controlling the rate of their meta-olism. Plants can tolerate e7treme cold -y frost hardening its -ody part -ut the response is for short period only. Prolonged e7posure to e7treme conditions li5e heat and cold could affect their physiological processes and may cause death. Plants living in desert have thic5 -ar5s and small leaves to reduce the loss of water. $ome plants were a-le to survive in very low temperature -y their creeping ha-its to avoid too much e7posure to e7treme low temperature. nimals on the other hand can maintain a fairly constant internal -ody temperature -y using their -ehavioral and physiological means -ut they are still categorized into three maAor groupsH a. Poi%ilothermic varia-le -ody temperature!? have varia-le -ody temperature influenced mainly -y the e7isting temperature. E7 $ea lamprey

-. #omeothermic constant -ody temperature! ? are organisms that have -ody temperature that are independent of the environment E7 -irds, mammals c. #eterotherms ? organisms that can switch to endotherms (source of their -ody heat is internal) and homoethermic. (uring environmental e7tremes, some animals may enter a state of torpor (state of mental and motor inactivity with partial or total insensi-ility) -y reducing their meta-olism, heart-eat and respiration to reduce their energy cost and stay warm or cool. #ibernation + seasonal torpor over winter. Condition especially mammals, of passing the winter in a torpid state in w>c the -ody temperature drops nearly to freezing and the meta-olism drops close to zero. " mphi-ians move in and out the water while desert animals -urrow their -odies to the ground to see5 shade. - $ome desert animals also use hyperthermia to reduce the difference -etween -ody and environmental temperaturewhile others employ countercurrent circulation in the -lood to reduce heat loss. c. #umidity The amount of water vapor in the air The amount of water in the air e7pressed as the percentage of saturation vapor pressure is relative humidity Temperature plays a role in climate and to the amount of water it can hold &arm air can hold more water than cold air. <f the cool air have constant amount of moisture, the relative humidity increases and if it reaches the saturation vapor pressure it will condense and -ecomes cloud. &hen the particles of water or ice -ecome too heavy in the air, it will fall as rain or snow. The relative humidity of the atmosphere greatly influenced the land organisms The greater the humidity the lesser is the ris5 of dehydration in the organisms

Cumidity and shortage of availa-le water are very much lin5ed. reas with low water such as desert have also low humidity. 6ther factors such as temperature and wind significantly affect the rate of evaporation that affect the humidity. The capa-ility of the organisms to adapt to these varia-le moisture condition influences their distri-ution in a ha-itat. 6rganisms that have poor water control lives in damp ha-itat while organism that have the a-ility to regulate their water inta5e survive in desert environment. d. Mo&ement of air and water The glo-al pattern of circulation is the vertical movements of the air masses and this is due to the heating and cooling air mass that rise and sin5. s the earth spin on its a7is, it deflects the air and water to the right of *orthern hemisphere and left of the $outhern hemisphere called as Coriolis effect. : the effect produces the three types of glo-al wind pattern a. the westerlies -. the northeast trade winds c. the easterlies The movement of air and water significantly influence the ventilation of an organism thus it affects the distri-ution and survival of organisms <t can serve as dessicating medium especially in windy areas of mountains. The greater is the density and viscosity of the water the slower the movement and so its dessicating effect. The wave action in shore also affects the distri-ution of the different species. Ceavy water with high -rea5ing action is damaging to the organisms in the areas.

-. Edaphic /actors re the physico3chemical properties of soil that limit the a-undance and distri-ution of living organisms $oil is a natural product of unconsolidated mineral and organic matter on EarthDs surface. <t is the medium in w>c plant grows and the site of the decomposition of organic matter. $oil served as the ha-itat of animals and the anchoring medium of plants and source of their nutrients and water a. 'oil Characteristics o $oil is a comple7 mi7ture of eroded roc5, mineral nutrients, decaying organic matter, water, air, and -illions of living organisms, most of them microscopic decomposers. o $oil is a renewa-le resource o $oil was formed from the weathering of roc5s and minerals through mechanical or physical weathering for a very long time. o Plants and animals have pronounced influence on soil development when they colonize the weathered roc5s o The roots of the plants penetrate the soil and pump up the nutrients converting this to organic form through photosynthesis o &hen plants die, the -acteria will decompose the de-ris into inorganic nutrients. o $ome inverte-rates li5e millipedes, earthworms and mites consume the fresh materials in the soil and leave the partially decomposed in the soil through their e7creta there-y increasing the amount of inorganic materials in the soil. o 1ature soils area ranged is a series of zones called soil hori3on4 each with distinct te7ture and composition that varies with different types of soils o cross3sectional view of the horizons in a soil is called a soil profile o 1ost mature soils have at least three of the possi-le horizons #. The $urface !itter !ayer, or 6 Corizon (Top !ayer)

Consists mostly of freshly fallen and partially decomposed leaves, twigs, animal waste, fungi, and other organic materials *ormally it is -rown or -lac5. %. The Topsoil !ayer or Corizon porous mi7ture of partially decomposed organic matter called humus this material helps retain water and water3solu-le nutrients, w>c can -e ta5en up -y plant roots! and some inorganic mineral particles. <t is usually dar5er and looser than deeper layers. fertile soil that produces high crop yields has a thic5 topsoil layer with lots of humus. This helps topsoil hold water and nutrients ta5en up -y plant roots The color of its topsoil tells us a lot a-out how useful a soil is for growing crops. /or e7ample dar5-rown or -lac5 topsoil is nitrogen3rich and high in organic matter. 4ray, -right yellow, or red topsoils are low in organic matter and need nitrogen enrichment to support most crops. '. The B Corizon (su-soil) and the C Corizon (parent material) Contain most of a soilDs inorganic matter, mostly -ro5en3down roc5 consisting of varying mi7tures of sand, silt, clay,and gravel The C Corizon lies on a -ase of unweathered parent roc5 called bedrock s the water seeps down, it dissolves various soil components in upper layers and carries them to lower layers in a process called leaching process in which various chemicals in upper layers of soil are dissolved and carried to lower layers and, in some cases, to the groundwater! b. 'ubstrate te5ture and structure

o o o o

Te7ture is determined -y the proportions of the soil particles of different sizesH the sand (medium3size particles) silt (fine particles), gravel (coarse to very coarse particles) and clay (very fine particles). $oils with roughly equal mi7tures of clay, sand, silt, and humus are called loams 6oams are the -est soils for growing most crops -ecause they hold lots of water -ut not too tightly for plant roots to a-sor<t is important in the movement and retention of water in the soil. $oil particles, particularly clay3humus comple7 are important to nutrient availa-ility and to the car-on e7change of the soil Color is also another identification of soil, pale -rown to reddish and yellowish color indicates good drainage of water while dar5 -rown and -lac5ish color indicates poor drainage. Though the dar5 colors may indicate the presence of organic matter it does not always indicate its richness in organic matter -ecause some roc5s that are volcanic in origin have dar5 color as well.

c. Ph o The acidity or al5alinity of a soil, as measured -y its pC influences the upta5e of soil nutrients -y plants o The ph of the soil or water influences the distri-ution and a-undance of organisms o ph that is either too low or too high is damaging to the organisms. o <t may also indirectly affect the organism -y affecting the nutrient and concentrate the to7in in the soil. o cidic soil may -uild up to7ic ions while al5aline conditions may trap the nutrients in the soil ,. 'alinity $alinity is the measure of salt in the water

<t can e7ert very significant effects on the a-undance and distri-ution of species -ecause of difference in water and ionic control a-ilities of organism Cypotonic organisms such as -ony fish find it very hard to live in normal seawater -ecause they have high ris5 of water loss. $alt tolerant plants (halophytes) tolerate high salinity -y concentrating electrolytes in the cell vacuoles while the cytoplasm are left normal. 7. Contaminants and pollutants Contaminants and pollutants are materials that may-e present in the environment that may or may not cause negative -iological effects to the organisms $uch materials may -e derived from natural and or anthropogenic sources to w>c the organisms may respond differently. $ome species may develop tolerance and protection from the polluting su-stances such as that of the tolerance of -acteria against anti-iotics and that of the insects with the pesticides.

B. 6*M*T*.$ 1E'(81CE' The resources are the materials that are utilized -y the organism for the maintenance of their -odies such as solar radiation, nutrients, food and space =esources may -e categorized as essential or su-stituta-le. Essential resources are not replacea-le -y an alternatives such as nutrients while su-stituta-le are resources that can -e partly or wholly replaced when the consumption of the resources has e7ceeded its ma7imum a-ility to support. #. 6ight !ight is a resource continuum that is comprised of spectrum of different wavelengths that are usa-le for photosynthesis. Plant utilizes only the wavelength -etween )FF3.FF nm and this -and is called photosynthetically active radiation (P =) and falls within visi-le spectrum.

$olar radiation differs from other resources -ecause it passes through the system only once and if it is not captured and used immediately, it is lost. Eariation in the amount of solar radiation however, varies depending upon the latitude. =adiation is greatest at low latitudes while seasonal variation is greatest at high latitudes. $ystematic variation may influence the control processes of the organism to develop diurnal and seasonal rhythms. =andom variations due to cloud cover, shading and reflections of waves affect the plants species -y limiting the potential for optimal utilization of light. %. *norganic materials Three inorganic materials are considered vital for the living organisms in the environment. a) &ater molecules o *eeded -y all organisms to survive thus influence their distri-ution and a-undance. o <t is needed -y plant for transpiration (loss of water vapor at the aerial portion of the plant li5e leaves) and photosynthesis (process where in plants convert radiant energy to chemical energy) while animals used water as a medium for many meta-olic activities in their -ody. o nimals usually drin5 water or o-tain it from food it ta5es while plants usually o-tain water from the soil using their ela-orate root system. -) Carbon dio5ide o <s fi7ed -y plants into living materials through photosynthesis c! (5ygen o Becomes a limiting factor in aquatic or water logged sediments -ecause of its role in aero-ic respiration of animals

1. .utrients

1acro and micronutrients are required -y organisms to function properly @ they o-tain these from the food, soil or surrounding water. 1acronutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron <t is required -y all organism in large quantities that it -ecome a limiting factor to some organism when it is limited in the environment The e7traction -y plants of nutrients from the soil is done through the root system These are close relationship -etween water and minerals, so lac5 of water can ma5e the mineral unavaila-le -. /ood The heterotrophic organisms require foods and each organisms is alternately a consumer or a prey within the food chain (series of organisms in w>c each eats or decomposes the preceding one)or food web comple7 networ5 of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships!. $ome organisms are specialist, feeding upon a single species only thus these are restricted closely to source of prey and force to live in patches 1oreover, many food sources are seasonal and the nutritional value may vary with season. Carnivores have difficulties finding, capturing and handling prey items and most of times, their prey have developed physical or -ehavioral defenses against their consumers. This process is called coe&olution ,. 'pace ll organisms require space within w>c they can live Plants may require only small space -ut the top carnivores require -igger space. $pace -ecomes an important resource -ecause it contains other resource such as food. Cowever, space is also required -y other organisms for their growth, -reeding, hi-ernation and for nesting.